Computing inventories of anthropogenic CO2 in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic using OVIDE data - Zunino Rodriguez, Patricia; Perez, Fiz F.; Lherminier, Pascale; Mercier, Herle
The highest anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) inventories of all the oceans are found in the subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA). The OVIDE section crosses the SPNA from Greenland to Portugal and is repeated biennially since 2002. Therefore, OVIDE data allow evaluating the evolution of inventories of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) in the SPNA. This oceanic region is known to host water formation and ventilation processes that change the water mass volumetric census year by year. Changes in the volumetric census cause differences in the Cant inventory estimates (Pérez et al., 2008). Consequently, Pérez et al. (2010) proposed a method for computing Cant inventory...
On the developments of spectral wave models: numerics and parameterizations for the coastal ocean - Roland, Aron; Ardhuin, Fabrice
The development of numerical wave models for coastal applications, including coupling with ocean circulation models, has spurred an ongoing effort on theoretical foundations, numerical techniques, and physical parameterizations. Some important aspects of this effort are reviewed here, and results are shown in the case of the French Atlantic and Channel coast using version 4.18 of the WAVEWATCH III R model. Compared to previous results, the model errors have been strongly reduced thanks to, among other things, the introduction of currents, coastal reflection, and bottom sediment types. This last item is described here for the first time, allowing unprecedented accuracy at...
Authigenic carbonates related to active seepage of methane-rich hot brines at the Cheops mud volcano, Menes caldera (Nile deep-sea fan, eastern Mediterranean Sea) - Pierre, Catherine; Bayon, Germain; Blanc-valleron, Marie-madeleine; Mascle, Jean; Dupre, Stephanie
On the passive margin of the Nile deep-sea fan, the active Cheops mud volcano (MV; ca. 1,500 m diameter, ~20–30 m above seafloor, 3,010–3,020 m water depth) comprises a crater lake with hot (up to ca. 42 °C) methane-rich muddy brines in places overflowing down the MV flanks. During the Medeco2 cruise in fall 2007, ROV dives enabled detailed sampling of the brine fluid, bottom lake sediments at ca. 450 m lake depth, sub-surface sediments from the MV flanks, and carbonate crusts at the MV foot. Based on mineralogical, elemental and stable isotope analyses, this study aims at exploring the...
Proceedings after JERICO Science Day. 28th – 29th April 2015 - Puillat, Ingrid; Beaume, Nolwenn; Pichereau, Sylvie
The JERICO Science Day presented researches and developments supported by the JERICO infrastructure, including scientific results after TNA experiments, Observing Simulation Experiments and Observing SS, and technologies updated or developed.
Each talk was divided into a 15-minute presentation and a 5-minute discussion.
Poster sessions were planned during coffee breaks and after lunch.
JERICO Final General Assembly Report. 28th April 2015 - Puillat, Ingrid; Beaume, Nolwenn; Farcy, Patrick
JERICO Research Infrastructure (RI) is the coastal component of the European marine observing system, and is funded by the FP7 program and recently extended through a newly awarded H2020 project (JERICO-NEXT). It gathers 33 partners from 15 European countries.
This research infrastructure aims at further developing, harmonizing and integrating nationally funded marine observing systems, collecting physical, chemical and biological parameters from different platforms (ferryboxes, fixed platforms, gliders, HF radars, benthic systems …).
The General Assembly was the first part of this “JERICO week”. In this report will be listed all relevant information (agenda, participant list, etc) and the slides of each presentation.
New Insight for the Genetic Evaluation of Resistance to Ostreid Herpesvirus Infection, a Worldwide Disease, in Crassostrea gigas - Degremont, Lionel; Lamy, Jean-baptiste; Pepin, Jean-francois; Travers, Marie-agnes; Renault, Tristan
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is the most important commercial oyster species cultivated in the world. Meanwhile, the ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) is one of the major pathogens affecting the Pacific oyster, and numerous mortality outbreaks related to this pathogen are now reported worldwide. To assess the genetic basis of resistance to OsHV-1 infection in spat C. gigas and to facilitate breeding programs for such a trait, if any exist, we compared the mortality of half- and full-sib families using three field methods and a controlled challenge by OsHV-1 in the laboratory. In the field, three methods were tested: (A)...
Argo Technical File User’s Guide - Thresher, Ann; Rannou, Jean Philippe
Technical files are a very important part of the Argo dataset. They allow us to diagnose systematic faults and track array performance. In the past it was assumed that all DACs knew how these should be filled and we only needed to provide details as to the names and formats. With the development of Argo format version 3.1 and the more detailed format checker, it would be useful to describe more fully how the technical files are generated and how their contents are determined. We therefore provide this user's guide to the technical files.
