Repository of works by Caltech published authors.
Group = Environmental Quality Laboratory
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 111
The Influence of Combustor Operation on Fine Particles from Coal Combustion - Taylor, Dean D.; Flagan, Richard C.
This paper discusses the influences observed in laboratory pulverized coal combustion experiments. A Utah subbituminous coal was burned at a rate of 0.5–1.5 kg/hr and at fuel-lean conditions in a laboratory furnace. Experiments were conducted using a number of burners and at a range of combustor wall temperatures. Gaseous and particulate combustion products were sampled downstream of a series of convective heat exchangers. The variation of the mass and composition of the submicron particles with burner aerodynamics and heat transfer rate are discussed, and the relationship between the laboratory observations and aerosols produced by utility boilers is explored.
Emissions and Air Quality Relationships for Atmospheric Carbon Particles in Los Angeles - Cass, G. R.; Boone, P. M.; Macias, E. S.
An emission inventory for fine particle aerosol carbon has been constructed for the Metropolitan Los Angeles area and compared to the results of ambient sampling. Information on the level of source activity, total
aerosol emission rate, particle size and chemical composition was used to
estimate the mass emission rate of particulate organic and elemental carbon
in this urban area. It was found that carbonaceous particle emissions
to the atmosphere arise from more than fifty classes of mobile and stationary air pollution sources. Emission data for elemental carbon at present
contain significant uncertainties. Methods for verifying the consistency of
carbonaceous aerosol emission inventories thus are important. Verification
Initial sedimentation of waste particulates discharged from ocean outfalls - Koh, Robert C. Y.
A model is developed to evaluate the initial deposition
of particles due to discharge of sewage sludge in the ocean.
The three-dimensional sedimentation modeling shows that
the sludge particles would be widely dispersed. The
bottom initial fallout distribution is expected to be much
elongated along the bottom contours due to nonisotropy
of the ocean current. This is useful in assessing the environmental
consequences of alternative strategies for
ocean sludge disposal in southern California where offshore
deep basins (depths to 900 m) are within short distances
from shore (on order of 10-20 km).
Updated chemical mechanism for atmospheric photooxidation of toluene - Leone, Joseph A.; Seinfeld, John H.
A new reaction mechanism describing the atmospheric photochemical oxidation of toluene is formulated and tested against environmental chamber data from the University of California, Riverside, Statewide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC). On simulations of toluene—NO_x and toluene—benzaldehyde—NO_x irradiations, the average predicted O_3 and PAN maxima are within 3% of the experimental values. Simulations performed with the new mechanism are used to investigate various mechanistic paths, and to gain insight into areas where our understanding is not complete. Specific areas that are investigated include benzaldehyde photolysis, organic nitrate formation, alternate ring fragmentation pathways, and conjugated γ-dicarbonyl condensation to the aerosol phase.
Verification of image processing based visibility models - Larson, Susan M.; Cass, Glen R.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Luce, Frederick
Methods are presented for testing visibility models that
use simulated photographs to display results of model
calculations. An experimental protocol is developed and
used to obtain input data including standard photographs
of chosen scenes on a clear day and during a smog event
at Pasadena, CA. With the clear day photograph as a
substrate, pollutant properties measured on the smoggy
day are introduced into the visibility model, and results
of the model calculations are displayed as a synthetic
photograph of the expected appearance of the smog event.
Quantitative comparisons are made between the predicted
and actual appearance of the smog event. Diagnostic
techniques developed are applied to the visibility modeling
procedure proposed by...
Thermodynamic Equilibrium Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Nitrate, Sulfate and Ammonium - Stelson, Arthur W.; Bassett, Mark E.; Seinfeld, John H.
Knowledge of the thermodynamic equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions is
required in virtually any calculation associated with particle and droplet acidification.
For example, prediction of the equilibrium vapor pressures of dissolved solutes
and water is necessary when predicting the rate of uptake of pollutant gases into
cloud- and raindrops and aerosol particles. In addition, evidence indicates that
atmospheric aerosols and small droplets are frequently in chemical equilibrium
with the local surrounding air. In such a situation, given the ambient gaseous
concentrations of pollutant species, and the temperature and relative humidity, it
is desired to determine the physical state (liquid or solid) and the chemical composition
of the particle or...
Consumer Surplus Under Uncertainty: An Application to Dam-Reservoir Projects - Quirk, James
The use of cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the net welfare payoffs from water projects has now been an established practice for many years. One of the interesting aspects of such cost-benefit studies is that water projects involve an uncertain flow of costs and benefits, arising from the stochastic nature of streamflows. Hence a basic problem for the cost-benefit analyst is that of incorporating this uncertainty into his measures of costs and benefits. In the present paper we examine the problem of computing an appropriate consumer surplus measure to evaluate water project benefits under uncertainty. Detailed treatment is given to the...
Shoreline Impact from Ocean Waste Discharges - Koh, Robert C. Y.
A methodology is presented which enables estimation of the
advective transport probabilities from a coastal wastewater discharge
based on information that can be obtained from current measurements.
From these, shoreline impact can be assessed, and the tendency for
background buildup and benthic accumulation estimated. The method
utilizes measured data to obtain parameter values to allow synthetic
currents to be generated that can in turn be used in a Monte Carlo
scheme for obtaining the advective transport probabilities. The method
permits enhancement and improvement of the estimates when the
amount and extent of data coverage are expanded.
Ozone fading of natural organic colorants: mechanisms and products of the reaction of ozone with indigos - Grosjean, Daniel; Whltmore, Paul M.; Cass, Glen R.
Indigo, dibromoindigo, and colorants containing thioindigo
and tetrachlorothioindigo were exposed in the dark
to dry, purified air containing ozone (10 ppm) for 4 days,
and the exposed samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Under the conditions employed, indigo and
dibromoindigo were entirely consumed, and the major
reaction products were isatin and isatoic anhydride from
indigo and bromoisatin and bromoisatoic anhydride from
dibromoindigo. Thioindigo and its chloro derivative also
reacted with ozone, though at a slower rate; the corresponding
substituted isatins and anhydrides were tentatively
identified as reaction products. These results can
be rationalized in terms of a mechanism involving electrophilic
addition of ozone onto the unsaturated carboncarbon
bond. This mechanism adequately describes the
Surface charge and adsorption properties of chrysotile asbestos in natural waters - Bales, Roger C.; Morgan, James J.
Changes in surface-charge adsorption properties of
chrysotile asbestos aging in water were studied in a series
of constant-pH laboratory experiments. Chrysotile freshly
suspended in an inorganic electrolyte has a positive surface
charge below pH 8.9. Charge reversal occurs within about
2 weeks due to more rapid dissolution of chrysotile's outer
magnesium hydroxide surface relative to the underlying
silica component of the mineral. The inorganic anions
NO_3^-, Cl^-, HCO_3^- , and SO_4^(2-) did not absorb. A constant-
capacitance model can be used to relate surface
charge to adsorption of protons over the pH range 7-9. At
natural organic matter (NOM) concentrations at or below
those encountered in natural waters, the particles can
Estimation of Atmospheric Species Concentrations from Remote Sensing Data - Omatu, Sigeru; Seinfeld, John H.
A basic problem in the interpretation of atmospheric remote sensing data is to estimate species concentration distributions. Typical remote sensing data involve a field of view that moves across the region and represent integrated species burdens from the ground to the altitude of the instrument. The estimation problem arising from this special measurement configuration is solved based on the partial differential equation for atmospheric diffusion and Wiener-Hopf theory. The estimation of the concentration distribution downwind of a hypothetical continous ground-level source of pollutants is studied numerically.
Environmental data display - Hussey, Kevin J.; Blackwell, Richard J.; McRae, Gregory J.; Seinfeld, John H.
Large amounts of information can be portrayed in very compact form
and used for many applications, thanks to a combination
of color-coded graphics and image processing techniques.
Statistical distributions of air pollutant concentrations - Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Seinfeld, John H.
Air pollutant concentrations are
inherently random variables because
of their dependence on the fluctuations
of a variety of meteorological and
emission variables. When sets of air
quality data are available, various
statistical characteristics can be determined
and assigned to the pollutant
Design and use of a collector for the in situ isolation of particulate trace organic species in precipitation - Mazurek, M. A.; Simoneit, B. R. T.; Standley, L. J.; Friedman, D.; Beeman, C.
Extracts of particulate organic matter were examined for discrete rainfall events from metropolitan Los Angeles, California, using an in situ filtration technique. Filtration efficiency was 98 % for the collection of extractable organic C associated with particles having nominal diameters greater than 0m22 μm Organic background levels of less than 260 ng per sample were determined. Rainwater particle samples were extracted with repeated hexane and benzene: isopropanol (2: 1) solvent additions using ultrasonic agitation. Extract mixtures were quantified by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and were adjusted for component losses with perdeuterated recovery standards. Yields for the neutral fractions ranged from...
Basinwide nitric acid and related species concentrations observed during the Claremont nitrogen species comparison study - Solomon, Paul A.; Larson, Susan M.; Fall, Theresa; Cass, Glen R.
In conjunction with the Claremont Nitrogen Species Comparison Study, tandem filter units designed to collect HNO_3/total aerosol (TA) NO_3− and NH_3/TA NH+_4 were operated at seven locations throughout the Los Angeles area, including Claremont. The sampling methods used were related to the comparison study via intensive short-term and long-term measurements made at Claremont by both the tandem filter method and the denuder difference method. Between methods, 4-h and 6-h duration HNO_3 samples taken by the tandem filter method were higher (~ 20%) than the HNO_3 results obtained by the denuder difference method. As sampling duration increased to 22 h, the...
Sensivity Analysis of Chemically Reacting Systems - Tilden, J. W.; Costanza, V.; McRae, G. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.
The complexity of systems of chemical reactions makes it difficult to determine
the effect uncertainties in rate constants and other parameters have on
the behavior of .the species concentrations. Mathematically, the sensitivity
analysis of a system of chemical reactions consists in the problem of determining
the effect of uncertainties in parameters and initial conditions on
the solution of a set of ordinary differential equations. Sensitivity analysis
procedures may be classed as deterministic or stochastic in nature. Currently
available sensitivity analysis techniques are reviewed, and the entire
problem is presented in a unified framework.
Sulfate air quality control strategy design - Cass, Glen R.
An approach to the design of emission control strategies for sulfate air quality improvement is described. Methods developed are tested within a case study of the nature and causes of the high sulfate levels observed in the Los Angeles area.
An air quality model for sulfate formation and transport is developed which computes long-term average sulfate concentrations using a Lagrangian marked particle technique. The air quality model is verified by application to the Los Angeles air basin during each month of the years 1972 to 1974. The time sequence of observed sulfate air quality is reproduced closely in spite of the...
Numerical solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation for chemically reacting flows - McRae, Gregory J.; Goodin, William R.; Seinfeld, John H.
A comprehensive study of numerical techniques for solving the atmospheric diffusion equation is reported. Operator splitting methods are examined in which the three-dimensional problem is converted into a sequence of one-dimensional problems. A Galerkin, linear finite element scheme with a nonlinear filter is found to be computationally superior to the other methods tested for the advection-diffusion components. The chemical reaction dynamics component, treated within the splitting scheme, is generally highly stiff. A second-order predictor, iterated corrector technique, in combination with an asymptotic treatment of the stiff components, is found to be computationally superior for the chemical kinetics. The validity of...
Sensitivity analysis of a mathematical model for photochemical air pollution - Tilden, James W.; Seinfeld, John H.
The effect of simultaneous ± 50 per cent uncertainties in the emission and meteorological parameters on the predictions of a mathematical model for photochemical air pollution is studied. Predicted concentrations are found to be most sensitive to uncertainties in mixing height, photolysis intensity, initial conditions and emission intensity. A general method for air quality model sensitivity analysis is discussed and employed.
Mathematical modeling of the formation and transport of ammonium nitrate aerosol - Russell, Armistead G.; McRae, Gregory J.; Cass, Glen R.
A mathematical model describing the transport and formation of aerosol NH_4NO_3 is presented. Based on a vertically resolved Lagrangian trajectory formulation incorporating gas phase kinetics, NH_4NO_3 concentrations are computed at thermodynamic equilibrium with precursor HNO_3 vapor and NH_3 concentrations. Sensitivity analysis shows that NH_4NO_3 concentration predictions are strongly influenced by ambient temperature and NH_3 levels. A brief description of the NH_3 emissions inventory used in this study is included to indicate the important sources. The model was tested by comparison to ambient NH_3, NH_4+ and NO_3− concentrations measured at El Monte, California during June 1974. Model results compare favorably with...