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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,719,667 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Advances in Hematology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 86

1. Novel Therapies for Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma - Foon, Kenneth A.; Takeshita, Kenichi; Zinzani, Pier L.
Aggressive B-cell lymphoma (BCL) comprises a heterogeneous group of malignancies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Burkitt lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). DLBCL, with its 3 subtypes, is the most common type of lymphoma. Advances in chemoimmunotherapy have substantially improved disease control. However, depending on the subtype, patients with DLBCL still exhibit substantially different survival rates. In MCL, a mature B-cell lymphoma, the addition of rituximab to conventional chemotherapy regimens has increased response rates, but not survival. Burkitt lymphoma, the most aggressive BCL, is characterized by a high proliferative index and requires more intensive chemotherapy regimens than DLBCL. Hence,...

2. Improving TCR Gene Therapy for Treatment of Haematological Malignancies - Nicholson, Emma; Ghorashian, Sara; Stauss, Hans
Adoptive immunotherapy using TCR gene modified T cells may allow separation of beneficial Graft versus tumour responses from harmful GvHD. Improvements to this include methods to generate high avidity or high affinity TCR, improvements in vector design and reduction in mispairing. Following adoptive transfer, TCR transduced T cells must be able to survive and persist in vivo to give most effective antitumour responses. Central memory or naive T cells have both been shown to be more effective than effector cells at expanding and persisting in vivo. Lymphodepletion may enhance persistence of transferred T cell populations. TCR gene transfer can be...

3. A Role for Bcl-2 in Notch1-Dependent Transcription in Thymic Lymphoma Cells - Sionov, Ronit Vogt; Kfir-Erenfeld, Shlomit; Spokoini, Rachel; Yefenof, Eitan
Notch1 is a transcription factor important for T-cell development. Notch1 is active in double negative (DN) thymocytes, while being depressed in double positive (DP) thymocytes. Synchronously, the expression of Bcl-2 becomes downregulated during the transition from DN to DP thymocytes. We previously observed that overexpression of an intracellular active Notch1 (ICN) in Bcl-2-positive 2B4 T cells leads to the transcription of Notch1-regulated genes. However, these genes were not induced in Bcl-2-negative DP PD1.6 thymic lymphoma cells overexpressing ICN. Here we show that, when Bcl-2 is simultaneously introduced into these cells, Notch-regulated genes are transcribed. Only in the presence of both...

4. The Role of mTOR Inhibitors for the Treatment of B-Cell Lymphomas - Argyriou, Pinelopi; Economopoulou, Panagiota; Papageorgiou, Sotirios
Despite the fact that the majority of lymphomas initially respond to treatment, many patients relapse and die from disease that is refractory to current regimens. The need for new treatment strategies in lymphomas has led to the investigation and evaluation of novel agents that target cellular pathways. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a representative pathway that may be implicated in lymphomagenesis. Rapamycin and especially its derivatives (temsirolimus, everolimus, and deforolimus) represent the first described mTOR inhibitors. These agents have shown promising results in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. On the other hand, new ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitors that provoke...

5. HCV Infection and B-Cell Lymphomagenesis - Ito, Masahiko; Kusunoki, Hideki; Mochida, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Mizuochi, Toshiaki
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognized as a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. It has been suggested that HCV infects not only hepatocytes but also mononuclear lymphocytes including B cells that express the CD81 molecule, a putative HCV receptor. HCV infection of B cells is the likely cause of B-cell dysregulation disorders such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, rheumatoid factor production, and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders that may evolve into non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Epidemiological data indicate an association between HCV chronic infection and the occurrence of B-cell NHL, suggesting that chronic HCV infection is associated at least in part with...

6. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms - Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Ito, Shinichi; Ogasawara, Reiki; Kudo, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Junji; Asaka, Masahiro; Imamura, Masahiro
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab) positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre-...

7. The Management of Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Past, Present, and Future - Richardson, S. E.; McNamara, C.
The management of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (CHL) is a success story of modern multi-agent haemato-oncology. Prior to the middle of the twentieth century CHL was fatal in the majority of cases. Introduction of single agent radiotherapy (RT) demonstrated for the first time that these patients could be cured. Developments in chemotherapy including the mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisolone (MOPP) and Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) regimens have resulted in cure rates of over 80%. Even in relapse, CHL patients can be salvaged with high dose chemotherapy and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Challenges remain, however, in finding new...

