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Repositório do ISPA Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (10.521 recursos)

No Repositório do ISPA pode encontrar diversos tipos de documentos, em formato digital, resultantes da produção científica do ISPA designadamente: teses de doutoramento, teses de mestrado, artigos em publicações periódicas nacionais e internacionais, relatórios técnicos, artigos em actas de conferências nacionais e internacionais e capítulos de livros.

PEDU - Artigos em revistas internacionais

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 23

  1. Competencia retórica. Una propuesta para interpretar las dificultades de comprensión

    Sánchez-Miguel, Emilio; Gonzalez, António José C. A.; García Pérez, José Ricardo
    Este trabajo mide el impacto de la Competencia Retórica –la capacidad para operar con los mecanismos que proporcionan coherencia al texto- en la comprensión lectora. Concretamente, se considera la habilidad para operar con dos mecanismos textuales diferentes: las conectivas lógicas y los dispositivos anafóricos. Con ello se ofrece una interpretación comunicativa amplia de las dificultades de comprensión que experimentan muchos lectores: la dificultad para interpretar las intenciones e ideas de un emisor apoyándose en las señales que su mensaje encierra, señales que se hacen más complejas en el tránsito de lo oral a lo escrito, siendo pues aquí donde la competencia retórica cobra un papel mayor. Los...

  2. The relationship between portuguese adolescent perception of parental styles, social support, and school behaviour

    Silva, José Maria de Castro; Morgado, José
    The present article describes preliminary results of a study that aims to analyse the relationship among Portuguese adolescent perception of parental styles, social support received from family and peers and their school behaviour. Participants were 537 adolescents aged between 14 and 16. The “Parental Author- ity Questionnaire”, the “Perceived Social Support-Friends Scale” and “Perceived Social Support-Family Scale” were used to measure adolescent perceptions. Overall, Portuguese adolescents perceive their par-ents as using predominantly a democratic parental style. Associations between school behaviour and pa-rental styles show that “well-behaved” adolescents perceive their parents as less permissive. On the other hand, adolescents who misbehave...

  3. The relationship between portuguese adolescent perception of parental styles, social support, and school behaviour

    Silva, José Maria de Castro; Morgado, José
    The present article describes preliminary results of a study that aims to analyse the relationship among Portuguese adolescent perception of parental styles, social support received from family and peers and their school behaviour. Participants were 537 adolescents aged between 14 and 16. The “Parental Author- ity Questionnaire”, the “Perceived Social Support-Friends Scale” and “Perceived Social Support-Family Scale” were used to measure adolescent perceptions. Overall, Portuguese adolescents perceive their par-ents as using predominantly a democratic parental style. Associations between school behaviour and pa-rental styles show that “well-behaved” adolescents perceive their parents as less permissive. On the other hand, adolescents who misbehave...

  4. L’influence du réseau affiliatif sur la répartition de l’attention sociale chez l’enfant en groupe préscolaire

    Santos, António José; Vaughn, Brian E.; Bonnet, Jérôme
    Cette étude examine les variations dans l'allocation de l'attention sociale, en fonction des rôles sociaux des enfants d'âge préscolaire dans le réseau affiliatif de leur groupe. Les observations ont été réalisées auprès d'enfants de cinq ans, en automne, en hiver et au printemps de l'année scolaire en utilisant la technique du «voisin le plus proche». Les résultats révèlent de forts biais endogroupes dans la répartition de l'attention interpersonnelle. Des analyses complémentaires explorent les préférences des enfants pour des partenaires spécifiques et documentent la stratification des unités affiliatives. Les cliques de plus haut statut reçoivent comparativement plus l'attention des membres des...

