Application of a new algorithm using Doppler information to retrieve complex wind fields over the Black Sea from ENVISAT SAR images - Alpers, Werner; Mouche, Alexis; Horstmann, Jochen; Ivanov, Andrei Yu.; Barabanov, Vladyslav S.
Several algorithms have been proposed to retrieve near-surface wind fields from C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired over the ocean. They mainly differ in the way they retrieve the wind direction. Conventionally, the wind direction is taken from atmospheric models or is extracted from the linear features sometimes visible in SAR images. Recently, a new wind retrieval algorithm has been proposed, which also includes the Doppler shift induced by motions of the sea surface. In this article, we apply three wind retrieval algorithms, including the one using Doppler information, to three complex wind events encountered over the Black Sea...
Influence of one selected Tisochrysis lutea strain rich in lipids on Crassostrea gigas larval development and biochemical composition - Da Costa, F.; Petton, Bruno; Mingant, Christian; Bougaran, Gael; Rouxel, Catherine; Quere, Claudie; Wikfors, Gary H.; Soudant, Philippe; Robert, Rene
Effects of a remarkably high overall lipid Tisochrysis lutea strain (T+) upon gross biochemical composition, fatty acid (FA), sterol and lipid class composition of Crassostrea gigas larvae were evaluated and compared with a normal strain of Tisochrysis lutea (T) and the diatom Chaetoceros neogracile (Cg). In a first experiment, the influence of different single diets (T, T+ and Cg) and a bispecific diet (TCg) was studied, whereas, effects of monospecific diets (T and T+) and bispecific diets (TCg and T+Cg) were evaluated in a second experiment. The strain T+ was very rich in triglycerides (TAG: 93–95% of total neutral lipids),...
An autoregressive model to describe fishing vessel movement and activity - Gloaguen, Pierre; Mahevas, Stephanie; Rivot, Etienne; Woillez, Mathieu; Guitton, Jerome; Vermard, Youen; Etienne, Marie-pierre
The understanding of the dynamics of fishing vessels is of great interest to characterize the spatial distribution of the fishing effort and to define sustainable fishing strategies. It is also a prerequisite for anticipating changes in fishermen's activity in reaction to management rules, economic context, or evolution of exploited resources. Analyzing the trajectories of individual vessels offers promising perspectives to describe the activity during fishing trips. A hidden Markov model with two behavioral states (steaming and fishing) is developed to infer the sequence of non-observed fishing vessel behavior along the vessel trajectory based on Global Positioning System (GPS) records. Conditionally...
Meteorological data from the EMSO-Azores seafloor observatory, 2012-2013 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains the meteorological parameters (mean wind speed, temperature in °C and atmospheric pressure in mbar) acquired between Jannuary 2012 and December 2013 (n=332) using the Furuno Rowind+, mounted at the top of BOREL superstructure (data acquired every 6 hours).
Iridium GPS 2 data from the EMSO-Azores observatory, 2012-2013 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains the GPS positions of the EMSO-Azores transmission buoy BOREL acquired between Jannuary 2012 and december 2013 using the Iridium/GPS modem 2 (data acquired every 6 hours).
Iridium GPS 1 data from the EMSO-Azores observatory, 2012-2013 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains the GPS positions of the EMSO-Azores transmission buoy BOREL acquired between Jannuary 2012 and december 2013 using the Iridium/GPS modem 1 (data acquired every 6 hours).
COSTOF, technical data from SeaMoN West, node of the EMSO-Azores observatory, 2014-2015 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains technical parameters (Voltage in V, current in mA, energy in Ah, internal pressure in mbar, water leak detection) acquired between July 2014 and April 2015 by the COSTOF (COmmunication and STOrage Front-end), which is the Electronic core of SeaMoN West, the bottom station of EMSO-Azores dedicated to geophysical observations (data acquired every 6 hours).
Meteorological data from the EMSO-Azores seafloor observatory, 2014-2015 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains the meteorological parameters (mean wind speed, temperature in °C and atmospheric pressure in mbar) acquired between July 2014 and April 2015 using the Furuno Rowind+, mounted at the top of BOREL superstructure (data acquired every 6 hours).
