PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 544
Heme Oxygenase-1 Is Required for Angiogenic Function of Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cells: Role in Therapeutic Revascularization - Grochot-Przeczek, Anna; Kotlinowski, Jerzy; Kozakowska, Magdalena; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Jagodzinska, Jolanta; Stachurska, Anna; Volger, Oscar L.; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Florczyk, Urszula; Tertil, Magdalena; Jazwa, Agnieszka; Szade, Krzysztof; Stepniewski, Jacek; Loboda, Agnieszka; Horrevoets, Anton J.G.; Dulak, Jozef; Jozkowicz, Alicja
Aims: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme that can be down-regulated in diabetes. Its importance for mature endothelium has been described, but its role in proangiogenic progenitors is not well known. We investigated the effect of HO-1 on the angiogenic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and on blood flow recovery in ischemic muscle of diabetic mice. Results: Lack of HO-1 decreased the number of endothelial progenitor cells (Lin−CD45−cKit-Sca-1+VEGFR-2+) in murine bone marrow, and inhibited the angiogenic potential of cultured BMDCs, affecting their survival under oxidative stress, proliferation, migration, formation of capillaries, and paracrine proangiogenic potential. Transcriptome analysis of...
Coupling Heme and Iron Metabolism via Ferritin H Chain - Gozzelino, Raffaella; Soares, Miguel P.
Significance: Inflammation and immunity can be associated with varying degrees of heme release from hemoproteins, eventually leading to cellular and tissue iron (Fe) overload, oxidative stress, and tissue damage. Presumably, these deleterious effects contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic infections. Recent Advances: Heme release from hemoglobin sensitizes parenchyma cells to undergo programmed cell death in response to proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor. This cytotoxic effect is driven by a mechanism involving intracellular accumulation of free radicals, which sustain the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling transduction pathway. While heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) prevents programmed...
FUsed in Sarcoma Is a Novel Regulator of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Transcription - Dhar, Sanjit Kumar; Zhang, Jiayu; Gal, Jozsef; Xu, Yong; Miao, Lu; Lynn, Bert C.; Zhu, Haining; Kasarskis, Edward J.; St. Clair, Daret K.
Aims: FUsed in sarcoma (FUS) is a multifunctional DNA/RNA-binding protein that possesses diverse roles, such as RNA splicing, RNA transport, DNA repair, translation, and transcription. The network of enzymes and processes regulated by FUS is far from being fully described. In this study, we have focused on the mechanisms of FUS-regulated manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene transcription. Results: Here we demonstrate that FUS is a component of the transcription complex that regulates the expression of MnSOD. Overexpression of FUS increased MnSOD expression in a dose-dependent manner and knockdown of FUS by siRNA led to the inhibition of MnSOD gene transcription....
Fus1/Tusc2 Is a Novel Regulator of Mitochondrial Calcium Handling, Ca2+-Coupled Mitochondrial Processes, and Ca2+-Dependent NFAT and NF-κB Pathways in CD4+ T Cells - Uzhachenko, Roman; Ivanov, Sergey V.; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Shanker, Anil; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Ivanova, Alla V.
Aims: Fus1 has been established as mitochondrial tumor suppressor, immunomodulator, and antioxidant protein, but molecular mechanism of these activities remained to be identified. Based on putative calcium-binding and myristoyl-binding domains that we identified in Fus1, we explored our hypothesis that Fus1 regulates mitochondrial calcium handling and calcium-coupled processes. Results: Fus1 loss resulted in reduced rate of mitochondrial calcium uptake in calcium-loaded epithelial cells, splenocytes, and activated CD4+ T cells. The reduced rate of mitochondrial calcium uptake in Fus1-deficient cells correlated with cytosolic calcium increase and dysregulation of calcium-coupled mitochondrial parameters, such as reactive oxygen species production, ΔμH+, mitochondrial permeability transition...
Nitrosative Stress Plays an Important Role in Wnt Pathway Activation in Diabetic Retinopathy - Liu, Qiuping; Li, Jingming; Cheng, Rui; Chen, Ying; Lee, Kyungwon; Hu, Yang; Yi, Jinglin; Liu, Zuguo; Ma, Jian-xing
Aims: Diabetes is associated with nitrosative stress in multiple tissues. Overactivation of the Wnt pathway has been shown to play a pathogenic role in diabetic retinopathy (DR). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether nitrosative stress contributes to aberrant activation of Wnt signaling in diabetes. Results: Nitrosative stress induced by peroxynitrite (PN), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), or high glucose (HG) in retinal cells was assessed by a dichlorofluorescein fluorescence assay or by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). These nitrosative stress inducers activated the canonical Wnt pathway, as shown by Western blot analysis of phosphorylated low-density...
