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rss_1.0 Recursos de colección

Caltech Authors (80.503 recursos)
Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = Environmental Quality Laboratory

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 76

1. Cartel and Oligopoly Pricing of Nonreplenishable Natural Resources - Lewis, Tracy R.; Schmalensee, Richard
This essay is concerned with the implications of these structures in markets for nonrenewable natural resources. Following Hotelling (1931) and numerous subsequent authors, we assume that the total reserves of the resource in the hands of each producer cannot be increased and are reduced by production. Demand and cost conditions, including the relevant rate of interest, are constant over time. In such a world, producers must rationally consider price or output paths over time, so that both models outlined above become non-zero sum differential games. In what follows, we examine solutions to the games implied by various assumptions.

2. Deviations from optimal pricing of Lower Colorado River water - Hoffman, Elizabeth
While a water shortage will not develop immediately because Lake Mead in the Lower Basin and Lake Powell in the Upper Basin are both full, some further rationing scheme will have to be employed in the near future. This paper sets out a general model for the allocation of river water and discusses the inefficiencies in the current allocation system. Then, recognizing the difficulties involved in making second-best policy prescriptions, it suggests some ways that inefficiencies might be reduced without upsetting the delicate balance of property rights and income distributions associated with the use of that water. The paper is divided into three sections. First, an optimal pricing scheme for...

3. Statement to Water Resources Subcommittee of House Committee on Public Works and Transportation for a Hearing, May 24 and 25, 1978, Washington, D.C. regarding Secondary Treatment Waivers and Ocean Outfalls - Brooks, Norman H.
The principal technical reason for having a waiver provision for secondary treatment for municipal discharges is that for some outfall systems the dilution is so high that very good ambient water quality can be achieved with less than secondary treatment. Therefore, the criteria for a waiver of the secondary treatment requirement must give full consideration to the dilution obtained by the outfall system. In a high performance outfall diffuser, such as those used by major dischargers in California and Hawaii, initial dilutions are typically 100:1, and may range up to 1000:1 in very favorable circumstances.

4. Statement Submitted to Environmental Protection Agency for the Public Meeting, February 22, 1978, San Francisco Regarding Modification of Secondary Treatment Requirements - Brooks, Norman H.
The principal technical reason for having a waiver provision for secondary treatment for municipal discharges is that for some outfall systems the dilution is so high that very good ambient water quality can be achieved with less than secondary treatment. Therefore, the criteria for a waiver of the secondary treatment requirement must give full consideration to the dilution obtained by the outfall system. In a high performance outfall diffuser, such as those used by major dischargers in California and Hawaii, initial dilutions are typically 100:1, and may range up to 1000:1 in very favorable circumstances.

5. Sediment management for Southern California mountains, coastal plains and shoreline - Taylor, Brent D.; Brown, William M.; Brownlie, William R.
The Environmental Quality Laboratory at Caltech and the Shore Processes Laboratory at Scripps Institution of Oceanography have jointly undertaken a study of regional sediment balance problems in coastal southern California (see map in Figure 1). The overall objective in this study is to define specific alternatives in sediment management that may be implemented to alleviate a) existing sediment imbalance problems (e.g. inland debris disposal, local shoreline erosion) and b) probable future problems that have not yet manifested themselves. These alternatives will be identified through a consideration of economic, legal, and institutional issues as well as an analysis of governing physical processes and engineering constraints. The first part of this study (Phase...

6. Assessment of waste heat management issues - Brooks, Norman H.
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500) defined the discharge of cooling water, e.g. from once-through power plant cooling systems, into natural water bodies as a form of pollution. Furthermore, P.L. 92-500 directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop a policy for controlling this "pollution" with "best available technology economically achievable" by 1983 for old sources and with "best available demonstrated control technology" taking "into consideration the cost of achieving such effluent reduction, and any non-water quality environmental impact and energy requirement" for new sources. In addition, the law provided for special exemptions, Section 316(a), from these regulations for waste heat sources which could show that...

