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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (74.520 recursos)

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Empirical Musicology Review: Volume 6 (2011)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 23

  1. Negative Emotion in Music: What is the Attraction? A Qualitative Study

    Garrido, Sandra; Schubert, Emery
    Why do people listen to music that evokes negative emotions? This paper presents five comparative interviews conducted to examine this question. Individual differences psychology and mood management theory provided a theoretical framework for the investigation which was conducted under a realist paradigm. Data sources were face-to-face interviews of about one hour involving a live music listening experience. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted and both within-case and cross-case analyses were performed. Results confirmed the complexity of variables at play in individual cases while supporting the hypothesis that absorption and dissociation make it possible for the arousal experienced when listening...

  2. Artist autonomy in a digital era: The case of Nine Inch Nails

    Brown, Steven C.
    A 2009 presentation by Michael Masnick (CEO and founder of insight company Floor64) entitled ‘How Trent Reznor and Nine Inch Nails represent the Future of the Music Business’ brought the success of the business models employed by Reznor in distributing Nine Inch Nails’ music into the spotlight. The present review provides a comprehensive timeline of the band circa 2005-2010, evaluating the success of the distribution methods employed in accordance with Masnick’s (2009) proposed business model of connecting with fans and providing them with a reason to buy. The model is conceptualised in the wider context in which Reznor’s distribution methods...

  3. Interval Size and Phrase Position: A Comparison between German and Chinese Folksongs

    Shanahan, Daniel; Huron, David
    It is well known that the pitch of the voice tends to decline over the course of a spoken utterance. Ladd (2008) showed that there is also a tendency for the pitch range of spoken utterances to shrink as the pitch of the voice declines. Motivated by this work, two studies are reported that test for the existence of “late phrase compression” in music where the interval size tends to decline toward the end of a phrase. A study of 39,863 phrases from notated Germanic folksongs shows the predicted decline in interval size. However, a second study of 10,985 phrases...

  4. Editor’s Note

    Keller, Peter E.

  5. Coupling factors, visual rhythms, and synchronization ratios

    Will, Udo
    The inter-group entrainment study by Lucas, Clayton, and Leante (2011) is an interesting research report that advances studies in both empirical ethnomusicology and entrainment research in several ways, and provides an important addition to the much needed empirical case studies on musical entrainment. I submit that the authors’ analysis of an instant of resistance to entrainment is a key demonstration of the complementarity of analytical and ethnographic approaches in entrainment research. Further, I suggest that the evidence for the influence of visual information on entrainment supports the idea that there are two types of visuo-temporal information, each with different influence...

  6. The Edit Distance as a Measure of Perceived Rhythmic Similarity

    Post, Olaf; Toussaint, Godfried
    The ‘edit distance’ (or ‘Levenshtein distance’) measure of distance between two data sets is defined as the minimum number of editing operations – insertions, deletions, and substitutions – that are required to transform one data set to the other (Orpen and Huron, 1992). This measure of distance has been applied frequently and successfully in music information retrieval, but rarely in predicting human perception of distance. In this study, we investigate the effectiveness of the edit distance as a predictor of perceived rhythmic dissimilarity under simple rhythmic alterations. Approaching rhythms as a set of pulses that are either onsets or silences,...

  7. Fast/Major and Slow/Minor pairings in J.S. Bach’s Well Tempered Clavier Books 1 and 2

    Horn, Katelyn; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia
    Some studies have found that subjects give higher preference ratings and clearer emotional descriptions to pieces with the tempo/mode pairs fast/major and slow/minor. If these findings are true, one might expect to find a predominance of fast/major and slow/minor pairings in musical literature. This study looks for just such a trend in the canonical work of J.S. Bach’s Well Tempered Clavier. Books 1 and 2 together contain 24 Major Preludes, 24 Minor Preludes, 24 Major Fugues and 24 Minor Fugues. We use four different measurements of fast/slow tempo based both on elements within the musical notation as well as the...

  8. Beyond Happiness and Sadness: Affective Associations of Lyrics with Modality and Dynamics

    Tiemann, Laura; Huron, David
    A study is reported investigating the relationship between modality (major/minor) and dynamics (piano/forte) on four affects – as evident in the content of musical lyrics. Forty solo vocal works were sampled: 10 in the major mode with a loud (forte) dynamic level, 10 in the major mode with a quiet (piano) dynamic level, 10 in the minor mode with a loud dynamic level, and 10 in the minor mode with a quiet dynamic level. Sampled compositions were all tonal works from the Western vocal repertoire. Without hearing the music, 60 native-speakers of English, German, and French judged the language-appropriate lyrics...

