PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 358
AOM in children - Damoiseaux, Roger A J M; Rovers, Maroeska M
AOM is characterised by sudden onset of earache with a cloudy or bulging erythematous eardrum caused by middle-ear infection.
Middle-ear effusion without signs of infection lasting >3 months suggests otitis media with effusion ('glue ear'), while chronic suppurative otitis media is characterised by continuing middle-ear inflammation and discharge through a perforated eardrum. These disorders are assessed in separate reviews in Clinical Evidence.The most common pathogens in AOM in the US and UK are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.In the UK, about 30% of children under 3 years of age visit their GP each year with AOM, and 97% of...
Gout - Underwood, Martin
Gout is characterised by deposition of urate crystals, causing acute monoarthritis and crystal deposits (tophi) in the skin.
Gout affects about 5% of men and 1% of women, with up to 80% of people experiencing a recurrent attack within 3 years.Diagnosis is usually clinical, supported by presence of hyperuricaemia.Risk factors are those associated with hyperuricaemia, including: older age; non-white ethnicity; obesity; consumption of alcohol, meat, and fish; and use of diuretics.Hyperuricaemia may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events; we don't know whether it is an independent risk factor.
Organophosphorus poisoning (acute) - Blain, Peter G
Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure.
Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors.
Eczema - Schmitt, Jochen; Apfelbacher, Christian J; Flohr, Carsten
Eczema, as defined by the World Allergy Organization (WAO) revised nomenclature in 2003, affects 15% to 20% of school children worldwide and 2% to 5% of adults. Only about 50% of people with eczema demonstrate allergic sensitisation.
Remission occurs in two-thirds of children by the age of 15 years, but relapses may occur later.
Head lice - Burgess, Ian F
Head lice can only be diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch, and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg.
Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings, longer hair, or of lower socioeconomic group.
Diabetes: glycaemic control in type 1 - Leelarathna, Lalantha; Guzder, Rustom; Muralidhara, Koteshwara; Evans, Mark Lewis
Type 1 diabetes occurs when destruction of the pancreatic islet beta cells, usually attributable to an autoimmune process, causes the pancreas to produce too little insulin or none at all.
The prevalence of type 1 diabetes is 0.02% in people aged 0 to 14 years, and it is estimated that 479,000 people in this age group have type 1 diabetes worldwide.Although type 1 diabetes usually accounts for only a minority of the total burden of diabetes in a population, it is the predominant form of the disease in younger age groups in most resource-rich countries.
Low back pain (acute) - McIntosh, Greg; Hall, Hamilton
Low back pain is pain, muscle tension, or stiffness, localised below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds, with or without referred or radicular leg pain (sciatica), and is defined as acute when pain persists for <12 weeks.
Low back pain affects about 70% of people in resource-rich countries at some point in their lives.Acute low back pain may be self-limiting, although there is a high recurrence rate with less-painful symptoms recurring in 50% to 80% of people within 1 year of the initial episode; 1 year later, as many as 33% of people still experience moderate-intensity pain and...
Epilepsy (partial) - Maguire, Melissa; Marson, Anthony G; Ramaratnam, Sridharan
During their lifetime, about 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission.
Pressure ulcers - Reddy, Madhuri
Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents.
Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.
Fracture prevention in postmenopausal women - Vestergaard, Peter; Mosekilde, Leif; Langdahl, Bente
The lifetime risk of fracture in white women is 20% for the spine, 15% for the wrist, and 18% for the hip, with an exponential increase in risk beyond the age of 50 years.
About 13% of people die in the year after a hip fracture, and most survivors lose some or all of their previous independence.
Crohn's disease - Mills, Sarah C; von Roon, Alexander C; Tekkis, Paris P.; Orchard, Timothy R.
Crohn's disease is a chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract.
It is characterised by transmural, granulomatous inflammation that occurs in a discontinuous pattern, with a tendency to form fistulae.The cause is unknown but may depend on interactions between genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and mucosal immunity.
Genital herpes - Hollier, Lisa M; Straub, Heather
Genital herpes is an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). The typical clinical features include painful shallow anogenital ulceration.
It is among the most common sexually transmitted diseases, with up to 23% of adults in the UK and US having antibodies to HSV-2.
Chickenpox - Breuer, Judith; Fifer, Helen
Chickenpox is caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus. In healthy people, it is usually a mild, self-limiting illness, characterised by low-grade fever, malaise, and a generalised, itchy, vesicular rash.
Chickenpox is very contagious — in the UK, US, and Japan, >80% of people have been infected by the age of 10 years.The most common complications are bacterial skin sepsis in children aged <5 years, acute cerebellar ataxia in older children, and varicella pneumonia in adults (which causes 20–30 hospital admissions per 10,000 adults).
Anorexia nervosa - Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Lock, James
Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low body mass index (BMI), fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea.
Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and the condition may affect up to 0.7% of this group.Anorexia nervosa is related to family, sociocultural, genetic, and other biological factors. Psychiatric and personality disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, and perfectionism are commonly found in people who have anorexia nervosa.Most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, but about 5% die from the condition and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder.Young...
Perineal care - Kettle, Chris; Tohill, Susan
Over 85% of women having a vaginal birth suffer some perineal trauma.
Spontaneous tears requiring suturing are estimated to occur in at least one third of women in the UK and US, with anal sphincter tears in 0.5% to 7% of women.Risk factors include first vaginal delivery, large or malpositioned baby, older or white mother, abnormal collagen synthesis, poor nutritional state, and forceps delivery.
Bronchiolitis - Bourke, Thomas; Shields, Michael
Bronchiolitis is a virally induced acute bronchiolar inflammation that is associated with signs and symptoms of airway obstruction.
It is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants. It is a common reason for attendance in the emergency department and for admission to hospital.Bronchiolitis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in high-risk children (those with congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, history of premature birth, hypoxia, immune deficiency, and age <6 weeks).
Migraine headache in children - Barnes, Nick Peter
Diagnosis of migraine headache in children can be difficult as it depends on subjective symptoms; diagnostic criteria are broader than in adults.
Migraine occurs in 3% to 10% of children and increases with age up to puberty.Migraine spontaneously remits after puberty in half of children, but if it begins during adolescence, it may be more likely to persist throughout adulthood.
Cardiovascular medication: improving adherence - Glynn, Liam; Fahey, Tom
Adherence to medication is generally defined as the extent to which people take medications as prescribed by their healthcare providers.
It can be assessed in many ways (e.g., by self-reporting, pill counting, direct observation, electronic monitoring, or through pharmacy records). In this review, we have reported adherence to cardiovascular medications however it has been measured.
Blood sampling in infants (reducing pain and morbidity) - Kapellou, Olga
Blood samples are usually taken from infants via heel punctures or venepuncture.
Both procedures are likely to be painful, especially in younger infants, but analgesia is rarely given.Infants who have already experienced pain during heel punctures seem more likely to show signs of pain during later blood sampling than infants not experiencing such pain initially.
Postpartum haemorrhage: prevention - Chelmow, David
Loss of more than 500 mL of blood is usually caused by failure of the uterus to contract fully after delivery of the placenta, and occurs in over 10% of deliveries, with a 1% mortality worldwide.
Other causes of postpartum haemorrhage include retained placental tissue, lacerations to the genital tract, and coagulation disorders.Uterine atony is more likely in women who have had a general anaesthetic or oxytocin, an over-distended uterus, a prolonged or precipitous labour, or who are of high parity.