7. Water resource problems of energy projects in the Colorado River Basin - Brooks, Norman H.; List, E. John; Quirk, James P.
The successful development of Western coal and oil shale deposits is dependent, to a significant degree, on the availability of adequate water supplies. EQL is involved in a study of the aggregate effects of various energy activities in the upper Colorado River Basin on downstream water quantity and quality. These activities will tend to reduce the available water in the river, and could increase its salinity, which is already so high as to interfere with downstream domestic and agricultural use.

8. Measurement and interpretation of acidity in Southern California rainfall and aerosols - Morgan, James J.
The long-term goal of this work is to assess the environmental significance of acidity transport in the Southern California region. There are three potentially important transport routes: wet flux of acidity to the surface of the basin; dry flux of acidity as aerosol deposition; absorption of acidic and basic gases at the basin surface. We view the research from two perspectives: (1) the overall mass balance aspect of sources and sinks for various acids and bases (nitric acid, sulfuric acid, ammonia, organic acids, etc.) in the basin, and (2) the potential environmental impact of acid components transported via specific routes. The purpose of this research is to understand the transport...

9. Public opinion and Los Angeles smog: willingness to trade higher energy prices for cleaner air - Slater, Charles S.
Presented here are results of a public opinion poll which asked Los Angeles area residents whether they would be for or against an air pollution control program which would double visibility at a cost of $10 per family per month. Although most respondents considered inflation to be a greater nuisance than air pollution, residents surveyed favored the pollution control program by a 3 to 1 margin.

10. Problems of LNG spill hazard assessment - List, E. John; Sturtevant, Bradford; Zukoski, Edward E.
It is apparent from the literature on LNG spills that there is a considerable lack of knowledge in many areas of technical importance to the safety assessment of LNG receiving terminals. For this reason, a thorough critical review of the state-of-the-art regarding the technical aspects of LNG spill evaluation is in preparation. The purpose of this review is to focus attention on these aspects of the problem that are least understood and which are crucial to a proper assessment of the hazards. It is realized that ERDA has already conducted an LNG Safety and Control Workship, the outcome of which was a set of conclusions and recommendations regarding the...

11. Water resource problems of energy projects in the Colorado River Basin - Brooks, Norman H.; Koh, Robert C. Y.; List, E. John; Quirk, James P.
The successful development of western coal and oil shale deposits is dependent, to a significant degree, on the availability of adequate water supplies. EQL is involved in a study of the aggregate effects of various energy activities in the upper Colorado River Basin on downstream water quantity and quality. These activities will tend to reduce the available water in the river, and could increase its salinity, which is already so high as to interfere with downstream domestic and agricultural use.

12. Particulate emissions from energy systems - Flagan, Richard C.
General models of aerosol dynamics, originally developed to simulate atmospheric aerosol behavior, have been extended for application to combustion and other high temperature processes. These models are now being used to study the fate of ash vapors in conventional pulverized-coal combustion. Field measurements have shown that the vapors condense preferentially on the surfaces of the smaller ash particles. Previous simplified calculations have suggested that large numbers of very small particles may also be formed by the condensation of these vapors. The new, exact calculations will be used to explore the relative importance of new particle formation and condensation on existing particles, the size distributions of the particles produced under various combustion...

13. Measurement and interpretation of acidity in Southern California rainfall and aerosols - Morgan, James J.
The semiarid climate of southern California and relatively high air pollutant concentrations during the dry season lead to a higher dry flux than wet flux of acidity. Additional research is needed to measure the dry flux as well as ambient ammonia concentrations. The relative importances of the dry flux, wet flux and advection for the Los Angeles Basin are summaried in Table 8.1. The wet flux is about an order of magnitude less than the total dry flux, although it is greater than the dry flux due to aerosol deposition. Of the acids and bases released in the basin, more than half are exported out of the basin by...

14. Relation of emissions to air quality for photochemical smog - Seinfeld, John H.
Effective evaluation of air pollution control strategies requires the use of validated and reliable mathemtical models that can relate pollutant emissions to atmospheric air quality. The primary objective of this research program has been to develop a fundamental capability to assess the effectiveness of air pollution control measures in reducing photochemical air pollution. An important aspect of the development has been to simplify the preparation of input data and operational use of the resulting model. The system has been designed to be used by air pollution agencies with relatively little experience in atmospheric physics and chemistry. The assumptions commonly employed in model formulations have been evaluated to ensure a valid representation...

