PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
Amniotic Coenzyme Q10: Is It Related to Pregnancy Outcomes? - Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Tiano, Luca; Ciavattini, Andrea; Landi, Beatrice; Carnevali, Paola; Principi, Federica; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Mazzanti, Laura
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 or ubiquinone) is an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is also present in various cellular membranes and in plasma lipoproteins. Diabetes, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and preeclampsia diseases are all associated with an alteration of CoQ10 level or its redox status. During pregnancy, we note that the plasma content of CoQ10 is significantly higher than amniotic. In the fetal growth restriction group, amniotic total CoQ10 levels were significantly higher versus healthy, while the amniotic oxygen radical absorbing capacity level was significantly lower. A significant negative correlation was observed between amniotic total CoQ10 and birthweight. Our...
Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Obesity-Associated Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Protective Effects of Pomegranate with Its Active Component Punicalagin - Zou, Xuan; Yan, Chunhong; Shi, Yujie; Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Wang, Xun; Chen, Cong; Luo, Cheng; Li, Yuan; Gao, Jing; Pang, Wentao; Zhao, Jialong; Zhao, Fei; Li, Hao; Zheng, Adi; Sun, Wenyan; Long, Jiangang; Szeto, Ignatius Man-Yau; Zhao, Youyou; Dong, Zhizhong; Zhang, Peifang; Wang, Junkuan; Lu, Wuyuan; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Jiankang; Feng, Zhihui
Aims: Punicalagin (PU) is one of the major ellagitannins found in the pomegranate (Punica granatum), which is a popular fruit with several health benefits. So far, no studies have evaluated the effects of PU on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our work aims at studying the effect of PU-enriched pomegranate extract (PE) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD. Results: PE administration at a dosage of 150 mg/kg/day significantly inhibited HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid deposition. As major contributors to NAFLD, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins 1, 4, and 6 as well as augmented oxidative stress...
The Clinical Importance of Assessing Tumor Hypoxia: Relationship of Tumor Hypoxia to Prognosis and Therapeutic Opportunities - Walsh, Joseph C.; Lebedev, Artem; Aten, Edward; Madsen, Kathleen; Marciano, Liane; Kolb, Hartmuth C.
Tumor hypoxia is a well-established biological phenomenon that affects the curability of solid tumors, regardless of treatment modality. Especially for head and neck cancer patients, tumor hypoxia is linked to poor patient outcomes. Given the biological problems associated with tumor hypoxia, the goal for clinicians has been to identify moderately to severely hypoxic tumors for differential treatment strategies. The “gold standard” for detecting and characterizing of tumor hypoxia are the invasive polarographic electrodes. Several less invasive hypoxia assessment techniques have also shown promise for hypoxia assessment. The widespread incorporation of hypoxia information in clinical tumor assessment is severely impeded by...
The Oxidation States of DJ-1 Dictate the Cell Fate in Response to Oxidative Stress Triggered by 4-HPR: Autophagy or Apoptosis? - Cao, Ji; Ying, Meidan; Xie, Nan; Lin, Guanyu; Dong, Rong; Zhang, Jun; Yan, Hailin; Yang, Xiaochun; He, Qiaojun; Yang, Bo
Aim: Chemotherapy-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only contribute to apoptosis, but also trigger autophagy. Since autophagy is reported to protect cancer cells from apoptosis, this weakens the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy. This study aimed at identifying the key molecules that determine the cellular response to ROS and, therefore, provide better strategies to increase chemotherapeutic efficiency. Results: Increasing concentrations of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR)-treatment pushed autophagy down to apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, and 4-HPR-induced ROS contribute to this process. Since we found that ASK1-regulated JNK1 and p38 are responsible for 4-HPR-induced autophagy and apoptosis, respectively, we further utilized co-immunoprecipitation followed...
Coronary Artery Spasm Related to Thiol Oxidation and Senescence Marker Protein-30 in Aging - Yamada, Shinya; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Machii, Hirofumi; Mizukami, Hiroyuki; Hoshino, Yasuto; Misaka, Tomofumi; Ishigami, Akihito; Takeishi, Yasuchika
Background: Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) decreases with aging, and SMP30 knockout (KO) mice show a short life with increased oxidant stress. Aims: We assessed the effect of oxidant stress with SMP30 deficiency in coronary artery spasm and clarify its underlying mechanisms. Results: We measured vascular responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) of isolated coronary arteries from SMP30 KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In SMP30 KO mice, ACh-induced vasoconstriction occurred, which was changed to vasodilation by dithiothreitol (DTT), a thiol-reducing agent. However, Nω-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester, nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, or tetrahydrobiopterin did not change the ACh response. In isolated...