PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 679
The Redox-Sensitive Chloroplast Trehalose-6-Phosphate Phosphatase AtTPPD Regulates Salt Stress Tolerance - Krasensky, Julia; Broyart, Caroline; Rabanal, Fernando A.; Jonak, Claudia
Aims: High salinity stress impairs plant growth and development. Trehalose metabolism has been implicated in sugar signaling, and enhanced trehalose metabolism can positively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of the stress-related trehalose pathway and the role of individual trehalose biosynthetic enzymes for stress tolerance remain unclear. Results: Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) catalyzes the final step of trehalose metabolism. Investigating the subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana TPP family members, we identified AtTPPD as a chloroplast-localized enzyme. Plants deficient in AtTPPD were hypersensitive, whereas plants overexpressing AtTPPD were more tolerant to high salinity stress. Elevated stress tolerance of AtTPPD...
Insight into Protein S-nitrosylation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - Morisse, Samuel; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Gao, Xing-Huang; Lemaire, Stéphane D.; Marchand, Christophe H.
Aims: Protein S-nitrosylation, a post-translational modification (PTM) consisting of the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO) to a cysteine thiol moiety, plays a major role in cell signaling and is recognized to be involved in numerous physiological processes and diseases in mammals. The importance of nitrosylation in photosynthetic eukaryotes has been less studied. The aim of this study was to expand our knowledge on protein nitrosylation by performing a large-scale proteomic analysis of proteins undergoing nitrosylation in vivo in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells under nitrosative stress. Results: Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 492 nitrosylated proteins were identified. They participate in a...
Redox Regulation of Plant Development - Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.
Significance: We provide a conceptual framework for the interactions between the cellular redox signaling hub and the phytohormone signaling network that controls plant growth and development to maximize plant productivity under stress-free situations, while limiting growth and altering development on exposure to stress. Recent Advances: Enhanced cellular oxidation plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and stress responses. Oxidative signals or cycles of oxidation and reduction are crucial for the alleviation of dormancy and quiescence, activating the cell cycle and triggering genetic and epigenetic control that underpin growth and differentiation responses to changing environmental conditions. Critical Issues:...
In Vivo Imaging of Tumor Physiological, Metabolic, and Redox Changes in Response to the Anti-Angiogenic Agent Sunitinib: Longitudinal Assessment to Identify Transient Vascular Renormalization - Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Munasinghe, Jeeva P.; Morris, Herman D.; Lizak, Martin J.; Merkle, Hellmut; Yasukawa, Keiji; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Suburamanian, Sankaran; Mitchell, James B.; Krishna, Murali C.
Aims: The tumor microenvironment is characterized by a highly reducing redox status, a low pH, and hypoxia. Anti-angiogenic therapies for solid tumors frequently function in two steps: the transient normalization of structurally and functionally aberrant tumor blood vessels with increased blood perfusion, followed by the pruning of tumor blood vessels and the resultant cessation of nutrients and oxygen delivery required for tumor growth. Conventional anatomic or vascular imaging is impractical or insufficient to distinguish between the two steps of tumor response to anti-angiogenic therapies. Here, we investigated whether the noninvasive imaging of the tumor redox state and energy metabolism could...
Functional MicroRNA Library Screening Identifies the HypoxaMiR MiR-24 as a Potent Regulator of Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Vascularization - Fiedler, Jan; Stöhr, Andrea; Gupta, Shashi Kumar; Hartmann, Dorothee; Holzmann, Angelika; Just, Annette; Hansen, Arne; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Thum, Thomas
Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are key components within the vasculature. Dependent on the stimulus, SMC can either be in a proliferative (synthetic) or differentiated state. Alterations of SMC phenotype also appear in several disease settings, further contributing to disease progression. Aims: Here, we asked whether microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), which are strong posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, could alter SMC proliferation. Results and Innovation: Employing a robotic-assisted high-throughput screening method using miRNA libraries, we identified hypoxia-regulated miR-24 as a master regulator of SMC proliferation. Proteome profiling showed a strong miR-24-dependent impact on cellular stress-associated factors, overall resulting in reduced stress resistance....