15. The design of efficient air pollution control strategies - McRae, Gregory J.; Cass, Glen R.
This statement addresses gains in economic efficiency which could be obtained by removing barriers to advances in the technology and procedures commonly used for designing air pollution abatement strategies.

16. Relation of Emissions to Air Quality for Photochemical Smog - Seinfeld, John H.
Effective evaluation of air pollution control strategies requires the use of validated and reliable mathematical models that can relate pollutant emissions to atmospheric air quality. The primary objective of this research program has been to develop a fundamental modeling capability to assess the effectiveness of air pollution control measures in reducing smog. An important aspect of the development has been to simplify the preparation of input data and operational use of the resulting model. The system has been designed to be used by air pollution agencies with relatively little experience in atmospheric physics and chemistry. The assumptions commonly employed in model formulations have been evaluated to ensure a valid representation of...

17. Protection of works of art from photochemical smog - Cass, Glen R.; Druzik, James R.; Grosjean, Daniel; Nazaroff, William W.; Whitmore, Paul M.; Wittman, Cynthia L.
Air pollution has been suspected as a possible cause of damage to museum collections for at least one hundred years. As early as 1888, concern over pollution in the London atmosphere led to a systematic investigation of whether or not direct exposure to the combustion exhaust from a burning gas jet would cause artists' pigments to fade. Since that time, a number of studies have examined the effects of sulfur oxides air pollutants on leather, paper, calcareous stone, textiles and a few pigments. Much less has been said about the effects of photochemically-generated air pollutants like ozone, which is found...

18. Acquisition of acid vapor and aerosol concentration data for use in dry deposition studies in the South Coast Air Basin - Solomon, Paul A.; Fall, Theresa; Salmon, Lynn; Lin, Philip; Vasquez, Frank; Cass, Glen R.
An atmospheric monitoring network was operated throughout the South Coast Air Basin in the greater Los Angeles area during the year 1986. The primary objective of this study was to measure the spatial and temporal concentration distributions of atmospheric gas phase and particulate phase acids and bases in support of the California Air Resources Board's dry deposition research program. Gaseous pollutants measured include HNO_3, HCl, HF, HBr, formic acid, acetic acid and ammonia. The chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter complex was examined in three size ranges: fine particles (less than 2.2 μm aerodynamic diameter, AD), PM_(10) (less than...

19. Kinetics of adsorption and redox processes on iron and manganese oxides: reactions of As(III) and Se(IV) at goethite and birnessite surfaces - Scott, Michael James
Selenium and arsenic are naturally-occurring, non-metallic elements with complex chemical and biological behavior in aquatic environments. In this study, rates and mechanisms of adsorption, desorption, and electron transfer reactions involving selenium and arsenic oxyanions and two naturally occurring metal oxides, goethite (α-FeOOH) and birnessite (δ-MnO_2), have been investigated. Adsorption of Se(IV), As (III) , and As(V) on goethite and of Se(IV) and As(III) on birnessite occurs within a time scale of minutes. Equilibrium is achieved within a few hours. Adsorption behavior can be described accurately with a surface complexation model. Goethite does not oxidize Se(IV) or As(III) in solution at...

20. Deep ocean disposal of sewage sludge off Orange County, California: a research plan - Brooks, Norman H.; Arnold, Robert G.; Koh, Robert C. Y.; Jackson, George A.; Faisst, William K.
Even though the discharge of sludge into the ocean via an outfall is not now permitted, this research plan has been prepared to show what could be learned with a full scale experimental sludge discharge of 150 dry tons/day by the County Sanitation Districts of Orange County into deep water (over 1000 feet). To provide a wide range of inputs and evaluation, a broad-based Research Planning Committee was established to advise the Environmental Quality Laboratory on the overall content and details of the research plan. Two meetings were held at EQL on: March 4-5, 1982: The entire Committee July 19-20,...

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