Santos, António José; Vaughn, Brian E.; Peceguina, Maria Inês Duarte; Daniel, João Rodrigo; Shin, Nana
This study examined the stability and growth over a 3-year period of individual differences in preschool children’s
social competence, which was assessed in three domains: social engagement/motivation, profiles of
behavior and personality attributes characteristic of socially competent young children, and peer acceptance.
A total of 255 children (126 girls and 129 boys) participated in this study. Growth curve analyses demonstrated
both stability and change with regard to social competence over early childhood. Social competence
measures and latent variables were invariant over this time period, individual differences in social competence
were largely stable from year to year, and significant increases over time were observed for the domain...
Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António José; Fernandes, Carla; Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.
Attachment theorists suggest that attachment security with parents supports the
quality of social adaptation in peer groups during early childhood, and numerous
studies supporting this conjecture have been published. Most of these studies
used enacted representations rather than mental representations of attachment
security, and most studies examining mental representations used adult (parent
or teacher) ratings of peer-group adaptation. Our study tested relations between
preschool children’s (N = 147; age 48–69 months) mental representations
of attachment by using the Attachment Story Completion Task and child-level
indicators of social competence based on direct observations and sociometric
interviews. General intelligence tests were administered to control for effects of
developmental level on child narrative...
In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers
would benefit children’s reading motivation. Participants were from elementary
school—80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders.We used a questionnaire to assess
reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading
Program. The children who were to be tutored (second grade) were each paired
with a helper from the fourth grade. There were statistically significant results
favoring the children who participated in the reading program. They show significant
increments in the levels in the different domains of reading motivation,
for tutors and tutees.
Machado, Ana Paula de Oliveira Maló; Veríssimo, Manuela; Denham, Susanne
The main goal of the study was to test the Affect Knowledge Test (Denham,
1986) in a group of Portuguese preschool children. 160 children, ages between
3 and 5 years participated. The instrument includes four basic emotions related
tasks and aims to assess: 1) children’s abilities to label emotions through emotional
facial expressions, 2) to recognize emotional facial expressions through verbal
labels, 3) to infer causes of emotions in emotion-eliciting typical situations;
3) to take others affective perspective in emotion-eliciting atypical situations.
Confirmatory factorial analyses (CFA) were performed based on the theoretical
factors defined by Denham (1986). Using the Unweighted Least Squares (ULS)
method, data fit results were obtained...
Moons, Wesley G.; Mackie, Diane M.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa
Repeated statements are perceived as more valid than novel ones, termed the illusion of truth effect,
presumably because repetition imbues the statement with familiarity. In 3 studies, the authors examined
the conditions under which and the processes by which familiarity signals from repetition and argument
quality signals from processing of message content influenced agreement with persuasive arguments.
Participants with low or high motivation to process information were presented persuasive arguments
seen once or twice. In all 3 studies, repetition increased the persuasiveness of weak and strong arguments
when little processing of message content occurred. Two of the studies used a process dissociation
procedure to reveal that both...
Pimentel, Júlia van Zeller de Serpa; Menéres, Maria Sofia Seabra Pereira Cabral
In this paper, we present a longitudinal case study involving four dyads with babies
with Down syndrome from birth until the age of 7 years – the moment at which the
children were observed for the last time before they began compulsory schooling. At
each data collection point, the mother was given a semi-directive interview and we
filmed a free interaction situation. The objective of our study was to carry out an indepth
analysis of the ways in which mothers adapt to the birth of a ‘different baby’,
the evolution of their expectations in relation to the child’s development, mother–
child interaction and early support for both...
Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Mackie, Diane M.; Claypool, Heather M.; Garcia-Marques, Leonel
Given that familiarity is closely associated with positivity, the
authors sought evidence for the idea that positivity would
increase perceived familiarity. In Experiment 1, smiling and
thus positively perceived novel faces were significantly more
likely to be incorrectly judged as familiar than novel faces with
neutral expressions. In Experiment 2, subliminal association
with positive affect (a positively valenced prime) led to false recognition
of novel words as familiar. In Experiment 3, validity
judgments, known to be influenced by familiarity, were more
likely to occur if participants were in happy mood states than
neutral mood states. Despite their different paradigms and
approaches, the results of these three studies converge on the idea
Pereira, Maria Gouveia; Vala, Jorge; Palmonari, Augusto; Rubini, Monica
This study analysis the relationship between perceptions of the justice of teacher' behaviour and (a) the legitimation of school authority and (b) the legitimation of institutional authorities outside school. 448 adolescent students participated in the study. In a questionnaire participants were asked about (a) perceptions of the justice of teachers' behaviour; (b) evaluation of the school experience; and (c) evaluation of institutional authorities. Results show that the evaluation of the justice of teacher behaviour, in particular relational and procedural justice, have an impact on the legitimation of the authority of teachers and on the evaluation of institutional authorities outside school....
Veríssimo, Manuela; Salvaterra, Maria Fernanda
Studies of families with adopted children are of special interest to attachment theorists because they
afford opportunities to probe assumptions of attachment theory with regard to the developmental
timing of interactions necessary to form primary attachments and also with regard to effects of shared
genes on child attachment quality. In Bowlby’s model, attachment-relevant behaviors and interactions
are observable from the moment of birth, but for adoptive families, these interactions cannot begin
until the child enters the family, sometimes several months or even years post-partum. Furthermore,
because adoptive parents and adopted children do not usually share genes by common descent, any
correspondence between attachment representations of the parent...
Carvalho, Cláudia Maria Constante Ferreira de; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving; Meo, Maria; Santandrea, Maura
The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants
with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to
take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance
compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic
suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a...
Matias, Rafael; Catry, Paulo
The diet and breeding ecology of Yellowlegged
Gulls (Larus michahellis atlantis) were studied on Selvagem Grande, North Atlantic in the nesting season of 2007. We collected and analyzed 715 pellets from adults. The most frequent prey were White-faced Stormpetrels (Pelagodroma marina; present on 40.8% of all pellets) and the endemic land snails (Theba macandrewiana; present on 36.5% of all pellets). Other birds, namely Cory’s Shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea), Macaronesian Shearwaters (Puffinus assimilis), Bulwer’s Petrels (Bulweria bulwerii), and Band-rumped Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma castro) were relatively less frequent, but overall, seabirds were present in ca. 50% of all pellets, representing an estimated 60.4% of all...
Santos, António José; Vaughn, Brian E.; Peceguina, Maria Inês Duarte; Daniel, João Rodrigo
This study examines the temporal stability (over 3 years) of individual differences in 3 domains relevant
to preschool children’s social competence: social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior and
personality attributes characteristic of socially competent young children, and peer acceptance. Each
domain was measured with multiple indicators. Sociometric status categories (Asher & Dodge, 1986) and
reciprocated friendships were derived from sociometric data. Composites for social competence domains
were significantly associated across all time points. Within age-periods, social competence domains were
associated with both sociometric and friendship status categories; however, neither sociometric status nor
reciprocated friendships were stable over time. Nevertheless, analyses examining the social competence
antecedents to reciprocated friendship at...
Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel
A robust anomaly in intertemporal choice is the delay–speedup asymmetry: Receipts are discounted
more, and payments are discounted less, when delayed than when expedited over the same interval. We
developed 2 versions of the tradeoff model (Scholten & Read, 2010) to address such situations, in which
an outcome is expected at a given time but then its timing is changed. The outcome framing model
generalizes the approach taken by the hyperbolic discounting model (Loewenstein & Prelec, 1992): Not
obtaining a positive outcome when expected is a worse than expected state, to which people are
over-responsive, or hypersensitive, and not incurring a negative outcome when expected is...
Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela; Fernandes, Marília; Rebelo, Ana
This study investigated the relationships between children’s secure base and emotion regulation,
namely their behavioral strategies and emotional expressiveness, during different
situational and social contexts in naturalistic settings. Fifty-five children ranging in age
from 18 to 26 months of age and their mothers participated in this study. Children were
exposed to three situational (fear, positive affect and frustration/anger) and two social
(maternal constraint and involvement) contexts. Toddlers’ behavioral strategies differed as
function of emotion-eliciting context, maternal involvement and attachment quality. Emotional
expressiveness varied as function of an interaction involving situational contexts,
maternal involvement and children’s attachment security.
Mata, Maria de Lourdes Estorninho Neves
This study characterizes the reading and writing motivations of kindergarten
children. Four hundred fifty-one children participated in the study, answering
questions measuring value, self-concept, and enjoyment of reading and writing.
A factor analysis validated the conceptual motivational constructs. Findings
indicate that kindergarten children have high motivation for both reading and
writing, although scores for writing motivation were not as high as those for
reading. Among the group studied, boys’ and girls’ motivational profiles are
not markedly differentiated. Implications for future research and educational
practices are discussed.
García-Madruga, Juan A.; Moreno-Ríos, Sérgio; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Juhos, Csongor
This article tackles factual and counterfactual 'unless' expressions such as "Virginia will not pass the exam unless she works harder" and "Virginia would not passed the exam unless she had worked harder". 'Unless' is a negative conditional that is semantically equivalent to 'if not'. However, some authers have claimed that 'unless' is more closely related to 'only if' than to 'if not'. We report two experiments that compare conditional inferences from 'unless' to 'if-not' amd 'only if' factual and counterfactual conditionals. The first experiment compared 'not-A unless B' and 'if not-B then not-A' and showed a difference between affirmative (i.e....
Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.; Kim, Mina; Krzysik, Lisa; Bost, Kelly K.; McBride, Brent; Santos, António José; Peceguina, Maria Inês Duarte; Coppola, Gabrielle
Achieving consensus on the definition and measurement of social competence
(SC) for preschool children has proven difficult in the developmental sciences.
We tested a hierarchical model in which SC is assumed to be a second-order
latent variable by using longitudinal data (N = 345). We also tested the degree
to which peer SC at Time 1 predicted changes in positive adjustment from Time
1 to Time 2, based on teacher and peer ratings. Using a multiple-method datacollection
strategy, information for three subdomains of SC (social engagement/
motivation, profiles of social interaction and personality assets assessed with
Q-sorts, peer acceptance) were collected across consecutive years in preschool
programs. Longitudinal confirmatory...
Daniel, João Rodrigo; Santos, António José; Vicente, Luís A.
Researchers have widely used self-directed behaviors (SDB) as a
behavioral indicator of anxiety in nonhuman primates. We examined if SDB rates
in captive vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) were associated with 1) proximity to
conspecifics in general, 2) relative dominance rank of proximity partners, and 3)
postconflict situations. Subjects were members of a captive group of vervets at the
Lisbon Zoo, Portugal. The group comprised 3 males and 7 females, which were
focal sampled for 10.5 h each. Vervets did not engage in more SBD while in
proximity of conspecifics than while alone, and individual SDB rates were not
generally influenced by dominance ranks of neighbors. Yet, victims of conflicts
Vaughn, Brian E.; Coppola, Gabrielle; Veríssimo, Manuela; Monteiro, Lígia Maria Santos; Santos, António José; Posada, German; Carbonell, Olga A.; Plata, Sandra J.; Waters, Harriet S.; Bost, Kelly K.; McBride, Brent; Shin, Nana; Korth, Bryan
The secure-base phenomenon is central to the Bowlby/Ainsworth theory of attachment and is also
central to the assessment of attachment across the lifespan. The present study tested whether
mothers’ knowledge about the secure-base phenomenon, as assessed using a recently designed wordlist
prompt measure for eliciting attachment-relevant stories, would predict their children’s securebase
behavior, as assessed by observers in the home and summarized with the Attachment Q-set
(AQS). In each of three sociocultural groups (from Colombia, Portugal, and the US), scores characterizing
the quality of maternal secure-base narratives elicited using the word-list prompt procedure
were internally consistent, as indicated by tests of cross-story reliability, and they were positively...
Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela
This study investigated the importance of emotion-eliciting context (positive and negative)
and mother’s behaviors (constrained and involved) on toddlers’ emotion regulation
behavioral strategies, emotional expressiveness and intensity, during three episodes eliciting
fear, frustration/anger and positive affect. Fifty-five children between 18 and 26 months
of age and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers’ regulatory strategies varied
as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited behavioral strategies more frequently
during positive affect and frustration/anger episodes and less frequently during fear
episodes) and maternal involvement. Toddlers’ expression of emotion varied as function
of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited more emotional expressions, both negative
and positive during fear and frustration/anger episodes compared to positive...