PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 37
Pathophysiological Relationship between Infections and Systemic Vasculitis - Muñoz-Grajales, Carolina; Pineda, Juan C.
The development of autoimmune disorders requires a combination of genetic, immunological, and environmental factors. Infectious agents, such as viruses and bacteria, can trigger autoimmunity through different mechanisms, and for systemic vasculitis in particular, microbial agents have been suggested to be involved in its pathogenesis. Although the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, different theories have been postulated. This review considers the role of infections in the etiology of primary vasculitis, emphasizing their related immunological events.
Lupus Nephritis: An Overview of Recent Findings - de Zubiria Salgado, Alberto; Herrera-Diaz, Catalina
Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) since it is the major predictor of poor prognosis. In susceptible individuals suffering of SLE, in situ formation and deposit of immune complexes (ICs) from apoptotic bodies occur in the kidneys as a result of an amplified epitope immunological response. IC glomerular deposits generate release of proinflammatory cytokines and cell adhesion molecules causing inflammation. This leads to monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells chemotaxis. Subsequent release of proteases generates endothelial injury and mesangial proliferation. Presence of ICs promotes adaptive immune response and causes dendritic cells to release...
Epigenetics and Autoimmune Diseases - Quintero-Ronderos, Paula; Montoya-Ortiz, Gladis
Epigenetics is defined as the study of all inheritable and potentially reversible changes in genome function that do not alter the nucleotide sequence within the DNA. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential to carry out key functions in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, the epigenetic mechanisms are a window to understanding the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of complex diseases such as autoimmune diseases. It is noteworthy that autoimmune diseases do not have the same epidemiology, pathology, or symptoms but do have a common origin that can be explained...
Neurologic Involvement in Scleroderma en Coup de Sabre - Amaral, Tiago Nardi; Marques Neto, João Francisco; Lapa, Aline Tamires; Peres, Fernando Augusto; Guirau, Caio Rodrigues; Appenzeller, Simone
Localized scleroderma is a rare disease, characterized by sclerotic lesions. A variety of presentations have been described, with different clinical characteristics and specific prognosis. In scleroderma en coup de sabre (LScs) the atrophic lesion in frontoparietal area is the disease hallmark. Skin and subcutaneous are the mainly affected tissues, but case reports of muscle, cartilage, and bone involvement are frequent. These cases pose a difficult differential diagnosis with Parry-Romberg syndrome. Once considered an exclusive cutaneous disorder, the neurologic involvement present in LScs has been described in several case reports. Seizures are most frequently observed, but focal neurologic deficits, movement disorders,...
Headache Associated with Myasthenia Gravis: The Impact of Mild Ocular Symptoms - Nishimoto, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Nagane, Yuriko; Shibata, Mamoru; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Norihiro
Myasthenia gravis (MG) patients visiting outpatient clinics frequently complain of headache. However, there have been few reports on the relation between chronic headache and myasthenia gravis (MG). We aimed to investigate whether MG symptoms affect the development or worsening of chronic headache. Among the 184 MG patients who were followed at the MG clinics, tension-type headache was observed in 71 (38.6%) patients and 9 (4.9%) complained of migraine. Twenty-five (13.6%) complained that headache appeared or was exacerbated after the MG onset. The investigation into differences in the clinical characteristics of the MG patients showed that women tended to suffer from...
The Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Production and Cell Migration in Human Immune Cells: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis - Shinto, Lynne; Marracci, Gail; Bumgarner, Lauren; Yadav, Vijayshree
In multiple sclerosis (MS), compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity contributes to inflammatory T cell migration into the central nervous system. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is associated with BBB disruption and subsequent T cell migration into the CNS. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on MMP-9 levels and T cell migration. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy controls were pretreated with two types of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Cell supernatants were used to determine MMP-9 protein and activity levels. Jurkat cells were pretreated with EPA and DHA...
Three Types of Striational Antibodies in Myasthenia Gravis - Suzuki, Shigeaki; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Nagane, Yuriko; Suzuki, Norihiro
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is caused by antibodies that react mainly with the acetylcholine receptor on the postsynaptic site of the neuromuscular junction. A wide range of clinical presentations and associated features allow MG to be classified into subtypes based on autoantibody status. Striational antibodies, which react with epitopes on the muscle proteins titin, ryanodine receptor (RyR), and Kv1.4, are frequently found in MG patients with late-onset and thymoma. Antititin and anti-RyR antibodies are determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or immunoblot. More recently, a method for the detection of anti-Kv1.4 autoantibodies has become available, involving 12–15% of all MG patients. The...
