PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 696
Amniotic Coenzyme Q10: Is It Related to Pregnancy Outcomes? - Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Tiano, Luca; Ciavattini, Andrea; Landi, Beatrice; Carnevali, Paola; Principi, Federica; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Mazzanti, Laura
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 or ubiquinone) is an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is also present in various cellular membranes and in plasma lipoproteins. Diabetes, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and preeclampsia diseases are all associated with an alteration of CoQ10 level or its redox status. During pregnancy, we note that the plasma content of CoQ10 is significantly higher than amniotic. In the fetal growth restriction group, amniotic total CoQ10 levels were significantly higher versus healthy, while the amniotic oxygen radical absorbing capacity level was significantly lower. A significant negative correlation was observed between amniotic total CoQ10 and birthweight. Our...
Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Obesity-Associated Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Protective Effects of Pomegranate with Its Active Component Punicalagin - Zou, Xuan; Yan, Chunhong; Shi, Yujie; Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Wang, Xun; Chen, Cong; Luo, Cheng; Li, Yuan; Gao, Jing; Pang, Wentao; Zhao, Jialong; Zhao, Fei; Li, Hao; Zheng, Adi; Sun, Wenyan; Long, Jiangang; Szeto, Ignatius Man-Yau; Zhao, Youyou; Dong, Zhizhong; Zhang, Peifang; Wang, Junkuan; Lu, Wuyuan; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Jiankang; Feng, Zhihui
Aims: Punicalagin (PU) is one of the major ellagitannins found in the pomegranate (Punica granatum), which is a popular fruit with several health benefits. So far, no studies have evaluated the effects of PU on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our work aims at studying the effect of PU-enriched pomegranate extract (PE) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD. Results: PE administration at a dosage of 150 mg/kg/day significantly inhibited HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid deposition. As major contributors to NAFLD, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins 1, 4, and 6 as well as augmented oxidative stress...
The Clinical Importance of Assessing Tumor Hypoxia: Relationship of Tumor Hypoxia to Prognosis and Therapeutic Opportunities - Walsh, Joseph C.; Lebedev, Artem; Aten, Edward; Madsen, Kathleen; Marciano, Liane; Kolb, Hartmuth C.
Tumor hypoxia is a well-established biological phenomenon that affects the curability of solid tumors, regardless of treatment modality. Especially for head and neck cancer patients, tumor hypoxia is linked to poor patient outcomes. Given the biological problems associated with tumor hypoxia, the goal for clinicians has been to identify moderately to severely hypoxic tumors for differential treatment strategies. The “gold standard” for detecting and characterizing of tumor hypoxia are the invasive polarographic electrodes. Several less invasive hypoxia assessment techniques have also shown promise for hypoxia assessment. The widespread incorporation of hypoxia information in clinical tumor assessment is severely impeded by...
The Oxidation States of DJ-1 Dictate the Cell Fate in Response to Oxidative Stress Triggered by 4-HPR: Autophagy or Apoptosis? - Cao, Ji; Ying, Meidan; Xie, Nan; Lin, Guanyu; Dong, Rong; Zhang, Jun; Yan, Hailin; Yang, Xiaochun; He, Qiaojun; Yang, Bo
Aim: Chemotherapy-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only contribute to apoptosis, but also trigger autophagy. Since autophagy is reported to protect cancer cells from apoptosis, this weakens the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy. This study aimed at identifying the key molecules that determine the cellular response to ROS and, therefore, provide better strategies to increase chemotherapeutic efficiency. Results: Increasing concentrations of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR)-treatment pushed autophagy down to apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, and 4-HPR-induced ROS contribute to this process. Since we found that ASK1-regulated JNK1 and p38 are responsible for 4-HPR-induced autophagy and apoptosis, respectively, we further utilized co-immunoprecipitation followed...
Coronary Artery Spasm Related to Thiol Oxidation and Senescence Marker Protein-30 in Aging - Yamada, Shinya; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Machii, Hirofumi; Mizukami, Hiroyuki; Hoshino, Yasuto; Misaka, Tomofumi; Ishigami, Akihito; Takeishi, Yasuchika
Background: Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) decreases with aging, and SMP30 knockout (KO) mice show a short life with increased oxidant stress. Aims: We assessed the effect of oxidant stress with SMP30 deficiency in coronary artery spasm and clarify its underlying mechanisms. Results: We measured vascular responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) of isolated coronary arteries from SMP30 KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In SMP30 KO mice, ACh-induced vasoconstriction occurred, which was changed to vasodilation by dithiothreitol (DTT), a thiol-reducing agent. However, Nω-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester, nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, or tetrahydrobiopterin did not change the ACh response. In isolated...