Oxygen Consumption and Usage During Physical Exercise: The Balance Between Oxidative Stress and ROS-Dependent Adaptive Signaling - Radak, Zsolt; Zhao, Zhongfu; Koltai, Erika; Ohno, Hideki; Atalay, Mustafa
The complexity of human DNA has been affected by aerobic metabolism, including endurance exercise and oxygen toxicity. Aerobic endurance exercise could play an important role in the evolution of Homo sapiens, and oxygen was not important just for survival, but it was crucial to redox-mediated adaptation. The metabolic challenge during physical exercise results in an elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are important modulators of muscle contraction, antioxidant protection, and oxidative damage repair, which at moderate levels generate physiological responses. Several factors of mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and SIRT1,...
Thioredoxin and Thioredoxin Target Proteins: From Molecular Mechanisms to Functional Significance - Lee, Samuel; Kim, Soo Min; Lee, Richard T.
The thioredoxin (Trx) system is one of the central antioxidant systems in mammalian cells, maintaining a reducing environment by catalyzing electron flux from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate through Trx reductase to Trx, which reduces its target proteins using highly conserved thiol groups. While the importance of protecting cells from the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species is clear, decades of research in this field revealed that there is a network of redox-sensitive proteins forming redox-dependent signaling pathways that are crucial for fundamental cellular processes, including metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Trx participates in signaling pathways interacting with different proteins...
In African American Type 2 Diabetic Patients, Is Vitamin D Deficiency Associated with Lower Blood Levels of Hydrogen Sulfide and Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, and Elevated Oxidative Stress? - Jain, Sushil K.; Manna, Prasenjit; Micinski, David; Lieblong, Benjamin J.; Kahlon, Gunjan; Morehead, Lester; Hoeldtke, Robert; Bass, Pat Farrington; Levine, Steven N.
African Americans (AA) have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and vitamin D (VD) deficiency compared with Caucasians. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important signaling molecule. This study examined the hypothesis that blood levels of H2S are lower in AA type 2 diabetic patients (T2D). Fasting blood was obtained from T2D and healthy controls. Results showed a significant decrease in plasma levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and H2S in AA T2D but not in Caucasian T2D when compared with those of respective age- and race-matched healthy controls. Plasma VD levels were significantly lower in AA T2D compared with Caucasian...
PTEN Phosphorylation and Nuclear Export Mediate Free Fatty Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress - Wu, Yong; Zhou, Hillary; Wu, Ke; Lee, Sangkyu; Li, Ruijin; Liu, Xuan
Aim: Oxidative stress induced by free fatty acids (FFA) contributes to metabolic syndrome-associated development of cardiovascular diseases, yet molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study aimed at establishing whether phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and its subcellular location play a role in FFA-induced endothelial oxidative stress. Results: Exposing human endothelial cells (ECs) with FFA activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6K pathway, and upon activation, S6K directly phosphorylated PTEN at S380. Phosphorylation of PTEN increased its interaction with its deubiquitinase USP7 in the nucleus, leading to PTEN deubiquitination and nuclear export. The reduction of PTEN in the...
Mass Spectrometry-Based Quantitative Proteomics for Dissecting Multiplexed Redox Cysteine Modifications in Nitric Oxide-Protected Cardiomyocyte Under Hypoxia - Pan, Kuan-Ting; Chen, Yi-Yun; Pu, Tsung-Hsien; Chao, Yu-Shu; Yang, Chun-Yi; Bomgarden, Ryan D.; Rogers, John C.; Meng, Tzu-Ching; Khoo, Kay-Hooi
Aims: Distinctive states of redox-dependent cysteine (Cys) modifications are known to regulate signaling homeostasis under various pathophysiological conditions, including myocardial injury or protection in response to ischemic stress. Recent evidence further implicates a dynamic interplay among these modified forms following changes in cellular redox environment. However, a precise delineation of multiplexed Cys modifications in a cellular context remains technically challenging. To this end, we have now developed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative approach using a set of novel iodoacetyl-based Cys-reactive isobaric tags (irreversible isobaric iodoacetyl Cys-reactive tandem mass tag [iodoTMT]) endowed with unique irreversible Cys-reactivities. Results: We have established a...