PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
Briefings in Functional Genomics
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Dynamics of the DNA damage response: insights from live-cell imaging - Karanam, Ketki; Loewer, Alexander; Lahav, Galit
All organisms have to safeguard the integrity of their genome to prevent malfunctioning and oncogenic transformation. Sophisticated DNA damage response mechanisms have evolved to detect and repair genomic lesions. With the emergence of live-cell microscopy of individual cells, we now begin to appreciate the complex spatiotemporal kinetics of the DNA damage response and can address the causes and consequences of the heterogeneity in the responses of genetically identical cells. Here, we highlight key discoveries where live-cell imaging has provided unprecedented insights into how cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks and discuss the main challenges and promises in using this technique.
Turning single cells into microarrays by super-resolution barcoding - Cai, Long
In this review, we discuss a strategy to bring genomics and proteomics into single cells by super-resolution microscopy. The basis for this new approach are the following: given the 10 nm resolution of a super-resolution microscope and a typical cell with a size of (10 µm)3, individual cells contain effectively 109 super-resolution pixels or bits of information. Most eukaryotic cells have 104 genes and cellular abundances of 10–100 copies per transcript. Thus, under a super-resolution microscope, an individual cell has 1000 times more pixel volume or information capacities than is needed to encode all transcripts within that cell. Individual species of mRNA...
Interpreting the regulatory genome: the genomics of transcription factor function in Drosophila melanogaster - Slattery, Matthew; Nègre, Nicolas; White, Kevin P.
Researchers have now had access to the fully sequenced Drosophila melanogaster genome for over a decade, and the sequenced genomes of 11 additional Drosophila species have been available for almost 5 years, with more species’ genomes becoming available every year [Adams MD, Celniker SE, Holt RA, et al. The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster. Science 2000;287:2185–95; Clark AG, Eisen MB, Smith DR, et al. Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny. Nature 2007;450:203–18]. Although the best studied of the D. melanogaster transcription factors (TFs) were cloned before sequencing of the genome, the availability of sequence data promised to...
Genomics of sex determination in Drosophila - Clough, Emily; Oliver, Brian
Drosophilists have identified many, or perhaps most, of the key regulatory genes determining sex using classical genetics, however, regulatory genes must ultimately result in the deployment of the genome in a quantitative manner, replete with complex interactions with other regulatory pathways. In the last decade, genomics has provided a rich picture of the transcriptional profile of the sexes that underlies sexual dimorphism. The current challenge is linking transcriptional profiles with the regulatory genes. This will be a complex synthesis, but the prospects for progress are outstanding.
WRAD: enabler of the SET1-family of H3K4 methyltransferases - Ernst, Patricia; Vakoc, Christopher R.
Methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4) is a conserved feature of active chromatin catalyzed by methyltransferases of the SET1-family (SET1A, SET1B, MLL1, MLL2, MLL3 and MLL4 in humans). These enzymes participate in diverse gene regulatory networks with a multitude of known biological functions, including direct involvement in several human disease states. Unlike most lysine methyltransferases, SET1-family enzymes are only fully active in the context of a multi-subunit complex, which includes a protein module comprised of WDR5, RbBP5, ASH2L and DPY-30 (WRAD). These proteins bind in close proximity to the catalytic SET domain of SET1-family enzymes and stimulate H3K4...
The amphioxus genome provides unique insight into the evolution of immunity - Dishaw, Larry J.; Haire, Robert N.; Litman, Gary W.
Immune systems evolve as essential strategies to maintain homeostasis with the environment, prevent microbial assault and recycle damaged host tissues. The immune system is composed of two components, innate and adaptive immunity. The former is common to all animals while the latter consists of a vertebrate-specific system that relies on somatically derived lymphocytes and is associated with near limitless genetic diversity as well as long-term memory. Deuterostome invertebrates provide a view of immune repertoires in phyla that immediately predate the origins of vertebrates. Genomic studies in amphioxus, a cephalochordate, have revealed homologs of genes encoding most innate immune receptors found...
