EMOSEM Final Report - Ecosystem Models as Support to Eutrophication Management In the North Atlantic Ocean - Lacroix, Geneviève; Menesguen, Alain; Billen, Gilles; Neves, Ramiro; Lancelot, Christiane; Gypens, Nathalie; Desmit, Xavier; Dussauze, Morgan; Dulière, Valerie; Garnier, Josette; Thieu, Vincent; Silvestre, Marie; Passy, Paul; Lassaletta, Luis; Guittard, Gabriel; Théry, Sylvain; Thouvenin, Benedicte; Campuzano, Francisco; Garcia, Carla; Pinto, Ligia; Sobrinho, Joao; Mateus, Marco; Ascione Kenov, Isabella
One of the leading challenges in marine science and governance is to improve scientific guidance of management measures to mitigate eutrophication nuisances in the EU seas. Too few approaches integrate the eutrophication process in space (continuum river-ocean) and in time (past, present and future status). A strong need remains for (i) knowledge/identification of all the processes that control eutrophication and its consequences, (ii) consistent and harmonized reference levels assigned to each eutrophication-related indicator, (iii) identification of the main rivers directly or indirectly responsible for eutrophication nuisances in specific areas, (iv) an integrated transboundary approach and (v) realistic short term and...
Euro-Argo Final Report – January 2008 to June 2011 - Le Traon, Pierre-yves; Mamaca, Emina
ARGO is an international global ocean observing system based on an array of some 3.000 autonomous floats drifting freely in the world’s oceans. Those floats, which probe the water to a depth of 2.000 m and report temperature and salinity data to land stations, constitute one of the essential components of the Global Climate Observing System. They also provide invaluable data in support of ocean and climate research, operational oceanography and ocean monitoring. The system is implemented by a large number of agencies and scientists in over 40 countries. A high level of coordination is necessary to organize efficiently the...
Isolation, Structure Elucidation, Relative LC-MS Response, and in Vitro Toxicity of Azaspiracids from the Dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum - Kilcoyne, Jane; Nulty, Ciara; Jauffrais, Thierry; Mccarron, Pearse; Herve, Fabienne; Foley, Barry; Rise, Frode; Crain, Sheila; Wilkins, Alistair L.; Twiner, Michael J.; Hess, Philipp; Miles, Christopher O.
We identified three new azaspiracids (AZAs) with molecular weights of 715, 815, and 829 (AZA33 (3), AZA34 (4), and AZA35, respectively) in mussels, seawater, and Azadinium spinosum culture. Approximately 700 mu g of 3 and 250 mu g of 4 were isolated from a bulk culture of A. spinosum, and their structures determined by MS and NMR spectroscopy. These compounds differ significantly at the carboxyl end of the molecule from known AZA analogues and therefore provide valuable information on structure-activity relationships. Initial toxicological assessment was performed using an in vitro model system based on Jurkat T lymphocyte cytotoxicity, and the...
Technological Development and Fisheries Management - Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Marchal, Paul; Gislason, Henrik; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.
Many marine fish stocks are overexploited and considerable overcapacity exists in fishing fleets worldwide. One of the reasons for the imbalance between resource availability and fishing capacity is technological development, which continuously increases the efficiency of the vessels—a mechanism referred to as “technological creep.” We review how the introduction of new and more efficient electronic equipment, gear design, engines, deck equipment, and catch-handling procedures influences the capture efficiency (catchability) of commercial fishing vessels. On average, we estimate that catchability increases by 3.2% per year due to technological developments, an increase often ignored in fisheries management. The documentation and quantification of...
Iridium GPS 1 data from the EMSO-Azores observatory, 2013-2014 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains the GPS positions of the EMSO-Azores transmission buoy BOREL acquired between September 2013 and February 2014 (n=332) using the Iridium/GPS modem 1 (data acquired every 6 hours).
Iridium GPS 2 data from the EMSO-Azores observatory, 2013-2014 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains the GPS positions of the EMSO-Azores transmission buoy BOREL acquired between September 2013 and February 2014 (n=332) using the Iridium/GPS modem 2 (data acquired every 6 hours).
COSTOF, technical data from SeaMoN West, node of the EMSO-Azores observatory, 2013-2014 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains technical parameters (Voltage in V, current in mA, energy in Ah, internal pressure in mbar, water leak detection) acquired between September 2013 and February 2014 (n=332) by the COSTOF (COmmunication and STOrage Front-end), which is the Electronic core of SeaMoN West, the bottom station of EMSO-Azores dedicated to geophysical observations (data acquired every 6 hours).
