Repositório do ISPA Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada
No Repositório do ISPA pode encontrar diversos tipos de documentos, em formato digital, resultantes da produção científica do ISPA designadamente: teses de doutoramento, teses de mestrado, artigos em publicações periódicas nacionais e internacionais, relatórios técnicos, artigos em actas de conferências nacionais e internacionais e capítulos de livros.
UIPCDE - Artigos em revistas internacionais
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 31
Motivation for reading and writing in kindergarten children - Mata, Maria de Lourdes Estorninho Neves
This study characterizes the reading and writing motivations of kindergarten
children. Four hundred fifty-one children participated in the study, answering
questions measuring value, self-concept, and enjoyment of reading and writing.
A factor analysis validated the conceptual motivational constructs. Findings
indicate that kindergarten children have high motivation for both reading and
writing, although scores for writing motivation were not as high as those for
reading. Among the group studied, boys’ and girls’ motivational profiles are
not markedly differentiated. Implications for future research and educational
practices are discussed.
Reasoning with 'unless' counterfactual conditionals - García-Madruga, Juan A.; Moreno-Ríos, Sérgio; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Juhos, Csongor
This article tackles factual and counterfactual 'unless' expressions such as "Virginia will not pass the exam unless she works harder" and "Virginia would not passed the exam unless she had worked harder". 'Unless' is a negative conditional that is semantically equivalent to 'if not'. However, some authers have claimed that 'unless' is more closely related to 'only if' than to 'if not'. We report two experiments that compare conditional inferences from 'unless' to 'if-not' amd 'only if' factual and counterfactual conditionals. The first experiment compared 'not-A unless B' and 'if not-B then not-A' and showed a difference between affirmative (i.e....
Longitudinal analyses of a hierarchical model of peer social competence for preschool children - Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.; Kim, Mina; Krzysik, Lisa; Bost, Kelly K.; McBride, Brent; Santos, António José; Peceguina, Maria Inês Duarte; Coppola, Gabrielle
Achieving consensus on the definition and measurement of social competence
(SC) for preschool children has proven difficult in the developmental sciences.
We tested a hierarchical model in which SC is assumed to be a second-order
latent variable by using longitudinal data (N = 345). We also tested the degree
to which peer SC at Time 1 predicted changes in positive adjustment from Time
1 to Time 2, based on teacher and peer ratings. Using a multiple-method datacollection
strategy, information for three subdomains of SC (social engagement/
motivation, profiles of social interaction and personality assets assessed with
Q-sorts, peer acceptance) were collected across consecutive years in preschool
programs. Longitudinal confirmatory...
Correlates of self-directed behaviors in captive Cercopithecus aethiops - Daniel, João Rodrigo; Santos, António José; Vicente, Luís
Researchers have widely used self-directed behaviors (SDB) as a
behavioral indicator of anxiety in nonhuman primates. We examined if SDB rates
in captive vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) were associated with 1) proximity to
conspecifics in general, 2) relative dominance rank of proximity partners, and 3)
postconflict situations. Subjects were members of a captive group of vervets at the
Lisbon Zoo, Portugal. The group comprised 3 males and 7 females, which were
focal sampled for 10.5 h each. Vervets did not engage in more SBD while in
proximity of conspecifics than while alone, and individual SDB rates were not
generally influenced by dominance ranks of neighbors. Yet, victims of conflicts
The quality of maternal secure-base scripts predicts children's secure-base behavior at home in three sociocultural groups - Vaughn, Brian E.; Coppola, Gabrielle; Veríssimo, Manuela; Monteiro, Lígia Maria Santos; Santos, António José; Posada, German; Carbonell, Olga A.; Plata, Sandra J.; Waters, Harriet S.; Bost, Kelly K.; McBride, Brent; Shin, Nana; Korth, Bryan
The secure-base phenomenon is central to the Bowlby/Ainsworth theory of attachment and is also
central to the assessment of attachment across the lifespan. The present study tested whether
mothers’ knowledge about the secure-base phenomenon, as assessed using a recently designed wordlist
prompt measure for eliciting attachment-relevant stories, would predict their children’s securebase
behavior, as assessed by observers in the home and summarized with the Attachment Q-set
(AQS). In each of three sociocultural groups (from Colombia, Portugal, and the US), scores characterizing
the quality of maternal secure-base narratives elicited using the word-list prompt procedure
were internally consistent, as indicated by tests of cross-story reliability, and they were positively...