  5. A ecologia de uma inclusão de sucesso

    Pimentel, Júlia van Zeller de Serpa
    A partir de um quadro teórico bioecológico e transaccional, (Bronfenbrenner & Morris 1998, Sameroff & Fiese, 2000), este trabalho apresenta o estudo longitudinal de uma criança com síndroma de Down, nascida em 1994 que frequenta actualmente o 6° ano de escolaridade. Tem como objectivo analisar os factores que poderão ter contribuído para o sucesso de um processo de inclusão, a nível dos diferentes sistemas ecológicos. O estudo iniciou-se no momento do nascimento. Neste trabalho salientam-se os dados essencialmente qualitativos, recolhidos a partir da entrada na escolaridade obrigatória, em que, para além dos aspectos de adaptação familiar e interacção mãe-criança, foram...

  6. Exponential random graph models of preschool affiliative networks

    Daniel, João Rodrigo; Santos, António José; Peceguina, Maria Inês Duarte; Vaughn, Brian E.
    Exponential random graph models were used to assess the relevance of reciprocity, popularity, transitivity controlling for effects based upon ego and alter sex, and sex homophily, on the formation of affiliative ties in 19 Portuguese preschool peer groups. The number of times two children were recorded as nearest neighbors in focal samples was used as an indicator of the relationship's strength. Independent parameter estimates of the different models (one for each group) were summarized, separately for the three age groups (“3-year-olds”, “4-year-olds” and “5-year-olds”) using a multi-level approach to meta-analysis. Results showed that affiliative ties between children were sex segregated,...

  7. Letter names and sounds: Their implications for the phonetisation process

    Silva, Ana Cristina; Almeida, Tiago Alexandre Fernandes; Martins, Margarida Alves
    Our aim was to analyse the impact of the characteristics of words used in spelling programmes and the nature of instructional guidelines on the evolution from grapho-perceptive writing to phonetic writing in preschool children. The participants were 50 5-year-old children, divided in five equivalent groups in intelligence, phonological skills and spelling. All the children knew the vowels and the consonants B, D, P, R, T, V, F, M and C, but didn’t use them on spelling. Their spelling was evaluated in a pre and post-test with 36 words beginning with the consonants known. In-between they underwent a writing programme designed to lead them to use the letters P...

  8. Can differences in the ability to recognize words cease to have an effect under certain reading conditions?

    Sánchez-Miguel, Emilio; García Pérez, José Ricardo; Gonzalez, António José C. A.
    In this study, we aimed to ascertain whether it is possible to create reading contexts that eliminate the impact of word recognition on reading comprehension and permit pupils with reading disabilities (RD) to attain a level of comprehension similar to that of their peers without RD. Specifically, the study compared a traditional reading situation with one of reading with aids (joint reading). In both situations, pupils’ comprehension level was assessed by means of a summary and a series of inferential questions, and we controlled the effect on comprehension of word recognition, previous knowledge, rhetorical competence, and working memory. The results showed that the aids provided...

  9. Relations between children’s invented spelling and the development of phonological awareness

    Silva, Ana Cristina; Martins, Margarida Alves
    The objective of this study was to assess the impact on phonological skills of a training program that was intended to lead preschool children to move from prephonetic spellings to early phonemic spellings. The participants were 30 preschool children who were divided into two groups (experimental and control groups) that were equivalent in terms of the children’s intelligence, the number of letters with which they were familiar and the nature of their invented spelling. The intervention proved effective, inasmuch as the children in the experimental group moved to early phonemic spellings, whereas those in the control group did not. This conceptual evolution entailed enhanced performance in phonemic...

  10. Self-concept, self-esteem and academic achievement: Strategies for maintaining self-esteem in students experiencing academic failure

    Peixoto, Francisco José Brito; Almeida, Leandro da Silva
    Previous research into the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement shows that despite differences in academic self-evaluation, students’ global self-representations do not differ as a result of their grades at school. In this study, we will analyse the strategies that underachievers used to maintain their self-esteem at an acceptable level. The participants were 955 adolescents in the 7th, 9th and 11th grades at four secondary schools in Lisbon. Three hundred fifty-two of these students had retaken a year at least once in their school careers, whilst 603 had never done so. We collected the data using both a self-concept scale and a scale for evaluating attitudes towards...