Angiotensin II, NADPH Oxidase, and Redox Signaling in the Vasculature - Nguyen Dinh Cat, Aurelie; Montezano, Augusto C.; Burger, Dylan; Touyz, Rhian M.
Significance: Angiotensin II (Ang II) influences the function of many cell types and regulates many organ systems, in large part through redox-sensitive processes. In the vascular system, Ang II is a potent vasoconstrictor and also promotes inflammation, hypertrophy, and fibrosis, which are important in vascular damage and remodeling in cardiovascular diseases. The diverse actions of Ang II are mediated via Ang II type 1 and Ang II type 2 receptors, which couple to various signaling molecules, including NADPH oxidase (Nox), which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are now recognized as signaling molecules, critically placed in pathways activated by Ang...
Angiotensin II-Induced Production of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species: Potential Mechanisms and Relevance for Cardiovascular Disease - Dikalov, Sergey I.; Nazarewicz, Rafal R.
Significance: The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in angiotensin II (AngII) induced endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular and renal remodeling, inflammation, and fibrosis has been well documented. The molecular mechanisms of AngII pathophysiological activity involve the stimulation of NADPH oxidases, which produce superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. AngII also increases the production of mitochondrial ROS, while the inhibition of AngII improves mitochondrial function; however, the specific molecular mechanisms of the stimulation of mitochondrial ROS is not clear. Recent Advances: Interestingly, the overexpression of mitochondrial thioredoxin 2 or mitochondrial superoxide dismutase attenuates AngII-induced hypertension, which demonstrates the importance of mitochondrial ROS in AngII-mediated...
Angiotensin II and Oxidative Stress in the Failing Heart - Zablocki, Daniela; Sadoshima, Junichi
Significance: Despite recent medical advances, cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF) continue to be major health concerns, and related mortality remains high. As a result, investigation of the mechanisms involved in the development of HF continues to be an active field of study. Recent Advances: The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and its effector molecule, angiotensin (Ang) II, affect cardiac function through both systemic and local actions, and have been shown to play a major role in cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in the failing heart. Many of the downstream effects of AngII signaling are mediated by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species...
Angiotensin Peptides and Nitric Oxide in Cardiovascular Disease - Patel, Kaushik P.; Schultz, Harold D.
Significance: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the normal control of cardiovascular and renal function in the healthy state and is a contributing factor in the development and progression of various types of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including hypertension, diabetes, and heart failure. Recent Advances: Evidence suggests that a balance between activation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1 receptor axis and the ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/Mas receptor axis is important for the function of the heart, kidney, and autonomic nervous system control of the circulation in the normal healthy state. An imbalance in these opposing pathways toward the ACE/Ang II/AT1 receptor axis is...
The Redox-Sensitive Chloroplast Trehalose-6-Phosphate Phosphatase AtTPPD Regulates Salt Stress Tolerance - Krasensky, Julia; Broyart, Caroline; Rabanal, Fernando A.; Jonak, Claudia
Aims: High salinity stress impairs plant growth and development. Trehalose metabolism has been implicated in sugar signaling, and enhanced trehalose metabolism can positively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of the stress-related trehalose pathway and the role of individual trehalose biosynthetic enzymes for stress tolerance remain unclear. Results: Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) catalyzes the final step of trehalose metabolism. Investigating the subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana TPP family members, we identified AtTPPD as a chloroplast-localized enzyme. Plants deficient in AtTPPD were hypersensitive, whereas plants overexpressing AtTPPD were more tolerant to high salinity stress. Elevated stress tolerance of AtTPPD...
Insight into Protein S-nitrosylation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - Morisse, Samuel; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Gao, Xing-Huang; Lemaire, Stéphane D.; Marchand, Christophe H.
Aims: Protein S-nitrosylation, a post-translational modification (PTM) consisting of the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO) to a cysteine thiol moiety, plays a major role in cell signaling and is recognized to be involved in numerous physiological processes and diseases in mammals. The importance of nitrosylation in photosynthetic eukaryotes has been less studied. The aim of this study was to expand our knowledge on protein nitrosylation by performing a large-scale proteomic analysis of proteins undergoing nitrosylation in vivo in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells under nitrosative stress. Results: Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 492 nitrosylated proteins were identified. They participate in a...
Redox Regulation of Plant Development - Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.
Significance: We provide a conceptual framework for the interactions between the cellular redox signaling hub and the phytohormone signaling network that controls plant growth and development to maximize plant productivity under stress-free situations, while limiting growth and altering development on exposure to stress. Recent Advances: Enhanced cellular oxidation plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and stress responses. Oxidative signals or cycles of oxidation and reduction are crucial for the alleviation of dormancy and quiescence, activating the cell cycle and triggering genetic and epigenetic control that underpin growth and differentiation responses to changing environmental conditions. Critical Issues:...