Iridium GPS 2 data from the EMSO-Azores observatory, 2014-2015 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains the GPS positions of the EMSO-Azores transmission buoy BOREL acquired between July 2014 and April 2015 using the Iridium/GPS modem 2 (data acquired every 6 hours).
Iridium GPS 1 data from the EMSO-Azores observatory, 2014-2015 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains the GPS positions of the EMSO-Azores transmission buoy BOREL acquired between July 2014 and April 2015 using the Iridium/GPS modem 1 (data acquired every 6 hours).
Towards the development of clonal lines in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): application of uniparental reproduction techniques with an insight into sea bass eggs - Colleter, Julie
Clonal lines are a powerful scientific tool for improved genetic characterization of organisms used in research. Inbred fish lines can be produced in only two generations using uniparental reproduction techniques. Androgenesis, achieved with variable success in several freshwater species, has been attempted in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L), a marine fish of commercial and scientific interest. The low yields of progenies inheriting only the paternal genome after UV-irradiation of eggs led to considerations on the occurrence of UV screening compounds in pelagic eggs. Mycosporine-like amino acids and gadusol were found in many marine and freshwater organisms, but their...
In-depth analyses of deep subsurface sediments using 454-pyrosequencing reveals a reservoir of buried fungal communities at record-breaking depths - Redou, Vanessa; Ciobanu, Maria Cristina; Pachiadaki, Maria G.; Edgcomb, Virginia; Alain, Karine; Barbier, Georges; Burgaud, Gaetan
The deep subseafloor, extending from a few centimeters below the sediment surface to several hundred meters into sedimentary deposits, constitutes the deep biosphere and harbors an unexpected microbial diversity. Several studies have described the occurrence, turnover, activity and function of subseafloor prokaryotes; however, subsurface eukaryotic communities still remain largely underexplored. Ribosomal RNA surveys of superficial and near-surface marine sediments have revealed an unexpected diversity of active eukaryotic communities, but knowledge of the diversity of deep subseafloor microeukaryotes is still scarce. Here, we investigated the vertical distribution of DNA and RNA fungal signatures within subseafloor sediments of the Canterbury basin (New...
Modeled mixed-layer salinity balance in the Gulf of Guinea: seasonal and interannual variability - Da-allada, Casimir Yelognisse; Du Penhoat, Yves; Jouanno, Julien; Alory, Gael; Hounkonnou, Norbert Mahouton
A regional numerical simulation and observations were used to investigate the various processes controlling mixed-layer salinity balance on seasonal and interannual time scales in the Gulf of Guinea. Processes were quantified using a mixed-layer salt budget. Model results correctly reproduced the mean, phase, and amplitude of observed seasonal near-surface salinity. The results indicated that on seasonal time scales, the mixed-layer salinity balance differed from one region to another. The surface salinity seasonal cycle was characterized by strong salinization during May for coastal areas north and south of the equator. Model results suggested that vertical mixing controls the mixed-layer salinity increase...
Predation has no competition: factors influencing space and resource use by echinoids in deep-sea coral habitats, as evidenced by continuous video transects - Stevenson, Angela; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.; Davies, Jaime S.
Predation and competition are highly influential factors determining space use in foraging animals, and ultimately contribute to the spatial heterogeneity observed within habitats. Here we investigated the influence of competition and predation on space and resource use via continuous video transect observations – a tool that has not previously been employed for this purpose. This study therefore also evaluates video data as a pragmatic tool to study community interactions in the deep sea. Observations were compiled from 15 video transects spanning five submarine canyons in the Bay of Biscay, France. Substrate choice, positioning on the coral, echinoid aggregate size, and...
Tectonic and sedimentary controls on widespread gas emissions in the Sea of Marmara: Results from systematic, shipborne multibeam echo sounder water column imaging - Dupre, Stephanie; Scalabrin, Carla; Grall, Celine; Augustin, Jean-marie; Henry, Pierre; Sengor, A. M. Celal; Goeruer, Naci; Cagatay, M. Namik; Geli, Louis
Understanding of the evolution of fluid-fault interactions during earthquake cycles is a challenge that acoustic gas emission studies can contribute. A survey of the Sea of Marmara using a shipborne, multibeam echo sounder, with water column records, provided an accurate spatial distribution of offshore seeps. Gas emissions are spatially controlled by a combination of factors, including fault and fracture networks in connection to the Main Marmara Fault system and inherited faults, the nature and thickness of sediments (e.g., occurrence of impermeable or gas-bearing sediments and landslides), and the connectivity between the seafloor and gas sources, particularly in relation to the...