8. Neutropenia and Neutropenic Complications in ABVD Chemotherapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma - Vakkalanka, Bhanu; Link, Brian K.
A combination of Adriamycin (a.k.a. Doxorubicin), Bleomycin, Vinblastine, and Dacarbazine (ABVD) is the most commonly used chemotherapy regime for Hodgkin lymphoma. This highly effective treatment is associated with a significant risk of neutropenia. Various strategies are adopted to counter this commonly encountered problem, including dose modification, use of colony stimulating factors, and prophylactic or therapeutic use of antibiotics. Data to support these approaches is somewhat controversial, and in keeping with the paucity of definitive evidence, there is a wide disparity in the management of neutropenia in patients receiving ABVD chemotherapy. This paper summarizes the evidence for managing ABVD-related neutropenia during...

9. Highly Elevated Serum Hepcidin in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia prior to and after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Does This Protect from Excessive Parenchymal Iron Loading? - Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Westerman, Mark; Krahl, Rainer; Leiblein, Sabine; Liebert, Uwe Gerd; Hehme, Marianne; Teupser, Daniel; Niederwieser, Dietger; Al-Ali, Haifa Kathrin
Hepcidin is upregulated by inflammation and iron. Inherited (HFE genotype) and treatment-related factors (blood units (BU), Iron overload) affecting hepcidin (measured by C-ELISA) were studied in 42 consecutive patients with AML prior to and after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Results. Elevated serum ferritin pre- and post-HCT was present in all patients. Median hepcidin pre- and post-HCT of 358 and 398 ng/mL, respectively, were elevated compared to controls (median 52 ng/mL) (P < .0001). Liver and renal function, prior chemotherapies, and conditioning had no impact on hepcidin. Despite higher total BU after HCT compared to pretransplantation (P < .0005), pre- and posttransplant...

10. Use of Rituximab in Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Associated with Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas - Fozza, Claudio; Longinotti, Maurizio
The association between non-Hodgkin lymphomas and autoimmune disorders is a well-known event. Also autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA), although much more frequent in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), has been described in this group of patients. In recent years, among the more traditional therapeutic options, rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has shown interesting results in the treatment of primary AHA. Although this drug has been frequently used for AHA in patients with CLL, much less data are available on its use in NHL patients. However, considering that the main pathogenetic mechanism of AHA in course of lymphoproliferative disorders seems to...

11. Micro-RNA Expression and Function in Lymphomas - Sandhu, Sukhinder K.; Croce, Carlo M.; Garzon, Ramiro
The recent discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) has introduced a new layer of complexity to the process of gene regulation. MiRNAs are essential for cellular function, and their dysregulation often results in disease. Study of miRNA expression and function in animal models and human lymphomas has improved our knowledge of the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disease. In this paper, we attempt to describe the expression of miRNAs and their function in lymphomas and discuss potential miRNA-based therapies in the diagnosis and treatment of lymphomas.

12. Hodgkin Lymphoma at the Paediatric Oncology Unit of Gabriel Touré Teaching Hospital, Bamako, Mali: 5-Year Experience - Togo, B.; Traoré, F.; Togo, A. P.; Traoré, C. B.; Dumke, K.; Diawara, M.; Diakité, A. A.; Sylla, M.; Traoré-Dicko, F.; Traoré, B.; Sidibé, T.
Introduction. The aim of this retrospective, unicentric study over 5 years is to describe the epidemiologic, pathologic, clinic and therapeutic aspects of children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma in our paediatric oncology unit. Patients and Methods. From January 2005 to December 2009, all children under 18 years of age, with Hodgkin lymphoma were included in this study. The treatment protocol was the GFAOP (Groupe Franco—Africain d'Oncologie Pédiatrique) Hodgkin lymphoma treatment protocol. Results. During the study period, 217 cancer cases were diagnosed in our centre. Of these cases, 7 were Hodgkin Lymphoma (LH) (0.04%). The mean age was 11.7 years. The sex-ratio...

13. Pathobiology of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma - Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Gazzola, Anna; Mannu, Claudia; Agostinelli, Claudio; Bacci, Francesco; Sabattini, Elena; Sagramoso, Carlo; Piva, Roberto; Roncolato, Fernando; Inghirami, Giorgio; Pileri, Stefano A.
The authors revise the concept of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in the light of the recently updated WHO classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues both on biological and clinical grounds. The main histological findings are illustrated with special reference to the cytological spectrum that is indeed characteristic of the tumor. The phenotype is reported in detail: the expression of the ALK protein as well as the chromosomal abnormalities is discussed with their potential pathogenetic implications. The clinical features of ALCL are presented by underlining the difference in terms of response to therapy and survival between the ALK-positive...