Emotional context, maternal behavior and emotion regulation - Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela
This study investigated the importance of emotion-eliciting context (positive and negative)
and mother’s behaviors (constrained and involved) on toddlers’ emotion regulation
behavioral strategies, emotional expressiveness and intensity, during three episodes eliciting
fear, frustration/anger and positive affect. Fifty-five children between 18 and 26 months
of age and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers’ regulatory strategies varied
as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited behavioral strategies more frequently
during positive affect and frustration/anger episodes and less frequently during fear
episodes) and maternal involvement. Toddlers’ expression of emotion varied as function
of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited more emotional expressions, both negative
and positive during fear and frustration/anger episodes compared to positive...
La consistance de l’intervention éducative parentale : La qualité de l’environnement familial et les comportements interactifs de la mère - Cruz, Orlanda; Aguiar, Cecília
L’intervention éducative parentale ne se manifeste pas seulement par des comportements éducatifs spécifiques mais aussi par la fac¸on dont les
parents organisent l’environnement familial de l’enfant. L’objet de cette étude a consisté à identifier les dimensions de la qualité de l’environnement
familial susceptibles d’être associées aux comportements interactifs de la mère, une fois contrôlée la variable relative au niveau d’études des mères.
Ont participé à cette étude 120 mères d’enfants d’âge compris entre 14 et 49 mois. La qualité de l’environnement familial a été évalué avec
l’échelle HOME Inventory for Families of Infants and Toddlers (Caldwell et Bradley, 1984). Le comportement de la mère...
The organization of children's secure base behaviour in two-parent portuguese families and father's participation in child-related activities - Monteiro, Lígia Maria Santos; Veríssimo, Manuela; Vaughn, Brian E.; Santos, António José; Torres, Nuno; Fernandes, Marília
The organization of children’s secure base behaviour was studied in twoparent
Portuguese families, with 44 father–child and mother–child dyads,
children’s age was on average 31.91 months. An analysis of Attachment
Q-sort (AQS; Waters, 1995) data revealed no significant differences in
security scores for mothers and fathers. Both parents independently
responded to a questionnaire about their participation in child-related
activities, relative to their spouse’s participation in these activities. A
traditional division in the Care/Organization tasks and a shared participation
in the Play/Leisure activities emerged. Fathers with higher scores for both
types of activities tended to have children with higher security scores.
Fathers’ participation in Play/Leisure activities was associated with children’s
Assessing the quality of portuguese child care programs for toddlers - Barros, Sílvia; Aguiar, Cecília
The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of toddler child care classrooms in the
district of Porto, in the north of Portugal. One hundred and sixty classrooms for children
between 1 and 3 years of age participated in this study. Results suggested the existence
of poor average quality and absence of good-quality classrooms. Child–adult ratio was a
statistically significant predictor of overall child care quality (with lower ratios associated
with higher quality). The results of this study provide information on the applicability of
ITERS-R to a new cultural and linguistic context, suggesting the need to enhance the quality
of Portuguese programs serving toddlers.
influence of structural features on portuguese toddler child care quality - Pessanha, Manuela; Aguiar, Cecília; Bairrão, Joaquim
Whereas child care quality has been extensively studied in the U.S., there is much less information about the quality of child care in
other countries.With one of the highest maternal employment rates in Europe, it is important to examine child care in Portugal. Thirty
toddler classrooms in child care centers were observed. The purpose of this studywas to determine whether structural features account
for overall toddler child care quality. Results showed younger and better-paid teachers provided better toddler child care quality. Space
available per childwas not a statistically significant predictor of toddler child care quality.Overall quality results suggest some issues
to be addressed by early...