EMOSEM Final Report - Ecosystem Models as Support to Eutrophication Management In the North Atlantic Ocean - Lacroix, Geneviève; Menesguen, Alain; Billen, Gilles; Neves, Ramiro; Lancelot, Christiane; Gypens, Nathalie; Desmit, Xavier; Dussauze, Morgan; Dulière, Valerie; Garnier, Josette; Thieu, Vincent; Silvestre, Marie; Passy, Paul; Lassaletta, Luis; Guittard, Gabriel; Théry, Sylvain; Thouvenin, Benedicte; Campuzano, Francisco; Garcia, Carla; Pinto, Ligia; Sobrinho, Joao; Mateus, Marco; Ascione Kenov, Isabella
One of the leading challenges in marine science and governance is to improve scientific guidance of management measures to mitigate eutrophication nuisances in the EU seas. Too few approaches integrate the eutrophication process in space (continuum river-ocean) and in time (past, present and future status). A strong need remains for (i) knowledge/identification of all the processes that control eutrophication and its consequences, (ii) consistent and harmonized reference levels assigned to each eutrophication-related indicator, (iii) identification of the main rivers directly or indirectly responsible for eutrophication nuisances in specific areas, (iv) an integrated transboundary approach and (v) realistic short term and...
Euro-Argo Final Report – January 2008 to June 2011 - Le Traon, Pierre-yves; Mamaca, Emina
ARGO is an international global ocean observing system based on an array of some 3.000 autonomous floats drifting freely in the world’s oceans. Those floats, which probe the water to a depth of 2.000 m and report temperature and salinity data to land stations, constitute one of the essential components of the Global Climate Observing System. They also provide invaluable data in support of ocean and climate research, operational oceanography and ocean monitoring. The system is implemented by a large number of agencies and scientists in over 40 countries. A high level of coordination is necessary to organize efficiently the...
Isolation, Structure Elucidation, Relative LC-MS Response, and in Vitro Toxicity of Azaspiracids from the Dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum - Kilcoyne, Jane; Nulty, Ciara; Jauffrais, Thierry; Mccarron, Pearse; Herve, Fabienne; Foley, Barry; Rise, Frode; Crain, Sheila; Wilkins, Alistair L.; Twiner, Michael J.; Hess, Philipp; Miles, Christopher O.
We identified three new azaspiracids (AZAs) with molecular weights of 715, 815, and 829 (AZA33 (3), AZA34 (4), and AZA35, respectively) in mussels, seawater, and Azadinium spinosum culture. Approximately 700 mu g of 3 and 250 mu g of 4 were isolated from a bulk culture of A. spinosum, and their structures determined by MS and NMR spectroscopy. These compounds differ significantly at the carboxyl end of the molecule from known AZA analogues and therefore provide valuable information on structure-activity relationships. Initial toxicological assessment was performed using an in vitro model system based on Jurkat T lymphocyte cytotoxicity, and the...
Technological Development and Fisheries Management - Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Marchal, Paul; Gislason, Henrik; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.
Many marine fish stocks are overexploited and considerable overcapacity exists in fishing fleets worldwide. One of the reasons for the imbalance between resource availability and fishing capacity is technological development, which continuously increases the efficiency of the vessels—a mechanism referred to as “technological creep.” We review how the introduction of new and more efficient electronic equipment, gear design, engines, deck equipment, and catch-handling procedures influences the capture efficiency (catchability) of commercial fishing vessels. On average, we estimate that catchability increases by 3.2% per year due to technological developments, an increase often ignored in fisheries management. The documentation and quantification of...
Iridium GPS 1 data from the EMSO-Azores observatory, 2013-2014 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains the GPS positions of the EMSO-Azores transmission buoy BOREL acquired between September 2013 and February 2014 (n=332) using the Iridium/GPS modem 1 (data acquired every 6 hours).