  11. Social competence in preschool children: Replication of results and clarification of a hierarchical measurement model

    Santos, António José; Peceguina, Maria Inês Duarte; Daniel, João Rodrigo; Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.
    This study tested assumptions and conclusions reached in an earlier confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) study of the social competence (SC) construct for preschool children. Two samples (total N = 408; a new Portuguese sample and one from US samples that had participated in the original study) contributed data. Seven SC indicators were tested for mean differences across age, sex, and sample. Significant sex differences were found for peer acceptance (favoring girls) and for initiating affectively neutral interactions (boys had higher rates), and the sex by sample interaction also was significant for initiating interactions (i.e., effect significant only in the Portuguese sample). In CFAs, the hypothesized structure of SC...

  12. Support teachers’ beliefs about the academic achievement of students with special educational needs

    Silva, José Maria de Castro; Morgado, José
    José Castro Silva, lecturer in sciences of education, and José Morgado, assistant professor, both work at the Instituto Superior de Psicologica Aplicada in Lisboa, Portugal. In this article, they describe their study of support teachers’ beliefs about the academic achievement of school students with special educational needs. The ‘support teachers’ who were the subject of this study work in mainstream schools where the majority of pupils with special educational needs are educated in mainstream classes run by ‘general teachers’. The work of the support teachers is supervised and supported by ‘special education team co-o rd i n a t o r s ’ . The study reported here set out to elicit the...

  13. Atitudes de alunos dos 5.º e 6.º anos de escolaridade face à integração escolar de alunos com Trissomia 21

    Morgado, José; Silva, José Maria de Castro
    Este trabalho teve como objectivo estudar as atitudes de alunos do 2.º Ciclo do Ensino Básico (10-12 anos de idade) face à integração escolar de alunos com Trissomia 21, considerando como variável principal a existência (ou não) de contacto com esses alunos. Foram entrevistados dois grupos de trinta alunos. O primeiro grupo frequentava uma turma de ensino regular com uma criança com Trissomia 21 (Grupo de Contacto Próximo) e o segundo grupo frequentava escolas onde não existiam crianças com Trissomia 21 ou qualquer outra deficiência integrada (Grupo de Contacto Nulo). Os dados recolhidos através de entrevistas foram sujeitos a análise de conteúdo sendo posteriormente objecto de análise estatística de tipo...

  14. Quality of individualized education program goals of preschoolers with disabilities

    Silva, Tânia Carina Boavida Domingues da; Aguiar, Cecília; McWilliam, Robin A.; Pimentel, Júlia van Zeller de Serpa
    Individualized education programs (IEPs) are a fundamental mechanism for making special education services unique for the child and for enhancing the developmental outcomes of children with disabilities. If written IEP goals diverge, however, from recommended practices, they might result in ineffective interventions. This study investigated the quality of Portuguese IEP goals written for 83 preschoolers with disabilities attending public preschool classrooms from 21 school groups from the District of Lisbon, Portugal. The quality of IEP goals was measured using the Goal Functionality Scale III (R. A. McWilliam, 2009) and the IEP/Individualized Family Service Plan Goals and Objectives Rating Instrument (A. R. Notari, 1988). Results showed that IEP...

  15. Self-esteem and academic achievement among adolescents

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Peixoto, Francisco José Brito; Pereira, Maria Gouveia; Amaral, Virgílio Ribeiro; Pedro, Isaura
    The main purpose of this research is to analyse what strategies are pursued in order to protect self-esteem when it is threatened by a negative self-evaluation of school competence. Participants were 838 secondary-school students from the seventh to the ninth grades. Data were collected using Harter’s Self-Perception Pro le for Adolescents, together with a Scale of Attitudes towards School. Our results show that there are signi cant differences between the self-esteem enjoyed by successful and unsuccessful students in the seventh grade; such differences disappear in the eighth and ninth grades. They also reveal success-related differences in domain-speci c self-evaluation. We also found that students with low levels...