A Case of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Diagnostic Utility of ADAMTS-13 Activity - Yamada, Risa; Nozawa, Kazuhisa; Yoshimine, Takashi; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji; Sekigawa, Iwao
Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP) caused by a deficiency in ADAMTS-13 activity is considered to involve a subset of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Although concept of TTP is included under the umbrella of TMA, discrimination of TTP from TMA is occasionally difficult in an autoimmune disorder. Herein, we report a case with TTP associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this case, it was difficult to discriminate TTP from TMA and the measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity was useful for obtaining an accurate diagnosis. SLE patients having thrombocytopenia in complication with anemia should be considered a monitoring of ADAMTS-13 activity even though the...
Impaired Deoxyribonuclease I Activity in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - Malíčková, Karin; Ďuricová, Dana; Bortlík, Martin; Hrušková, Zdenka; Svobodová, Barbora; Machková, Naděžda; Komárek, Viktor; Fučíková, Terezie; Janatková, Ivana; Zima, Tomáš; Lukáš, Milan
Background and Aims. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNaseI) is an endonuclease that facilitates chromatin breakdown and promotes susceptibility to autoimmune disorders. The aim of current study was to investigate serum DNase I activity in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Patients and Methods. A cohort of 110 IBD patients was evaluated, aged 35 ± 12 years, 77 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 33 with ulcerative colitis (UC). 50 SLE patients and 50 healthy blood donors were examined as control groups. Results. DNase I activity in IBD patients was significantly lower than in healthy individuals, but higher than in SLE patients (P < .0001)....
Insights into the Changing Perspectives of Multiple Sclerosis in India - Pandit, Lekha
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is being diagnosed in increasing numbers in metropolitan cities of India for which the availability of specialist neurologists and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilities are primarily responsible. Epidemiological data are unavailable. Existing data have been obtained from small often retrospective studies from different parts of the country. These earlier studies suggested that optic nerve and spinal cord involvement are considerably high, and that perhaps optic spinal MS was the most prevalent form in India. On this basis it was also speculated that neuromyelitis optica (NMO) may be overrepresented in Indians. However in recent times, prospective studies backed...
Multiple Autoimmune Propensity and B-Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Cause or Effect? - Koumati, E.; Palassopoulou, M.; Matsouka, P.; Polyzos, A.; Dalekos, G. N.; Zachou, K.
We report a case of multiple autoimmunity consisting of the presence of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs), and antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAbs) as the presenting manifestations of an extrahepatic B-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) in a 63-year-old woman. The patient presented with fatigue attributed to severe AIHA. Due to increased serum IgM and γ-GT levels, an investigation for AMA was performed, which proved positive with anti-M2 specificity. A prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) led to the determination of APLAbs (lupus anticoagulant and other APLAbs) which were also positive. Bone marrow biopsy in combination with immmunohistochemical studies established the diagnosis...
Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies Testing in a Large Cohort of Unselected Greek Patients - Tsiveriotis, Konstantinos; Tsirogianni, Alexandra; Pipi, Elena; Soufleros, Konstantinos; Papasteriades, Chryssa
Objective. To retrospectively evaluate ANCA testing in a cohort of unselected Greek in- and outpatients. Methods. In 10803 consecutive serum samples, ANCA were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and ELISA. ELISA in inpatients was performed only on IIF positive sera. Results. Low prevalence (6.0%) of IIF positive samples was observed. Among these samples, 63.5% presented perinuclear (p-ANCA), 9.3% cytoplasmic (c-ANCA) and 27.2% atypical (x-ANCA) pattern. 16.1% of p-ANCA were antimyeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) positive, whereas 68.3% of c-ANCA were antiproteinase-3 (anti-PR3) positive. Only 17 IIF negative outpatients' samples were ELISA positive. ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV), connective tissue disorders and gastrointestinal disorders represented 20.5%,...