Buoy management unit 2 data from the EMSO-Azores observatory, 2013-2014 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains technical parameters (Voltage in V, internal pressure in mbar, water intrusion detection, tilt in °) acquired between September 2013 and February 2014 (n=332) by the buoy management unit 2, which is the Electronic core of BOREL, the transmission buoy of the EMSO-Azores observatory (data acquired every 6 hours).
Buoy management unit 1 data from the EMSO-Azores observatory, 2013-2014 - Legrand, Julien; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cannat, Mathilde
This dataset contains technical parameters (Voltage in V, internal pressure in mbar, water intrusion detection, tilt in °) acquired between September 2013 and February 2014 (n=332) by the buoy management unit 1, which is the Electronic core of BOREL, the transmission buoy of the EMSO-Azores observatory (data acquired every 6 hours).
Un nouveau modèle couplé vagues-courant 3D : développement et validation - Bennis, Anne-claire; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Odaka, Tina; Dumas, Franck
A numerical model coupling the three-dimensional oceanic circulation, thanks to the MARS3D model, and the sea state computed by the WAVEWATCH III model, is developed in order to study the hydrodynamic of the nearshore zone. The main principle of the coupled model based on the coupler PALM and the necessary modifications made for the coupling procedure to both numerical codes are described. First tests in horizontal two-dimension are made and they allowed us to develop a primary version. For three-dimensional flow, we show that the coupled model must solve the quasi-Eulerian velocity. In fact, a coherent analytical form of the...
Did the Indo-Pacific leptomedusa Lovenella assimilis (Browne, 1905) or Eucheilota menoni Kramp, 1959 invade northern European marine waters? Morphological and genetic approaches - Brylinski, Jean-michel; Li, Luen-luen; Vansteenbrugge, Lies; Antajan, Elvire; Hoffman, Stefan; Van Ginderdeuren, Karl; Vincent, Dorothée
Hydromedusae, morphologically resembling the Indo-Pacific leptomedusa Lovenella assimilis (Browne, 1905) (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Lovenellidae), are reported for the first time in both the eastern English Channel and the southern bight of the North Sea. Analyses of past zooplankton samples from a long-term monitoring program suggest that this non-indigenous species has been present in the eastern English Channel at least since 2007. Genetic analyses identified specimens as Eucheilota menoni based on nearly identical 18S ribosomal RNA gene, mitochondrial cytochrome oxydase subunit gene I (COI) sequences, and 16S Ribosomal RNA gene. Consequently, published morphological descriptions of L. assimilis and E. menoni were compared,...
Analysis and Interpretation of Frequency–Wavenumber Spectra of Young Wind Waves - Leckler, Fabien; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Peureux, Charles; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Filippo; Dulov, Vladimir
The energy level and its directional distribution are key observations for understanding the energy balance in the wind-wave spectrum between wind-wave generation, nonlinear interactions, and dissipation. Here, properties of gravity waves are investigated from a fixed platform in the Black Sea, equipped with a stereo video system that resolves waves with frequency f up to 1.4 Hz and wavelengths from 0.6 to 11 m. One representative record is analyzed, corresponding to young wind waves with a peak frequency fp = 0.33 Hz and a wind speed of 13 m s−1. These measurements allow for a separation of the linear waves...
Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea - Bauer, Robert; Fromentin, Jean-marc; Demarcq, Herve; Brisset, Blandine; Bonhommeau, Sylvain
Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Golf of Lions (GoL), compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus)...
Processing bio-Argo chlorophyll a concentration at the DAC level - Schmechtig, Catherine; Poteau, Antoine; Claustre, Hervé; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Boss, Emmanuel
This document does NOT address the issue of chlorophyll-a quality control (either real-time or delayed mode). As a preliminary step towards that goal, this document seeks to ensure that all countries deploying floats equipped with chlorophyll-a sensors document the data and metadata related to these floats properly. We produced this document in response to action item 3 from the first Bio-Argo Data Management meeting in Hyderabad (November 12-13, 2012).
If the recommendations contained herein are followed, we will end up with a more uniform set of chlorophyll-a data within the Bio-Argo data system, allowing users to begin analyzing not only...
Processing Bio-Argo particle backscattering at the DAC level - Schmechtig, Catherine; Poteau, Antoine; Claustre, Hervé; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Boss, Emmanuel
This document does NOT address the issue of particle backscattering quality control (either real-time or delayed mode). As a preliminary step towards that goal, this document seeks to ensure that all countries deploying floats equipped with backscattering sensors document the data and metadata related to these floats properly. We produced this document in response to action item 9 from the first Bio-Argo Data Management meeting in Hyderabad (November 12-13, 2012).
If the recommendations contained herein are followed, we will end up with a more uniform set of particle backscattering data within the Bio-Argo data system, allowing users to begin analyzing not...
Report on the Deep Argo Implementation Workshop. Hobart, May 5-7th 2015 - Zilberman, Nathalie; Maze, Guillaume
Deep-ocean (> 2000 m) hydrographic observations are limited to sparse ship-board hydrographic sections repeated every decade and short-lived moored arrays of confined spatial coverage. Upper-ocean (< 2000 m) sampling, largely carried out by the conventional Argo array, has much higher resolution in space and time. The need for more intensive sampling in the deep ocean has been widely recognized by the scientific community. The development of deep profiling Argo floats, a new generation of autonomous instruments capable of diving and recording temperature and salinity down to 4000 to 6000 m depth, is underway. A Deep Argo Workshop was organized to...
Identification and Characterization of Carboxyl Esterases of Gill Chamber-Associated Microbiota in the Deep-Sea Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata by Using Functional Metagenomics - Alcaide, Maria; Tchigvintsev, Anatoli; Martinez-martinez, Monica; Popovic, Ana; Reva, Oleg N.; Lafraya, Alvaro; Bargiela, Rafael; Nechitaylo, Taras Y.; Matesanz, Ruth; Cambon-bonavita, Marie-anne; Jebbar, Mohamed; Yakimov, Michail M.; Savchenko, Alexei; Golyshina, Olga V.; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Ferrer, Manuel
The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna in deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (depth, 2,320 m). Here, we identified and biochemically characterized three carboxyl esterases from microbial communities inhabiting the R. exoculata gill that were isolated by naive screens of a gill chamber metagenomic library. These proteins exhibit low to moderate identity to known esterase sequences (<= 52%) and to each other (11.9 to 63.7%) and appear to have originated from unknown species or from genera of Proteobacteria related to Thiothrix/Leucothrix (MGS-RG1/RG2) and to the Rhodobacteraceae group (MGS-RG3). A library of 131 esters and 31 additional esterase/lipase...
Estimates of ocean wave heights and attenuation in sea ice using the SAR wave mode on Sentinel-1A - Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Chapron, Bertrand; Girard-ardhuin, Fanny; Guitton, Gilles; Mouche, Alexis; Stopa, Justin
Swell evolution from the open ocean into sea ice is poorly understood, in particular the amplitude attenuation expected from scattering and dissipation. New synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from Sentinel-1A wave mode reveal intriguing patterns of bright oscillating lines shaped like instant noodles. We investigate cases in which the oscillations are in the azimuth direction, around a straight line in the range direction. This observation is interpreted as the distortion by the SAR processing of crests from a first swell, due to the presence of a second swell. Since deviations from a straight line should be proportional to the orbital...
The Ocean Reanalyses Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP) - Balmaseda, M.a.; Hernandez, Francisco; Storto, A.; Palmer, M.d.; Alves, O.; Shi, L.; Smith, G.c.; Toyoda, T.; Valdivieso, Maria; Barnier, Bernard; Behringer, D.; Boyer, T.; Chang, Y-s.; Chepurin, G.a.; Ferry, N.; Forge, G.; Fujii, Y.; Good, S.; Guinehut, Stephanie; Haines, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Keeley, S.; Köhl, A.; Lee, T.; Martin, M.j.; Masina, S.; Masuda, S.; Meyssignac, B.; Mogensen, K.; Parent, L.; Peterson, K.a.; Tang, Y.m.; Yin, Y.; Vernieres, G.; Wang, X.; Waters, J.; Wedd, Robin; Wang, O.; Xue, Y.; Chevallier, M.; Lemieux, J-f.; Dupont, F.; Kuragano, T.; Kamachi, M.; Awaji, T.; Caltabiano, A.; Wilmer-becker, K.; Gaillard, Fabienne
Uncertainty in ocean analysis methods and deficiencies in the observing system are major obstacles for the reliable reconstruction of the past ocean climate. The variety of existing ocean reanalyses is exploited in a multi-reanalysis ensemble to improve the ocean state estimation and to gauge uncertainty levels. The ensemble-based analysis of signal-to-noise ratio allows the identification of ocean characteristics for which the estimation is robust (such as tropical mixed-layer-depth, upper ocean heat content), and where large uncertainty exists (deep ocean, Southern Ocean, sea ice thickness, salinity), providing guidance for future enhancement of the observing and data assimilation systems.