An integrative functional genomics approach for discovering biomarkers in schizophrenia - Vawter, Marquis P.; Mamdani, Firoza; Macciardi, Fabio
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex disorder resulting from both genetic and environmental causes with a lifetime prevalence world-wide of 1%; however, there are no specific, sensitive and validated biomarkers for SZ. A general unifying hypothesis has been put forward that disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genome-wide association study (GWAS) are more likely to be associated with gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). We will describe this hypothesis and review primary methodology with refinements for testing this paradigmatic approach in SZ. We will describe biomarker studies of SZ and testing enrichment of SNPs that are associated both with eQTLs and...
Targeted enrichment of genomic DNA regions for next-generation sequencing - Mertes, Florian; ElSharawy, Abdou; Sauer, Sascha; van Helvoort, Joop M.L.M.; van der Zaag, P.J.; Franke, Andre; Nilsson, Mats; Lehrach, Hans; Brookes, Anthony J.
In this review, we discuss the latest targeted enrichment methods and aspects of their utilization along with second-generation sequencing for complex genome analysis. In doing so, we provide an overview of issues involved in detecting genetic variation, for which targeted enrichment has become a powerful tool. We explain how targeted enrichment for next-generation sequencing has made great progress in terms of methodology, ease of use and applicability, but emphasize the remaining challenges such as the lack of even coverage across targeted regions. Costs are also considered versus the alternative of whole-genome sequencing which is becoming ever more affordable. We conclude...
Microarrays for Pathogen Detection and Analysis - McLoughlin, Kevin S.
DNA microarrays have emerged as a viable platform for detection of pathogenic organisms in clinical and environmental samples. These microbial detection arrays occupy a middle ground between low cost, narrowly focused assays such as multiplex PCR and more expensive, broad-spectrum technologies like high-throughput sequencing. While pathogen detection arrays have been used primarily in a research context, several groups are aggressively working to develop arrays for clinical diagnostics, food safety testing, environmental monitoring and biodefense. Statistical algorithms that can analyze data from microbial detection arrays and provide easily interpretable results are absolutely required in order for these efforts to succeed. In...
New approaches to the representation and analysis of phenotype knowledge in human diseases and their animal models - Schofield, Paul N.; Sundberg, John P.; Hoehndorf, Robert; Gkoutos, Georgios V.
The systematic investigation of the phenotypes associated with genotypes in model organisms holds the promise of revealing genotype–phenotype relations directly and without additional, intermediate inferences. Large-scale projects are now underway to catalog the complete phenome of a species, notably the mouse. With the increasing amount of phenotype information becoming available, a major challenge that biology faces today is the systematic analysis of this information and the translation of research results across species and into an improved understanding of human disease. The challenge is to integrate and combine phenotype descriptions within a species and to systematically relate them to phenotype descriptions...
Lessons from morpholino-based screening in zebrafish - Bedell, Victoria M.; Westcot, Stephanie E.; Ekker, Stephen C.
Morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) are an effective, gene-specific antisense knockdown technology used in many model systems. Here we describe the application of MOs in zebrafish (Danio rerio) for in vivo functional characterization of gene activity. We summarize our screening experience beginning with gene target selection. We then discuss screening parameter considerations and data and database management. Finally, we emphasize the importance of off-target effect management and thorough downstream phenotypic validation. We discuss current morpholino limitations, including reduced stability when stored in aqueous solution. Advances in MO technology now provide a measure of spatiotemporal control over MO activity, presenting the opportunity for...
Drosophila RNAi screening in a postgenomic world - Bakal, Chris
Drosophila melanogaster has a long history as a model organism with several unique features that make it an ideal research tool for the study of the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Importantly fundamental genetic principles as well as key human disease genes have been uncovered through the use of Drosophila. The contribution of the fruit fly to science and medicine continues in the postgenomic era as cell-based Drosophila RNAi screens are a cost-effective and scalable enabling technology that can be used to quantify the contribution of different genes to diverse cellular processes. Drosophila high-throughput screens can also be used as...