Stylistic diversity in children's communication with mothers at 30 months - Veríssimo, Manuela; Blicharski, Teresa; Strayer, F. Francis
Although developmental researchers endorse a multifaceted view of early
communication, where language, non-verbal behaviour and socio-affective
exchange contribute concurrently to the social construction of shared meanings, past
studies of social development usually focused on component parts of interpersonal
communication. This research integrates three aspects of communicative exchange
in order to clarify stylistic differences among 30-month-old children. To achieve
this objective, data from three different coding procedures (speech acts, information
content and affective states) were coded for 52 children and then merged on the
basis of onset time. Fifteen distinct descriptors were identified in the analyses of
tri-modal communicative processes. Three different communicative styles were
identified in person-centred cluster analyses of...
Attachment security and HPA axis reactivity to positive and challenging emotional situations in chold-mother dyads in naturalistic settings - Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela; Oliveira, Tânia S. F.; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
This study investigated adrenocortical activity in response to different
challenging and positive affect emotional contexts in child–mother dyads, as
function of attachment security (children’s secure base behaviors and mothers’
attachment representations). Fifty-one children ranging in age from 18 to
26 months and their mothers participated in this study. Secure children showed
significant increases in their cortisol levels after fear episodes and significant
decreases, after positive affect ones. No significant changes were found for frustration/
anger episodes. Insecure children did not show significant differences in
cortisol levels in any of the episodes, which suggests that insecure attachment
may be related to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis suppression in response
to challenging and positive contexts....
Attachment security representations in institutionalized children and children living with their families: Links to problem behaviour - Torres, Nuno; Maia, Joana Branco; Veríssimo, Manuela; Fernandes, Marília; Silva, Filipa
The present work analyses differences in the attachment representations of institutionalized children
as compared with children from low and high educational level living with their natural families.
Participants were 91 Portuguese children, 52% girls, aged 48–96 months. There were three different
groups: 19 institutionalized children, 16 low educational level families’ children and 56 from high
educational level families’. Attachment representations were assessed for Security of the narratives of
the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using
the Child Behaviour Checklist for parents and caretakers. Verbal skills were assessed using the
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised. Results show that institutionalized
children have signifi cantly...
Quality of attachment to father and mother and number of reciprocal friends - Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António José; Vaughn, Brian E.; Torres, Nuno; Monteiro, Lígia Maria Santos; Santos, Orlando
Attachment research suggests that children with secure attachments are more able
to construct meaningful relationships with peers. Few studies, however, have
attempted to map early attachment security to the formation and maintenance of
preschool friendships. Special attention has been paid to affiliative relationships
(particularly friendships) because these are presumed to be of special importance
with respect to a number of developmental outcomes and social adjustment
indices. This study examined the relations between mother–child and father–child
attachment relationships using the attachment Q-sort (AQS) and the number of
reciprocated friendships of preschool children. Thirty-five mother–child and
father–child dyads from bi-parental families participated in the study. Children
were between 29 and 38 months...
Hierarchical models of social competence in preschool children: A multisite, multinational study - Vaughn, Brian E.; Shin, Nana; Kim, Mina; Coppola, Gabrielle; Krzysik, Lisa; Santos, António José; Peceguina, Maria Inês Duarte; Daniel, João Rodrigo; Veríssimo, Manuela; DeVries, Anthon; Elphick, Eric; Ballentina, Xiomara; Bost, Kelly K.; Newell, Wanda Y.; Miller, Ellaine B.; Snider, J. Blake; Korth, Bryan
The generality of a multilevel factorial model of social competence (SC) for preschool children was tested in a
5-group, multinational sample (N = 1,540) using confirmatory factor analysis. The model fits the observed
data well, and tests constraining paths for measured variables to their respective first-order factors across
samples also fit well. Equivalence of measurement models was found at sample and sex within-sample levels
but not for age within sample. In 2 groups, teachers’ ratings were examined as correlates of SC indicators.
Composites of SC indicators were significantly associated with both positive and negative child attributes
from the teachers’ ratings. The findings contribute to understanding of...