14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Hodgkin's Lymphoma in South Africa: An Emerging Problem - Patel, Moosa; Philip, Vinitha; Fazel, Fatima
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) occurs with increasing frequency in human-immunodeficiency-virus-(HIV-) infected individuals. The natural history and behaviour of HIV-HL is different, being more atypical and aggressive. The association between HIV and HL appears to be primarily EBV driven. HAART use does not significantly impact on the incidence of HL. Indeed, the risk of HL has increased in the post-HAART era. However, the advent of HAART has brought renewed hope, allowing standard therapeutic options to be used more optimally, with better treatment outcomes. Despite the renewed optimism, the overall survival of HIV-HL patients remains less favourable than that in HIV-seronegative patients. This...

15. Recent Advances in the Pathobiology of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Potential Impact on Diagnostic, Predictive, and Therapeutic Strategies - Banerjee, Diponkar
From its first description by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832, Hodgkin's disease, now called Hodgkin's lymphoma, has continued to be a fascinating neoplasm even to this day. In this review, historical aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, tumor biology, new observations related to host-microenvironment interactions, gene copy number variation, and gene expression profiling in this complex neoplasm are described, with an exploration of chemoresistance mechanisms and potential novel therapies for refractory disease.

16. Outcome of Very Late Relapse in Patients with Hodgkin's Lymphomas - Gaudio, Francesco; Giordano, Annamaria; Pavone, Vincenzo; Perrone, Tommasina; Curci, Paola; Pastore, Domenico; Delia, Mario; de' Risi, Clara; Spina, Alessandro; Liso, Vincenzo; Specchia, Giorgina
Recurrences of Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) 5 years after the initial therapy are rare. The aim of this study is to report a single centre experience of the clinical characteristics, outcome, and toxicity of pts who experienced very late relapses, defined as relapses that occurred 5 or more years after the achievement of first complete remission. Of 532 consecutive pts with classical HL treated at our Institute from 1985 to 1999, 452 pts (85%) achieved a complete remission. Relapse occurred in 151 pts: 135 (29.8%) within 5 years and 16 over 5 years (3.5%, very late relapses). Very late relapses occurred after a median...

17. Impact of Autologous and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas - Reimer, Peter
Peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are rare malignancies characterized by poor prognosis. So far, no standard therapy has been established, due to the lack of randomised studies. High-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT-autoSCT) have shown good feasibility with low toxicity in retrospective studies. In relapsing and refractory PTCL several comparison analyses suggest similar efficacy for PTCL when compared with aggressive B-cell lymphoma. In the upfront setting, prospective data show promising results with a long-lasting overall survival in a relevant subset of patients. Achieving a complete remission at transplantation seems to be the most important prognostic factor. Allogeneic stem cell...

18. Pathobiology of Hodgkin Lymphoma - Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Agostinelli, Claudio; Gazzola, Anna; Tripodo, Claudio; Bacci, Francesco; Sabattini, Elena; Sista, Maria Teresa; Mannu, Claudia; Sapienza, Maria Rosaria; Rossi, Maura; Laginestra, Maria Antonella; Sagramoso-Sacchetti, Carlo A.; Righi, Simona; Pileri, Stefano A.
Despite its well-known histological and clinical features, Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) has recently been the object of intense research activity, leading to a better understanding of its phenotype, molecular characteristics, histogenesis, and possible mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. There is complete consensus on the B-cell derivation of the tumor in most cases, and on the relevance of Epstein-Barr virus infection and defective cytokinesis in at least a proportion of patients. The REAL/WHO classification recognizes a basic distinction between lymphocyte predominance HL (LP-HL) and classic HL (cHL), reflecting the differences in clinical presentation and behavior, morphology, phenotype, and molecular features. cHL has been classified...

19. Prognostication and Risk-Adapted Therapy of Hodgkin's Lymphoma Using Positron Emission Tomography - Kasamon, Yvette L.
The use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for response assessment in lymphoma is now widespread. Prognostic information obtained from PET performed after two to three cycles of chemotherapy may guide more individualized, risk-adapted therapeutic strategies. Progress in the risk stratification of Hodgkin's lymphoma through midtreatment PET is reviewed, with a focus on management implications in newly diagnosed and relapsed disease. How to tailor treatment on the basis of the interim PET result is not yet defined but is the subject of ongoing trials.

20. Extranodal Natural-Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type - Gill, Harinder; Liang, Raymond H. S.; Tse, Eric
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification recognizes 2 main categories of natural killer (NK) cell-derived neoplasms, namely, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and aggressive NK-cell leukaemia. Extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma is more frequent in the Far East and Latin America. Histopathological and immunophenotypical hallmarks include angiocentricity, angiodestruction, expression of cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon (ε), CD56, and cytotoxic molecules and evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Early stage disease, in particular for localized lesion in the nasal region, is treated with chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy. On the other hand, multiagent chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for advanced or disseminated disease. L-asparaginase-containing...

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