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Sloan Working Papers

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 3.449

  1. Pull for Knowledge Work

    Dogde, Sheila; De Smet, Timothy; Meldrim, James; Lennon, Niall; Perrin, Danielle; Ferriera, Steve; Leber, Zachary; Friedrich, Dennis; Gabriel, Stacey; Lander, Eric S.; Kieffer, Don; Repenning, Nelson

  2. Agile for Everyone Else: Using Triggers and Checks to Create Agility Outside of Software Development

    Repenning, James; Kieffer, Donald; Repenning, Nelson

  3. A new binary integer program for the restricted container relocation problem

    Galle, Virgile; Barnhart, Cynthia; Jaillet, Patrick
    The Container Relocation Problem (CRP), also called Block Relocation Problem (BRP), is concerned with finding a sequence of moves of containers that minimizes the number of relocations needed to retrieve all containers, while respecting a given order of retrieval. The restricted CRP enforces that only containers blocking the target container can be relocated. We improve upon and enhance an existing binary encoding and using it, formulate the restricted CRP as a binary integer programming problem in which we exploit structural properties of the optimal solution. This integer programming formulation reduces significantly the number of variables and constraints compared to existing...

  4. A new 0-1 formulation of the restricted container relocation problem based on a binary encoding of congurations

    Galle, Virgile; Barnhart, Cynthia; Jaillet, Patrick
    The Container Relocation Problem (CRP), also called Block Relocation Problem (BRP), is concerned with finding a sequence of moves of containers that minimizes the number of relocations needed to retrieve all containers, while respecting a given order of retrieval. The restricted CRP enforces that only containers blocking the target container can be relocated. We improve upon and enhance an existing binary encoding and using it, formulate the restricted CRP as a binary integer programming problem in which we exploit structural properties of the optimal solution. This integer programming formulation reduces significantly the number of variables and constraints compared to existing...

  5. The Stochastic Container Relocation Problem

    Galle, V.; Borjian Boroujeni, S.; Manshadi, V.H.; Barnhart, C.; Jaillet, P.
    The Container Relocation Problem (CRP) is concerned with finding a sequence of moves of containers that minimizes the number of relocations needed to retrieve all containers, while respecting a given order of retrieval. However, the assumption of knowing the full retrieval order of containers is particularly unrealistic in real operations. This paper studies the stochastic CRP (SCRP), which relaxes this assumption. A new multi-stage stochastic model, called the batch model, is introduced, motivated, and compared with an existing model (the online model). The two main contributions are an optimal algorithm called Pruning-Best-First-Search (PBFS) and a randomized approximate algorithm called PBFS-Approximate with a...

  6. The Stochastic Container Relocation Problem

    Galle, V.; Borjian Boroujeni, S.; Manshadi, V.H.; Barnhart, C.; Jaillet, P.
    The Container Relocation Problem (CRP) is concerned with finding a sequence of moves of containers that minimizes the number of relocations needed to retrieve all containers, while respecting a given order of retrieval. However, the assumption of knowing the full retrieval order of containers is particularly unrealistic in real operations. This paper studies the stochastic CRP (SCRP), which relaxes this assumption. A new multi-stage stochastic model, called the batch model, is introduced, motivated, and compared with an existing model (the online model). The two main contributions are an optimal algorithm called Pruning-Best-First-Search (PBFS) and a randomized approximate algorithm called PBFS-Approximate with a...

  7. The Stochastic Container Relocation Problem

    Galle, V.; Borjian Boroujeni, S.; Manshadi, V.H.; Barnhart, C.; Jaillet, P.
    The Container Relocation Problem (CRP) is concerned with finding a sequence of moves of containers that minimizes the number of relocations needed to retrieve all containers, while respecting a given order of retrieval. However, the assumption of knowing the full retrieval order of containers is particularly unrealistic in real operations. This paper studies the stochastic CRP (SCRP), which relaxes this assumption. A new multi-stage stochastic model, called the batch model, is introduced, motivated, and compared with an existing model (the online model). The two main contributions are an optimal algorithm called Pruning-Best-First-Search (PBFS) and a randomized approximate algorithm called PBFS-Approximate with a...