Preschool children’s mental representations of attachment: Antecedents in their secure base behaviors and maternal attachment scripts - Wong, Maria; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana; Veríssimo, Manuela; Maia, Joana Branco; Monteiro, Lígia Maria Santos; Silva, Filipa; Coppola, Gabrielle; Costantini, Alessandro; Vaughn, Brian E.
This study examined the antecedents of preschool age children’s mental
representations of attachment, assessed using the Attachment Story Completion
Task (ASCT). Antecedent predictors were maternal attachment scripts, assessed
using the Attachment Script Assessment (ASA), and the child’s secure base
behaviors, assessed using the Attachment Q-Set (AQS). Participants were 121
mothers and their preschool children assessed in three samples (Portuguese
sample, n ¼ 31; US Midwestern sample, n ¼ 38; US Southeastern sample,
n ¼ 52). AQS and ASA assessments were completed approximately 1.5 years
before the ASCT data were collected. No cross-sample contrasts for the
attachment variables were significant. Correlations and structural equation
modeling (SEM) indicated that the three attachment...
Secure base representations for both fathers and mothers predict children’s secure base behavior in a sample of portuguese families - Monteiro, Lígia Maria Santos; Veríssimo, Manuela; Vaughn, Brian E.; Santos, António José; Bost, Kelly K.
Relations between fathers’ and mothers’ representations of attachment (independently
assessed using an attachment script representation task) and children’s secure base
behavior (assessed using the Attachment Q-sort; AQS) were studied in 56 Portuguese
families (mean age of child ¼ 31.9 months). Each parent’s secure base script
representation score predicted AQS security scores for the child with that parent at
approximately equivalent degrees of association. However, both parental secure base
script scores and AQS security scores were positively correlated across parents. A
hierarchical regression predicting AQS security with father from both parent’s
scriptedness scores and from the AQS score with mother showed a unique, significant
influence of father’s scriptedness score and...
Attachment representations, sleep quality and adaptative functioning in preschool age children - Vaughn, Brian E.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Shin, Nana; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Krzysik, Lisa; Monteiro, Lígia Maria Santos
Both the attachment system and sleep are considered to be important
biopsychosocial regulators of development and of adaptive functioning in
children, and there is a substantial literature suggesting that the two systems
may be mutually influencing. To date, however, the bulk of research attempting
to link these systems has focused on infancy and the results of empirical studies
are mixed. Thirty-nine preschool children participated in this study (valid sleep
data for 34 cases). Attachment representations were assessed using the
Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT) and sleep was assessed using
objective (i.e., actigraphy) measures. Analyses revealed that the coherence of child
narratives and security scored from the ASCT were related...
Reasoning with deontic and counterfactual conditionals - Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M. J.
We report two new phenomena of deontic reasoning: (1) For conditionals with
deontic content such as, “If the nurse cleaned up the blood then she must have
worn rubber gloves”, reasoners make more modus tollens inferences (from “she
did not wear rubber gloves” to “she did not clean up the blood”) compared to
conditionals with epistemic content. (2) For conditionals in the subjunctive mood
with deontic content, such as, “If the nurse had cleaned up the blood then she must
have had to wear rubber gloves”, reasoners make the same frequency of all
inferences as they do for conditionals in the indicative mood with deontic content.
The effects of personal relevance and repetition on persuasive processing - Claypool, Heather M.; Mackie, Diane M.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; McIntosh, Ashley; Udall, Ashton
Past research has suggested that familiarity with amessage, brought about by repetition,
can increase (Cacioppo & Petty, 1989) or decrease (Garcia–Marques &
Mackie, 2001) analytic (systematic) processing of that message. Two experiments
attempted to resolve these contradictory findings by examining how personal relevance
may moderate the impact of familiarity on processing. Experiment 1 manipulated
repetition and personal relevance and found that message repetition
increased analytic processing (as reflected by greater persuasion following strong
vs.weak arguments) under high relevance conditions and decreased analytic processing
when relevance was low. In Experiment 2, both repetition and relevance
were manipulated in different ways, but results again showed that repetition reduced
analytic processing under low...