A growing molecular toolbox for the functional analysis of microRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans - Jo, Jeanyoung; Esquela-Kerscher, Aurora
With the growing number of microRNAs (miRNAs) being identified each year, more innovative molecular tools are required to efficiently characterize these small RNAs in living animal systems. Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model to study how miRNAs regulate gene expression and control diverse biological processes during development and in the adult. Genetic strategies such as large-scale miRNA deletion studies in nematodes have been used with limited success since the majority of miRNA genes do not exhibit phenotypes when individually mutated. Recent work has indicated that miRNAs function in complex regulatory networks with other small RNAs and protein-coding genes, and therefore...
NGS technologies for analyzing germplasm diversity in genebanks* - Kilian, Benjamin; Graner, Andreas
More than 70 years after the first ex situ genebanks have been established, major efforts in this field are still concerned with issues related to further completion of individual collections and securing of their storage. Attempts regarding valorization of ex situ collections for plant breeders have been hampered by the limited availability of phenotypic and genotypic information. With the advent of molecular marker technologies first efforts were made to fingerprint genebank accessions, albeit on a very small scale and mostly based on inadequate DNA marker systems. Advances in DNA sequencing technology and the development of high-throughput systems for multiparallel interrogation...
Dynamics of epigenetic modifications in leukemia - Uribesalgo, Iris; Di Croce, Luciano
Chromatin modifications at both histones and DNA are critical for regulating gene expression. Mis-regulation of such epigenetic marks can lead to pathological states; indeed, cancer affecting the hematopoietic system is frequently linked to epigenetic abnormalities. Here, we discuss the different types of modifications and their general impact on transcription, as well as the polycomb group of proteins, which effect transcriptional repression and are often mis-regulated. Further, we discuss how chromosomal translocations leading to fusion proteins can aberrantly regulate gene transcription through chromatin modifications within the hematopoietic system. PML–RARa, AML1–ETO and MLL-fusions are examples of fusion proteins that mis-regulate epigenetic modifications...
Genomic approaches to the initiation of DNA replication and chromatin structure reveal a complex relationship - Meisch, Françoise; Prioleau, Marie-Noëlle
The mechanisms regulating the coordinate activation of tens of thousands of replication origins in multicellular organisms remain poorly explored. Recent advances in genomics have provided valuable information about the sites at which DNA replication is initiated and the selection mechanisms of specific sites in both yeast and vertebrates. Studies in yeast have advanced to the point that it is now possible to develop convincing models for origin selection. A general model has emerged, but yeast data have also revealed an unsuspected diversity of strategies for origin positioning. We focus here on the ways in which chromatin structure may affect the...
Chromatin structure of pluripotent stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells - Delgado-Olguín, Paul; Recillas-Targa, Félix
Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells are specialized cells with a dynamic chromatin structure, which is intimately connected with their pluripotency and physiology. In recent years somatic cells have been reprogrammed to a pluripotent state through over-expression of a defined set of transcription factors. These cells, known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, recapitulate ES cell properties and can be differentiated to apparently all cell lineages, making iPS cells a suitable replacement for ES cells in future regenerative medicine. Chromatin modifiers play a key function in establishing and maintaining pluripotency, therefore, elucidating the mechanisms controlling chromatin structure in both ES and...
Meet the neighbours: tools to dissect nuclear structure and function - Osborne, Cameron S.; Ewels, Philip A.; Young, Alice N.C.
The eukaryotic cell nucleus displays a high degree of spatial organization, with discrete functional subcompartments that provide microenvironments where specialized processes take place. Concordantly, the genome also adopts defined conformations that, in part, enable specific genomic regions to interface with these functional centers. Yet the roles of many subcompartments and the genomic regions that contact them have not been explored fully. More fundamentally, it is not entirely clear how genome organization impacts function, and vice versa. The past decade has witnessed the development of a new breed of methods that are capable of assessing the spatial organization of the genome....
In the loop: long range chromatin interactions and gene regulation - Dean, Ann
Enhancers, silencer and insulators are DNA elements that play central roles in regulation of the genome that are crucial for development and differentiation. In metazoans, these elements are often separated from target genes by distances that can reach 100 Kb. How regulation can be accomplished over long distances has long been intriguing. Current data indicate that although the mechanisms by which these diverse regulatory elements affect gene transcription may vary, an underlying feature is the establishment of close contacts or chromatin loops. With the generalization of this principle, new questions emerge, such as how the close contacts are formed and stabilized...