PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
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Tissue Doppler, Strain and Strain Rate in ischemic heart disease “How I do it” - Mada, Razvan O; Duchenne, Jürgen; Voigt, Jens-Uwe
Echocardiography is the standard method for assessing myocardial function in patients with ischemic heart disease. The acquisition and interpretation of echocardiographic images, however, remains a highly specialized task which often relies entirely on the subjective visual assessment of the reader and requires therefore, particular training and expertise. Myocardial deformation imaging allows quantifying myocardial function far beyond what can be done with sole visual assessment. It can improve the interpretation of regional dysfunction and offers sensitive markers of induced ischemia which can be used for stress tests. In the following, we recapitulate shortly the pathophysiological and technical basics and explain in...
Intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity, and flow mediated dilation - Bruno, Rosa Maria; Bianchini, Elisabetta; Faita, Francesco; Taddei, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo
The identification of vascular alterations at the sub-clinical, asymptomatic stages are potentially useful for screening, prevention and improvement of cardiovascular risk stratification beyond classical risk factors.
The potential value of integrated natriuretic peptide and echo-guided heart failure management - Scali, Maria Chiara; Simioniuc, Anca; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Marzilli, Mario
There is increasing interest in guiding Heart Failure (HF) therapy with Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) or N-terminal prohormone of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), with the goal of lowering concentrations of these markers (and maintaining their suppression) as part of the therapeutic approach in HF. However, recent European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and American Heart Association/ American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) guidelines did not recommend biomarker-guided therapy in the management of HF patients. This has likely to do with the conceptual, methodological, and practical limitations of the Natriuretic Peptides (NP)-based approach, including biological variability, slow time-course, poor specificity, cost and venipuncture,...
Need for a standardized protocol for stress echocardiography in provoking subaortic and valvular gradient in various cardiac conditions - Petkow Dimitrow, Pawel; Cotrim, Carlos; Cheng, Tsung O
(Semi) supine exercise testing has an established role in the evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease and can help clinical decision making. Stress echocardiography has the advantages of its wide availability, low cost, and versatility for the assessment of disease severity. However, exercise-induced changes in valve hemodynamics, left ventricular outflow obstruction and pulmonary artery pressure depended on load variation. Changing position from supine to upright rapidly decreases load conditions for the ventricles. Therefore several cardiac centers have proposed exercise stress echocardiography in the upright position with gradient monitoring sometimes also in post-exercise recovery. Doppler measurement of subaortic gradient has...
How I do it: Lung ultrasound - Gargani, Luna; Volpicelli, Giovanni
In the last 15 years, a new imaging application of sonography has emerged in the clinical arena: lung ultrasound (LUS). From its traditional assessment of pleural effusions and masses, LUS has moved towards the revolutionary approach of imaging the pulmonary parenchyma, mainly as a point-of-care technique. Although limited by the presence of air, LUS has proved to be useful in the evaluation of many different acute and chronic conditions, from cardiogenic pulmonary edema to acute lung injury, from pneumothorax to pneumonia, from interstitial lung disease to pulmonary infarctions and contusions. It is especially valuable since it is a relatively easy-to-learn application...
How I do it: judging appropriateness for TTE and TEE - Fonseca, Ricardo; Marwick, Thomas H
The increasing cost of healthcare is a widespread international problem to which the cost of imaging has been an important contributor. Some imaging tests are ordered inappropriately and contribute to wasted use of resources. Appropriate use criteria have been developed in the USA in order to guide test selection, but there are a number of problems, including the evidence base for these criteria and the steps that can be taken to change physician practice. A restrictive approach to test ordering is difficult to fit to the nuances of clinical presentation and may compromise patient care. We propose an alternative approach...