  8. Technology Readiness Levels at 40: a study of state-of-the-art use, challenges, and opportunities

    Olechowski, Alison; Eppinger, Steven D.; Joglekar, Nitin
    The technology readiness level (TRL) scale was introduced by NASA in the 1970s as a tool for assessing the maturity of technologies during complex system development. TRL data have been used to make multi-million dollar technology management decisions in programs such as NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover. This scale is now a de facto standard used for technology assessment and oversight in many industries, from power systems to consumer electronics. Low TRLs have been associated with significantly reduced timeliness and increased costs across a portfolio of US Department of Defense programs. However, anecdotal evidence raises concerns about many of the practices...

  9. The Big Data Newsvendor: Practical Insights from Machine Learning

    Rudin, Cynthia; Vahn, Gah-Yi
    We investigate the newsvendor problem when one has n observations of p features related to the demand as well as past demands. Both small data (p=n = o(1)) and big data (p=n = O(1)) are considered. For both cases, we propose a machine learning algorithm to solve the problem and derive a tight generalization bound on the expected out-of-sample cost. The algorithms can be extended intuitively to other situations, such as having censored demand data, ordering for multiple, similar items and having a new item with limited data. We show analytically that our custom-designed, feature-based approach can be better than other...

  10. An Interpretable Stroke Prediction Model using Rules and Bayesian Analysis

    Letham, Benjamin; Rudin, Cynthia; McCormick, Tyler H.; Madigan, David
    We aim to produce predictive models that are not only accurate, but are also interpretable to human experts. Our models are decision lists, which consist of a series of if...then... statements (for example, if high blood pressure, then stroke) that discretize a high-dimensional, multivariate feature space into a series of simple, readily inter- pretable decision statements. We introduce a generative model called the Bayesian List Machine which yields a posterior distribution over possible decision lists. It employs a novel prior structure to encourage sparsity. Our experiments show that the Bayesian List Machine has predictive accuracy on par with the current top...

  11. The Big Data Newsvendor: Practical Insights from Machine Learning Analysis

    Rudin, Cynthia; Vahn, Gah-Yi
    We present a version of the newsvendor problem where one has n observations of p features as well as past demand. We consider both \big data" (p=n = O(1)) as well as small data (p=n = o(1)). For small data, we provide a linear programming machine learning algorithm that yields an asymptotically optimal order quantity. We also derive a generalization bound based on algorithmic stability, which is an upper bound on the expected out-of-sample cost. For big data, we propose a regularized version of the algorithm to address the curse of dimensionality. A generalization bound is derived for this case...

  12. M.EOS: How General Management Matters

    Santos, Jose
    This paper explores how general management matters and presents the foundation of a theory of general management as a theory of collective performance in the presence of the general manager. It proposes that general management is the disciplined art of creating a collective performance superior to that which would naturally occur. This brings the relation between management and performance to the fore. It tells us why management matters, not just what management is. General management matters because it creates value by improving collective performance relative to what such performance would be in the absence of general management. This paper goes...

  13. Reactive Point Processes: A New Approach to Predicting Power Failures in Underground Electrical Systems

    Ertekin, Seyda; Rudin, Cynthia; McCormick, Tyler H.
    Reactive point processes (RPP’s) are a new statistical model designed for predicting discrete events, incorporating self-exciting, self-regulating, and saturating components. The self-excitement occurs as a result of a past event, which causes a temporary rise in vulnerability to future events. The self-regulation occurs as a result of an external “inspection” which temporarily lowers vulnerability to future events. RPP’s can saturate when too many events or inspections occur close together, which ensures that the probability of an event stays within a realistic range. RPP’s were developed to handle an important problem within the domain of electrical grid reliability: short term prediction of...

  14. Engaging Non-IT Executives in IT Infrastructure Decisions

    Fonstad, Nils O.; Subramani, Mani
    This case study describes how information technology (IT) managers from Insurance Co. successfully engaged non-IT executives in IT infrastructure investment decisions. This enabled IT and non-IT stakeholder groups to take greater control of shared resources and achieve synergies that neither group could have achieved on its own. We describe three factors that enabled this type of engagement. First, the infrastructure group and the application development group developed strong internal IT capabilities to strengthen local alignment. Second, IT leaders also introduced short-term and long-term engagement opportunities for IT and non-IT stakeholder groups, representing local and enterprise-wide interests, to interact with each other. Finally, participants created...