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Family Stories - Smyk, Daniel; Cholongitas, Evangelos; Kriese, Stephen; Rigopoulou, Eirini I.; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic immune-mediated cholestatic liver disease of unknown aetiology which affects mostly women in middle age. Familial PBC is when PBC affects more than one member of the same family, and data suggest that first-degree relatives of PBC patients have an increased risk of developing the disease. Most often, these familial clusters involve mother-daughter pairs, which is consistent with the female preponderance of the disease. These clusters provide evidence towards a genetic basis underlying PBC. However, clusters of nonrelated individuals have also been reported, giving strength to an environmental component. Twin studies have demonstrated a...
Autonomic Disorders in Multiple Sclerosis - Lensch, E.; Jost, W. H.
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease leading to disseminated lesions of the central nervous system resulting in both somatomotor and autonomic disturbances. These involve the central centers of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the automatic control and pathway systems. All autonomic functions may be disordered individually or in combined form. There is no other disease with a clinical picture so multifaceted. Besides cardiovascular dysfunctions disorders of bladder and rectum have become apparent. Somatomotor and autonomic disturbances occur with similar frequency; however the focused exam often heavily favors somatomotor symptoms. Autonomic disturbances should primarily be taken into account on...
Lights and Shadows of Cyclophosphamide in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis - Patti, Francesco; Lo Fermo, Salvatore
Cyclophosphamide (cy) is an alkylating agent used to treat malignancies and immune-mediated inflammatory nonmalignant processes. It has been used as a treatment in cases of worsening multiple sclerosis (MS). Cy is currently used for patients whose disease is not controlled by beta-interferon or glatiramer acetate as well as those with rapidly worsening MS. The most commonly used regimens involve outpatient IV pulse therapy given with or without corticosteroids every 4 to 8 weeks. Side effects include nausea, headache, alopecia, pain, male and women infertility, bladder toxicity, and risk of malignancy.
Previous studies suggest that cy is effective in patients in...
What is Next for the Genetics of Multiple Sclerosis? - Ramagopalan, Sreeram V.; Dyment, David A.
We review here our current understanding of the genetic aetiology of the common complex neurological disease multiple sclerosis (MS). The strongest genetic risk factor for MS is the major histocompatibility complex which was identified in the 1970s. In 2011, after a number of genome-wide association studies have been completed and have identified approximately 20 new genes for MS, we ask the question—what is next for the genetics of MS?
May Diet and Dietary Supplements Improve the Wellness of Multiple Sclerosis Patients? A Molecular Approach - Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco; Liuzzi, Grazia Maria
Multiple sclerosis is a complex and multifactorial neurological disease, and nutrition is one of the environmental factors possibly involved in its pathogenesis. At present, the role of nutrition is unclear, and MS therapy is not associated to a particular diet. MS clinical trials based on specific diets or dietary supplements are very few and in some cases controversial. To understand how diet can influence the course of MS and improve the wellness of MS patients, it is necessary to identify the dietary molecules, their targets and the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of the disease. The aim of this...
The Caspase Pathway as a Possible Therapeutic Target in Experimental Pemphigus - Pacheco-Tovar, Deyanira; López-Luna, Argelia; Herrera-Esparza, Rafael; Avalos-Díaz, Esperanza
Apoptosis plays a role in pemphigus IgG-dependent acantholysis; theoretically, the blockade of the caspase pathway could prevent the blistering that is caused by pemphigus autoantibodies. Using this strategy, we attempted to block the pathogenic effect of pemphigus IgG in Balb/c mice by using the caspase inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CMK. This inhibitor was administrated before the injection of pemphigus IgG into neonatal mice. The main results of the present investigation are as follows: (1) pemphigus IgG induces intraepidermal blisters in Balb/c neonatal mice; (2) keratinocytes around the blister and acantholytic cells undergo apoptosis; (3) the caspases inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CMK prevents apoptosis; (4) the inhibition...
Mitochondria as Crucial Players in Demyelinated Axons: Lessons
from Neuropathology and Experimental Demyelination - Campbell, Graham R.; Mahad, Don J.
Mitochondria are the most efficient producers of energy in the form of ATP. Energy demands of axons, placed at relatively great distances from the neuronal cell body, are met by mitochondria, which when functionally compromised, produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in excess. Axons are made metabolically efficient by myelination, which enables saltatory conduction. The importance of mitochondria for maintaining the structural integrity of myelinated axons is illustrated by neuroaxonal degeneration in primary mitochondrial disorders. When demyelinated, the compartmentalisation of ion channels along axons is disrupted. The redistribution of electrogenic machinery is thought to increase the energy demand of demyelinated axons....