Full-depth temperature trends in the northeastern Atlantic through the early 21st century - Desbruyeres, D.g.; Mcdonagh, E. L.; King, B. A.; Garry, F. K.; Blaker, A. T.; Moat, B. I.; Mercier, Herle
The vertical structure of temperature trends in the northeastern Atlantic (NEA) is investigated using a blend of Argo and hydrography data. The representativeness of sparse hydrography sampling in the basin mean is assessed using a numerical model. Between 2003 and 2013, the NEA underwent a strong surface cooling (0–450 m) and a significant warming at intermediate and deep levels (1000 m to 3000 m) that followed a strong cooling trend observed between 1988 and 2003. During 2003–2013, gyre-specific changes are found in the upper 1000 m (warming and cooling of the subtropical and subpolar gyres, respectively), while the intermediate and...
Autophagy plays an important role in protecting Pacific oysters from OsHV-1 and Vibrio aestuarianus infections - Moreau, Pierrick; Moreau, Kevin; Segarra, Amelie; Tourbiez, Delphine; Travers, Marie-agnes; Rubinsztein, David C.; Renault, Tristan
Recent mass mortality outbreaks around the world in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, have seriously affected the aquaculture economy. Although the causes for these mortality outbreaks appear complex, infectious agents are involved. Two pathogens are associated with mass mortality outbreaks, the virus ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and the bacterium Vibrio aestuarianus. Here we describe the interactions between these 2 pathogens and autophagy, a conserved intracellular pathway playing a key role in innate immunity. We show for the first time that autophagy pathway is present and functional in Pacific oysters and plays an important role to protect animals from infections. This study...
Numerical model validation for mooring systems: Method and application for wave energy converters - Harnois, V.; Weller, Sam D.; Johanning, L.; Thies, P. R.; Le Boulluec, Marc; Le Roux, Dominique; Soule, Veronique; Ohana, Jeremy
The design of wave energy mooring systems is challenging: overdesign incurs a significant cost penalty, underdesign may lead to a premature failure and incorrect design could reduce the power production. Consequently, compliant mooring systems are being developed for wave energy applications.
This paper presents tank test results for a scale model of the buoy and mooring used at the SouthWest Mooring Test Facility (SWMTF), an offshore facility developed to conduct long-term sea trials for wave energy device moorings. A compliant three leg catenary mooring system using Nylon ropes in the water column is investigated. Preliminary static, quasi-static, decay, regular and irregular...
Total dissolvable and dissolved iron isotopes in the water column of the Peru upwelling regime - Chever, Fanny; Rouxel, Olivier; Croot, Peter L.; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Wuttig, Kathrin; Auro, Maureen
Vertical distributions of iron (Fe) concentrations and isotopes were determined in the total dissolvable and dissolved pools in the water column at three coastal stations located along the Peruvian margin, in the core of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). The shallowest station 121 (161 m total water depth) was characterized by lithogenic input from the continental plateau, yielding concentrations as high as 456 nM in the total dissolvable pool. At the 2 other stations (stations 122 and 123), Fe concentrations of dissolved and total dissolvable pools exhibited maxima in both surface and deep layers. Fe isotopic composition (δ56Fe) showed a...
A microarray-based analysis of oocyte quality in the European clam Ruditapes decussatus - Teixeira De Sousa, Joana; Milan, Massimo; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitília; Matias, Ana Margarete; Quillien, Virgile; Leitão, Alexandra; Huvet, Arnaud
A microarray-based analysis was performed with the objective of describing genomic features of oocytes and looking for potential markers of oocyte quality in the economically important European clam, Ruditapes decussatus. Oocytes of 25 females from Ria de Aveiro, Western coast of Portugal (40°42′N; 08°40′W) were selected for this study and oocyte quality was estimated by success of D-larval rate under controlled conditions, which appeared to vary from 0 to 95 %. By genome-wide expression profiling with a DNA microarray, 526 probes appeared differentially expressed between two groups representing the largest and smallest value of D larval rates, named good (represented...
La sensibilité des larves de pectinidés aux conditions d’élevage : le flux ouvert comme alternative aux mortalités massives - Holbach, Marine
In many countries, aquaculture of pectinids depends on the success of artificial spat production in hatchery. This production is always unpredictable due to the variability of hatching rate and larval survival. Flow-through larval rearing systems were developed in Norway for the King scallop Pecten maximus and showed promising results. Unfortunately the system needs to be optimized since the larval yields and the densities used are still relatively low. In France, a small-scale (5 L) and high-density (≤ 300 larva mL-1) flow-through larval rearing system was successfully developed for oysters. First trials in such system and in similar conditions with P....