  16. Phonological abilities and writing among portuguese preschool children

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Silva, Ana Cristina
    The objective of this study was to identify causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in writing in preschool children. The participants were 44 children, with an average age of 5 years and 6 months, and whose writing was syllabic with phonetization. The children were divided into three groups. They were subjected to a pre-test and a post-test that were intended to evaluate both their writing and their phonological skills. In between the two tests experimental group 1 underwent a writing training program designed to lead them to produce syllabic-alphabetic/alphabetic writing, while experimental group 2 was subjected to a phonological training program designed to work on phonetic...

  17. The relationship between portuguese adolescent perception of parental styles, social support, and school behaviour

    Silva, José Maria de Castro; Morgado, José; Maroco, João
    The present article describes preliminary results of a study that aims to analyse the relationship among Portuguese adolescent perception of parental styles, social support received from family and peers and their school behaviour. Participants were 537 adolescents aged between 14 and 16. The “Parental Author- ity Questionnaire”, the “Perceived Social Support-Friends Scale” and “Perceived Social Support-Family Scale” were used to measure adolescent perceptions. Overall, Portuguese adolescents perceive their par-ents as using predominantly a democratic parental style. Associations between school behaviour and pa-rental styles show that “well-behaved” adolescents perceive their parents as less permissive. On the other hand, adolescents who misbehave...

  18. Modèles internes opérants de l’attachement et relations d’objet internalisées : L’analyse du devenir des relations «attachement par les récits à compléter»

    Pinto, Alexandra Maria Pereira Inácio Sequeira; Torres, Nuno; Veríssimo, Manuela; Maia, Joana Branco; Fernandes, Marília; Santos, Orlando
    Constituant les deux principaux domaines de la compréhension théorique et scientifique des êtres humains, la théorie de l’attachement et la psychanalyse se sont développées de façon autonome, tout en maintenant des points de contact. Cette recherche vise à les relier de façon empirique en se concentrant sur les théories psychanalytiques de la relation d’objet. L’Attachment story completion task a été administré à un échantillon de 51 enfants en âges préscolaire et scolaire. Les narratives ont été analysées de manière indépendante, sur le ton émotionnel du monde interne objectal, évaluées en fonction de la dimension de la Tonalité affective du paradigme...

  19. Justice judgements, school failure, and adolescent deviant behaviour

    Sanches, Ana Cristina Pires; Pereira, Maria Gouveia; Carugati, Felice
    Background. The current paper is based on two different approaches. One is the relational model of authority (Tyler & Lind, 1992), which addresses the effects of justice perceptions on the legitimacy of authorities and behavioural compliance. The other is Emler and Reicher’s theory (1995, 2005), which explains the involvement of adolescents in delinquency through their relationship with the institutional authorities of society. Aims. To provide empirical evidence for the linkage of these perspectives, analysing the relationship between justice perceptions about teachers and the involvement of adolescents in deviant behaviour. Our hypotheses are that teachers’ justice is negatively related with deviant behaviour and that this relationship is mediated through...

  20. Promoção do autoconceito e auto estima através de um programa de leitura a par

    Monteiro, Vera
    Um autoconceito positivo é fundamental para o sucesso académico das crianças. Uma forma de promover o autoconceito é implementando programas tutoriais. Deste modo, esta investigação teve como objectivo implementar e avaliar os efeitos de um Programa de Leitura a Par, no autoconceito de alunos dos 2º e 4º anos de escolaridade e na auto-estima dos alunos mais velhos. Para avaliar as autopercepções utilizaramse duas escalas devido à discrepância de idade das crianças. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que este Programa teve um efeito positivo em todas as dimensões do autoconceito, quer para os tutores como para os tutorandos, e na auto-estima dos tutores. As crianças do Grupo...

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