  9. Editor's Note

    Peter E. Keller

  10. Modelling Perception of Structure and Affect in Music: Spectral Centroid and Wishart’s Red Bird

    Dean, Roger T.; Bailes, Freya
    Pearce (2011) provides a positive and interesting response to our article on time series analysis of the influences of acoustic properties on real-time perception of structure and affect in a section of Trevor Wishart’s Red Bird (Dean & Bailes, 2010). We address the following topics raised in the response and our paper. First, we analyse in depth the possible influence of spectral centroid, a timbral feature of the acoustic stream distinct from the high level general parameter we used initially, spectral flatness. We find that spectral centroid, like spectral flatness, is not a powerful predictor of real-time responses, though it...

  11. Time-series analysis of Music: Perceptual and Information Dynamics

    Pearce, Marcus T.
    Dean and Bailes (2010) provide a tutorial on the use of time-series analysis in research on music perception and a study of the influence of acoustic factors on real-time perception of music. They illustrate their approach with a detailed case study of an electroacoustic composition by Trevor Wishart. In this commentary, I discuss four aspects of Dean and Bailes’ presentation: first, the importance of focusing on dynamic changes in musical structure; second, the benefits of computer-generated music for research on music perception; third, the need for caution in averaging responses from multiple listeners; and finally, the role of time-series analysis...

  12. Timbral Environments: An Ecological Approach to the Cognition of Timbre

    Ferrer, Rafael
    This study formulates an ecological framework that links the environment and human systems, to support further arguments on the influence of timbre in the music appreciation schemata. At the core of the framework is the notion of timbral environments, which is introduced as an epistemological foundation to characterize perceptual cues of internalized representations of music, and to explore how these are expressed in the dynamics of diverse external environments. The proposed notion merges the concepts of macrotimbre (Sandell, 1998) and soundscape (Schafer, 1977) to distinguish between the formulated framework and traditional approaches to timbre, which are mainly concerned with short-term...

  13. Announcements

    Keller, Peter E.
    Calls for Papers, Conferences, Podcasts

  14. Siu-Lan Tan, Peter Pfordresher, & Rom Harré, Psychology of music: From sound to significance. Hove, UK: Psychology Press, 2010. ISBN: 978-1-84169-868-7 (hardcover)

    Grahn, Jessica A.
    Siu-Lan Tan, Peter Pfordresher, & Rom Harré, Psychology of music: From sound to significance. Hove, UK: Psychology Press, 2010. ISBN: 978-1-84169-868-7 (hardcover)

  15. Musicians’ Attitudes to Musical Influence

    Collins, Nick
    This article discusses responses to an online survey on the topic of musical influence. 119 participants took part, answering both quantitative (five point Likert scale) and qualitative questions. A rich set of data was collected, which is summarized and analyzed in this paper. The primary research aim was to discover a good opinion base concerning issues of musical influence, to help illuminate some existing theories of influence, and in turn to inform further research directions. General trends observed included variation in attitudes to influences over time, the role of non- musical influences, and a usually positive attitude towards influences amongst...

  16. Inter-group entrainment in Afro-Brazilian Congado ritual

    Lucas, Glaura; Clayton, Martin; Leante, Laura
    This paper investigates the phenomenon of entrainment between independent groups of musicians in the context of Afro-Brazilian Congado performance. Based on audiovisual recordings made during a festival in May 2006, we present analyses of four different occasions during which two different groups play different music in close proximity to each other. The results indicate the occurrence of (a) entrainment in phase, (b) entrainment out of phase, and (c) no entrainment. These results are discussed in the particular ethnographic context, as well as with reference to existing literature on entrainment and interpersonal coordination.

  17. Editor's Note

    Keller, Peter E.

  18. Announcements

    Keller, Peter
    Calls for Papers, Conferences, Podcasts

  19. Comments on "Tactus ≠ Tempo: Some Dissociations Between Attentional Focus, Motor Behavior, and Tempo Judgment" by Justin London

    Repp, Bruno
    Objective measures of musical tempo are linked to a particular metrical pulse, and this is most likely true for subjective tempo as well. Therefore, tapping along with a rhythm should be predictive of relative tempo judgments. The difficulty of such judgments may lie in the choice of a particular metrical level as the referent. Multiple levels may compete and create ambiguity. Analogies are drawn with pitch perception from certain types of complex tones.

  20. Tactus ≠ Tempo: Some Dissociations Between Attentional Focus, Motor Behavior, and Tempo Judgment

    London, Justin
    Three experiments explored the relationships between surface rhythmic activity, tactus or beat rate, attentional focus, sensorimotor synchronization (tapping), and tempo perception. All involved a rhythmic standard followed by a comparison; the experimental task was a judgment of “slower, same, or faster.” In Experiment 1 participants simply judged relative speed; they focused on the beat level in Experiment 2, and they tapped along as they made their judgments in Experiment 3. In all three experiments judgments were highly accurate (89-97% correct, relative to beat-level inter-onset interval) when the standard-comparison involved the same pattern/same tempo, and performed similarly for the same pattern...

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