Proposal and Recommendations for a Science-Policy interface (SPi) to support MSFd implementation STAGES - Science and Technology Advancing Governance of Good Environmental Status - Larkin, Kate; Wouters, Noémie; Mc Donough, Niall; Fernandez, Marisa; Diez, Raquel; Carvalho, Telmo; Garriga, Maica; Costa, Cristina; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Le Moigne, Morgan; Lecomte, Jean-paul; Wawrzynski, Wojcieh; Kellerman, Adi; Murphy, David; Ni Cheallachain, Cliona; Bergh, Oivind; Nedreaas, Kjell
The year 2014 marks the mid-point between the launch of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the goal of Good Environmental Status (GES) in 2020. Although a lot of progress has been made, the current use of Europe’s seas is not sustainable. In its recent publication called ‘Marine Messages’ (EEA, 2014), the European Environment Agency recommended that “urgent action and protection of the seas and ocean should be top of the EU agenda”. In addition, the European Commission Healthy Oceans – Productive Ecosystems (HOPE) conference declaration1 urged political leaders “…to turn words into action and encourage all stakeholders, including...
Consistency in European seabass coping styles: A life history approach - Ferrari, Sebastien; Millot, Sandie; Leguay, Didier; Chatain, Beatrice; Begout, Marie-laure
Recent years have seen a growth of interest in the consistent differences in individual behaviour over time and contexts constituting so-called “individual coping styles”. An understanding of this inter-individual variation is essential to improve our knowledge of the adaptive value of behaviour. Coping styles may have implications in diverse fields, so the development of appropriate screening methods for each species appears to be the most effective way to extend our knowledge and to incorporate behavioural responses into selection-based breeding programmes, to improve the domestication and welfare of farmed fish. We tested 30 juvenile seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) at least twice in...
Observing mixed layer depth, nitrate and chlorophyll concentrations in the northwestern Mediterranean: A combined satellite and NO 3 profiling floats experiment - D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Lavigne, Heloise; Besson, Florent; Claustre, Herve; Coppola, Laurent; Garcia, Nicole; Laes-huon, Agathe; Le Reste, Serge; Malarde, Damien; Migon, Christophe; Morin, Pascal; Mortier, Laurent; Poteau, Antoine; Prieur, Louis; Raimbault, Patrick; Testor, Pierre
Two profiling floats, equipped with nitrate concentration sensors were deployed in the northwestern Mediterranean from summer 2012 to summer 2013. Satellite ocean color data were extracted to evaluate surface chlorophyll concentration at float locations. Time series of mixed layer depths and nitrate and chlorophyll concentrations were analyzed to characterize the interplay between the physical-chemical and biological dynamics in the area. Deep convection (mixed layer depth > 1000 m) was observed in January–February, although high-nitrate surface concentrations could be already observed in December. Chlorophyll increase is observed since December, although high values were observed only in March. The early nitrate availability in subsurface layers,...
Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling - Auger, Pierre-amael; Machu, Eric; Gorgues, Thomas; Grima, Nicolas; Waeles, Mathieu
A Lagrangian approach based on a physical-biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the NorthWest African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the...
Evaluating changes in marine communities that provide ecosystem services through comparative assessments of community indicators - Kleisner, Kristin M.; Coll, Marta; Lynam, Christopher P.; Bundy, Alida; Shannon, Lynne; Shin, Yunne-jai; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Borges, Maria F.; Diallo, Ibrahima; Fox, Clive; Gascuel, Didier; Heymans, Johanna J.; Juan Jorda, Maria J.; Jouffre, Didier; Large, Scott I.; Marshall, Kristin N.; Ojaveer, Henn; Piroddi, Chiara; Tam, Jorge; Torres, Maria A.; Travers-trolet, Morgane; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos; Van Der Meeren, Gro I.; Zador, Stephani
Fisheries provide critical provisioning services, especially given increasing human population. Understanding where marine communities are declining provides an indication of ecosystems of concern and highlights potential conflicts between seafood provisioning from wild fisheries and other ecosystem services. Here we use the nonparametric statistic, Kendall׳s tau, to assess trends in biomass of exploited marine species across a range of ecosystems. The proportion of ‘Non-Declining Exploited Species’ (NDES) is compared among ecosystems and to three community-level indicators that provide a gauge of the ability of a marine ecosystem to function both in provisioning and as a regulating service: survey-based mean trophic level,...
Nickel isotope fractionation during tropical weathering of ultramafic rocks - Ratie, G.; Jouvin, D.; Garnier, J.; Rouxel, Olivier; Miska, S.; Guimaraes, E.; Cruz Veira, L.; Sivry, Y.; Zelano, I.; Montarges Pelletier, E.; Thil, F.; Quantin, C.
Although Ni isotopes have been shown to be significantly fractionated in terrestrial samples, their use in continental environmental studies has not yet been evaluated. The present study focuses on an ultramafic (UM) massif (Barro Alto, Goias, Brazil) because such areas are naturally rich in Ni. We present developed lateritic weathering profiles. The goal of the study is to evaluate the potential of using Ni isotopes in environmental continental studies by combining its isotopic signature with mineralogy, in order to better understand the geochemical cycling of Ni in UM settings during weathering. As such, Ni isotope values were measured in samples...
Fishing for space: Fine-scale multi-sector maritime activities influence fisher location choice - Tidd, Alex N.; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul; Pinnegar, John; Blanchard, Julia L.; Milner-gulland, E. J.
The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic...