Helper, Susan; Levine, David
Ellison, David J.; Clark, Kim B.; Fujimoto, Takahiro; Hyun, Young-Suk
1995 Working Paper
Ellison, David J.; Clark, Kim B.; Takahiro, Fujimoto; Young-suk, Hyun
The International Car Distribution Programme (ICDP) is the worlds largest research study into car
distribution. Supported by 29 companies and organisations, ICDP will complete its first 2 year
investigation into all aspects of franchised car retailing and after-sales in March 1996. Plans are already
being made for a further 2 years of study.
ICDPs objectives are to help all participants in car distribution plan for the future by developing new ideas
for improving the present system or for introducing entirely new distribution formats. These solutions will
be based on a deep understanding of the present system, using independent data collection and research.
International comparisons between distribution system...
Fine, Charles; Gilboy, George; Oye, Kenneth; Parker, Geoffrey
Working Draft, 1995
Fine, Charles H.; Gilboy, George; Parker, Geoffrey G.
This essay addresses strategic technology sourcing -- the determination of what
technologies are strategic to a firm (or nation) and the management of the policy
options that follow from this determination. This work is certainly not the first
word on this subject, nor will it be the last. In fact, we hope that it will stimulate
significant discussion about strategic technology sourcing especially in those
organizations where such discussion has been absent, naive, or just shouted down
by the manage-by-the-numbers types. In the business press today, outsourcing is the
rage. "Restructure and downsize your organization; outsource as many functions as
possible" seems to be the message from many...
Anderson Jr., E.G.; Fine, C.H.; Gilboy, G.J.; Parker, G.G.
Working Draft, May 1995
Lieberman, Marvin B.; Demeester, Lieven
The literature on JIT production suggests a causal link between work-in-process
inventory and manufacturing productivity. Such a connection has been described in
numerous case studies but never tested statistically. This paper uses historical data for
52 Japanese automotive companies to evaluate the inventory-productivity relationship.
We find that inventory reductions stimulated gains in productivity, rather than vice versa.
On average, each 10% reduction in inventory led to about a 1% gain in labor productivity,
with a lag of about one year. Significant differences are found among company groups:
Toyota affiliates had a shorter lag; while Nissan affiliates demonstrated no productivity
effect. Firms that made inventory reductions typically saw an...
In the tournament games only the winner can advance to the next rounds
of competition. The important feature of tournament is that the reward is
based on the rank order among competitors rather than absolute level of
their performances. This type of reward system can be widely found in
competition for promotion in business organizations. For example, many
hourly workers in manufacturing plants compete for a limited number of
supervisory positions; a number of vice presidents in a firm strive for one
coveted position of president.
The employee participation in improvement activities have been thought
of as one of the best practices taken in many auto plants around the...
Kochan, Tom; Lansbury, Russell
Helper, Susan R.; Hochfelder, David
Parkin, Richard J.; Helper, Susan R.
In this paper, we examine the effect of layoffs and layoff policies on three measures of worker effort. More specifically, we use data on first-tier automotive suppliers in the U.S. and Canada to test the proposition that greater employment security interacts with other human resources policies to increase worker effort.
Lieberman, Marvin B.; Demeester, Lieven; Rivas, Ronald
This paper traces the diffusion of just-in-time production in the Japanese
automotive sector, as reflected by inventory reductions in a sample of 52 suppliers and
assemblers. We show that most inventory reductions occurred during a remarkable burst
of activity starting in the late 1960s. Companies affiliated with Toyota were the early
adopters but were followed very quickly by others in Japan. By the late 1970s nearly all
of the firms in the sample had made drastic reductions in inventory. Work-in-process and
suppliers finished goods fell by nearly two thirds on average.
Anderson, Shannon W.
An opportunity to study the technical and organizational impact of management accounting system changes has emerged with companies' adoption of activity-based costing (ABC). This paper provides a structured account of experimentation with, and adoption and adaptation of ABC in General Motors Corporation, from 1986 to 1993. From this case, the paper develops a framework for evaluating ABC implementation and hypotheses about factors that influence implementation. The search for factors that ABC implementation success is guided by information technology and organizational change literature, as well as anecdotal evidence of factors that influence ABC implementation success. Data is gathered from interviews, archival...
Ferro, Jose Roberto
In the context of the stabilization and economic growth that has
followed the Real plan introduced in mid 1994, the latest effort to
curb dramatically high inflation, the Brazilian automotive industry
has continued to grow following a series of policy changes occurred
throughout the 90s.
The industry has "boomed" for two consecutive years, achieving
record production and sales levels. In 1994 production volume
reached 1.5 million units, domestic sales of 1.3 million and 380.000
units exported. And a record volume of 150.000 units of imported
vehicles penetrated the Brazilian market. After more than a decade
of stagnation and with a poor technological and efficiency
performance, this partial success crowns a restructuring...
Amsden, Alice H.; Kang, Jong-Yeol
Kochan, Thomas; Rubinstein, Saul
This project analyzes the effects of the co-management arrangements built into the first line
of supervision (module advisors) at the Saturn Corporation on first time quality (FTQ)
performance and improvements in first time quality. This is a very unique organizational
arrangement wherein represented (i.e., unionized) and non-represented (i.e., managers) partners
share responsibilities for co-managing production work teams. The purpose of this portion of our
work is to test whether this co-management arrangement contributes to the performance of these
work units and thereby adds value to Saturn as a whole. We focus on first time quality as the
In order to analyze the value-added to quality performance...
Mukherjee, Avinandan; Sastry, Trilochan
The automobile market is growing at about 25% for the last three years. The number of persons
per car is 200, which is very large compared to other emerging markets like Korea and Brazil
which have about 12 persons per car. There is therefore a very huge untapped market. Uncertainty
exists about the extent of growth, but a minimum growth rate of 20% is expected until the year
2000. Sales are expected to rise to anywhere between 850,000 to 1.5 million vehicles by the year
2000. Markets are highly price sensitive since a car is about 18 to 24 months salary for the average