PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 841
Mitochondria: The Cellular Hub of the Dynamic Coordinated Network - Yin, Fei; Cadenas, Enrique
Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the eukaryotic cell. After billions of years of evolution, mitochondria have adaptively integrated into the symbiont. Such integration is not only evidenced by the consolidation of genetic information, that is, the transfer of most mitochondrial genes into the nucleus, but also manifested by the functional recombination by which mitochondria participate seamlessly in various cellular processes. In the past decade, the field of mitochondria biology has been focused on the dynamic and interactive features of these semiautonomous organelles. Aspects of a complex multilayer quality control system coordinating mitochondrial function and environmental changes are being uncovered and...
Regulation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Its Intersection with Inflammatory Responses - Cherry, Anne D.; Piantadosi, Claude A.
Significance: Mitochondria play a vital role in cellular homeostasis and are susceptible to damage from inflammatory mediators released by the host defense. Cellular recovery depends, in part, on mitochondrial quality control programs, including mitochondrial biogenesis. Recent Advances: Early-phase inflammatory mediator proteins interact with PRRs to activate NF-κB-, MAPK-, and PKB/Akt-dependent pathways, resulting in increased expression or activity of coactivators and transcription factors (e.g., PGC-1α, NRF-1, NRF-2, and Nfe2l2) that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Inflammatory upregulation of NOS2-induced NO causes mitochondrial dysfunction, but NO is also a signaling molecule upregulating mitochondrial biogenesis via PGC-1α, participating in Nfe2l2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and modulating...
Regulation of CuZnSOD and Its Redox Signaling Potential: Implications for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - Hitchler, Michael J.; Domann, Frederick E.
Significance: Molecular oxygen is a Janus-faced electron acceptor for biological systems, serving as a reductant for respiration, or as the genesis for oxygen-derived free radicals that damage macromolecules. Superoxide is well known to perturb nonheme iron proteins, including Fe/S proteins such as aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase, as well as other enzymes containing labile iron such as the prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing family of enzymes; whereas hydrogen peroxide is more specific for two-electron reactions with thiols on glutathione, glutaredoxin, thioredoxin, and the peroxiredoxins. Recent Advances: Over the past two decades, familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been shown to have...
MnSOD in Oxidative Stress Response-Potential Regulation via Mitochondrial Protein Influx - Candas, Demet; Li, Jian Jian
Significance: The mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is encoded by genomic DNA and its dismutase function is fully activated in the mitochondria to detoxify free radical O2•− generated by mitochondrial respiration. Accumulating evidence shows an extensive communication between the mitochondria and cytoplasm under oxidative stress. Not only is the MnSOD gene upregulated by oxidative stress, but MnSOD activity can be enhanced via the mitochondrial protein influx (MPI). Recent Advances: A cluster of MPI containing cytoplasmic/nuclear proteins, such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and p53 interact with and alter MnSOD activity. These proteins modulate MnSOD superoxide scavenging activity via post-translational modifications...
Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Cancer Prevention - Robbins, Delira; Zhao, Yunfeng
Significance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Considering the quality of life and treatment cost, the best way to fight against cancer is to prevent or suppress cancer development. Cancer is preventable as indicated by human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and tamoxifen/raloxifen treatment in breast cancer prevention. The activities of superoxide dismutases (SODs) are often lowered during early cancer development, making it a rational candidate for cancer prevention. Recent Advances: SOD liposome and mimetics have been shown to be effective in cancer prevention animal models. They've also passed safety tests during early phase clinical...
Redox-Modulated Phenomena and Radiation Therapy: The Central Role of Superoxide Dismutases - Holley, Aaron K.; Miao, Lu; St. Clair, Daret K.; St. Clair, William H.
Significance: Ionizing radiation is a vital component in the oncologist's arsenal for the treatment of cancer. Approximately 50% of all cancer patients will receive some form of radiation therapy as part of their treatment regimen. DNA is considered the major cellular target of ionizing radiation and can be damaged directly by radiation or indirectly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed from the radiolysis of water, enzyme-mediated ROS production, and ROS resulting from altered aerobic metabolism. Recent Advances: ROS are produced as a byproduct of oxygen metabolism, and superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the chief scavengers. ROS contribute to the radioresponsiveness of...
Regulation of MnSOD Enzymatic Activity by Sirt3 Connects the Mitochondrial Acetylome Signaling Networks to Aging and Carcinogenesis - Tao, Randa; Vassilopoulos, Athanassios; Parisiadou, Loukia; Yan, Yufan; Gius, David
Significance: It is a well-established scientific observation that mammalian cells contain fidelity or watchdog proteins that maintain the correct function of cellular organelles. Recent Advances: Over the past several years, the Sirtuin deacetylase family protein Sirt3 has emerged as a mitochondrial fidelity protein that directs energy generation and regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging proteins. Loss of function or genetic mutation of these fidelity proteins has been shown to create a cellular environment that is permissive for the development of cellular damage associated with processes such as aging and carcinogenesis. Critical Issues: Mitochondria are the primary organelles that direct oxidative...
The Use of the Cre/loxP System to Study Oxidative Stress in Tissue-Specific Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Knockout Models - Marecki, John C.; Parajuli, Nirmala; Crow, John P.; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann
Significance: Respiring mitochondria are a significant site for reactions involving reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that contribute to irreversible cellular, structural, and functional damage leading to multiple pathological conditions. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a critical component of the antioxidant system tasked with protecting the oxidant-sensitive mitochondrial compartment from oxidative stress. Since global knockout of MnSOD results in significant cardiac and neuronal damage leading to early postnatal lethality, this approach has limited use for studying the mechanisms of oxidant stress and the development of disease in specific tissues lacking MnSOD. To circumvent this problem, a number of investigators have employed...
Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Regulates a Redox Cycle Within the Cell Cycle - Sarsour, Ehab H.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Goswami, Prabhat C.
Significance: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded and mitochondria-matrix-localized oxidation-reduction (redox) enzyme that regulates cellular redox homeostasis. Cellular redox processes are known to regulate proliferative and quiescent growth states. Therefore, MnSOD and mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be critical regulators of quiescent cells' entry into the cell cycle and exit from the proliferative cycle back to the quiescent state. Recent Advances/Critical Issues: Recent evidence suggests that the intracellular redox environment fluctuates during the cell cycle, shifting toward a more oxidized status during mitosis. MnSOD activity is higher in G0/G1 cells compared with S, G2 and M...