  15. Credit Suisse: Engineering a Global Financial Services Business

    Ross, Jeanne W.; Kwan, Ernest; Levy, Ari
    In 2010, Credit Suisse was attempting to leverage its global scale by integrating key business processes across geographies and business units. The IT unit, under Global CIO Karl Landert, assumed a pivotal role in enabling business integration. But the IT unit had developed distinctive cultures and capabilities reflecting two very different business units—private banking and investment banking—and different geographies. To help understand and develop the skills needed to support business integration, Credit Suisse’s IT unit developed clearly defined job families and career paths for its 8,000 IT professionals and 4,000 contractors. This case examines the transformation of the IT unit as it implemented its job families...

  16. Global IT Management: Structuring For Scale, Responsiveness, and Innovation

    Kien, Sia Siew; Soh, Christina; Weill, Peter
    As businesses expand globally and reconfigure their value chains, they must cope with a variety of complex challenges in managing their IT resources. This research examines how enterprises attempt to simultaneously achieve scale economies, responsiveness to business needs, and innovation. These three strategic objectives often raise conflicting requirements. Through interviews with CIOs and other senior executives of global enterprises, we identify a set of structural elements implemented to meet these requirements—shared services, centers of excellence, and value managers. Firms carefully design these elements to balance their inherent global-local tensions and help achieve the three strategic objectives.

  17. Plenia Locatel Group: Globalizing from Venezuela

    Gibson, Cyrus; Levy, Ari
    In 2009 the founders and top executives of Plenia Locatel Group, a retail business in Venezuela specializing in health care products and services, were planning a global expansion of the business. Founded by two close friends in 1994, the business grew through franchising and customer focus to 46 stores in Venezuela and 12 more in Colombia, Mexico, Miami, and Russia. As a basis for their globalization, the founders and executives sought to formalize and introduce structure in operations and management and had recently implemented an ERP for operational transactions. A basic issue was how to replicate business success and brand image, built over...

  18. Developing a Common Language About IT Risk Management

    Westerman, George; Hunter, Richard
    Although IT risks can have wide-ranging business consequences, few executives feel comfortable discussing IT risk management. It doesn’t have to be this way. Executive-level tradeoffs around IT risk are managerial, not technical. The Four A Framework of Availability, Access, Accuracy, and Agility risks provides a common language that business and IT managers can use to manage IT risks without getting bogged down in technical complexity. Then you can build a risk management capability—by improving the IT foundation, installing a risk governance process, and creating a risk aware culture—that increases the returns from your IT risk management investments.

  19. EMC Corporation: Managing IT M&A Integrations to Enable Profitable Growth by Acquisitions

    Tanriverdi, Hüseyin; Du, Kui
    EMC Corporation is one of the fastest profitably growing public companies in the United States. It pursues both organic and acquisitive growth. Between 2005 and 2010, it acquired over 50 companies. EMC used to be a vendor entirely of enterprise storage products. Complementary products and technologies of the acquired companies enabled EMC to transform itself into a vendor offering complete systems of hardware and software solutions for addressing information infrastructure needs of customers. EMC’s acquisition strategy has been to retain the specialization and talent of acquired companies, and accelerate their revenue growth. Consistent with this strategy, EMC has followed a case-by-case approach in...

  20. USAA: Organizing for Innovation and Superior Customer Service

    Ross, Jeanne W.; Beath, Cynthia M.
    USAA, a diversified financial services firm serving the U.S. military, had long been recognized for outstanding customer service. The company had never operated branches, instead providing services through remote channels, such as the telephone, Internet (USAA.com), mail, fax, and any bank’s ATM machines. USAA wanted customers to be able to access their services any way they liked. By 2010, however, USAA recognized that serving customers remotely meant responding to the rapid introduction of mobile consumer devices. To ensure constant innovation and integrated customer services, USAA was transforming its operating model and promoting innovation across the enterprise. The IT unit was focused...

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