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Repositório do ISPA Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (6,589 recursos)
No Repositório do ISPA pode encontrar diversos tipos de documentos, em formato digital, resultantes da produção científica do ISPA designadamente: teses de doutoramento, teses de mestrado, artigos em publicações periódicas nacionais e internacionais, relatórios técnicos, artigos em actas de conferências nacionais e internacionais e capítulos de livros.

UIPCDE - Artigos em revistas internacionais

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 45

1. Growth of social competence during the preschool years: A 3-year longitudinal study - Santos, António José; Vaughn, Brian E.; Peceguina, Maria Inês Duarte; Daniel, João Rodrigo; Shin, Nana
This study examined the stability and growth over a 3-year period of individual differences in preschool children’s social competence, which was assessed in three domains: social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior and personality attributes characteristic of socially competent young children, and peer acceptance. A total of 255 children (126 girls and 129 boys) participated in this study. Growth curve analyses demonstrated both stability and change with regard to social competence over early childhood. Social competence measures and latent variables were invariant over this time period, individual differences in social competence were largely stable from year to year, and significant increases over time were observed for the domain...

2. Associations between attachment security and social competence in preschool children - Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António José; Fernandes, Carla; Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.
Attachment theorists suggest that attachment security with parents supports the quality of social adaptation in peer groups during early childhood, and numerous studies supporting this conjecture have been published. Most of these studies used enacted representations rather than mental representations of attachment security, and most studies examining mental representations used adult (parent or teacher) ratings of peer-group adaptation. Our study tested relations between preschool children’s (N = 147; age 48–69 months) mental representations of attachment by using the Attachment Story Completion Task and child-level indicators of social competence based on direct observations and sociometric interviews. General intelligence tests were administered to control for effects of developmental level on child narrative...

3. Promoting reading motivation by reading together - Monteiro, Vera
In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children’s reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school—80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders.We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who were to be tutored (second grade) were each paired with a helper from the fourth grade. There were statistically significant results favoring the children who participated in the reading program. They show significant increments in the levels in the different domains of reading motivation, for tutors and tutees.

4. O teste de conhecimento das emoções para crianças de idade pré-escolar - Machado, Ana Paula de Oliveira Maló; Veríssimo, Manuela; Denham, Susanne
The main goal of the study was to test the Affect Knowledge Test (Denham, 1986) in a group of Portuguese preschool children. 160 children, ages between 3 and 5 years participated. The instrument includes four basic emotions related tasks and aims to assess: 1) children’s abilities to label emotions through emotional facial expressions, 2) to recognize emotional facial expressions through verbal labels, 3) to infer causes of emotions in emotion-eliciting typical situations; 3) to take others affective perspective in emotion-eliciting atypical situations. Confirmatory factorial analyses (CFA) were performed based on the theoretical factors defined by Denham (1986). Using the Unweighted Least Squares (ULS) method, data fit results were obtained...

5. The impact of repetition-induced familiarity on agreement with weak and strong arguments - Moons, Wesley G.; Mackie, Diane M.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa
Repeated statements are perceived as more valid than novel ones, termed the illusion of truth effect, presumably because repetition imbues the statement with familiarity. In 3 studies, the authors examined the conditions under which and the processes by which familiarity signals from repetition and argument quality signals from processing of message content influenced agreement with persuasive arguments. Participants with low or high motivation to process information were presented persuasive arguments seen once or twice. In all 3 studies, repetition increased the persuasiveness of weak and strong arguments when little processing of message content occurred. Two of the studies used a process dissociation procedure to reveal that both...

6. The development of children with down syndrome: the influence of maternal adaptation, mother-child interaction and early forms of support - Pimentel, Júlia van Zeller de Serpa; Menéres, Maria Sofia Seabra Pereira Cabral
In this paper, we present a longitudinal case study involving four dyads with babies with Down syndrome from birth until the age of 7 years – the moment at which the children were observed for the last time before they began compulsory schooling. At each data collection point, the mother was given a semi-directive interview and we filmed a free interaction situation. The objective of our study was to carry out an indepth analysis of the ways in which mothers adapt to the birth of a ‘different baby’, the evolution of their expectations in relation to the child’s development, mother– child interaction and early support for both...

7. Positivity can cue familiarity - Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Mackie, Diane M.; Claypool, Heather M.; Garcia-Marques, Leonel
Given that familiarity is closely associated with positivity, the authors sought evidence for the idea that positivity would increase perceived familiarity. In Experiment 1, smiling and thus positively perceived novel faces were significantly more likely to be incorrectly judged as familiar than novel faces with neutral expressions. In Experiment 2, subliminal association with positive affect (a positively valenced prime) led to false recognition of novel words as familiar. In Experiment 3, validity judgments, known to be influenced by familiarity, were more likely to occur if participants were in happy mood states than neutral mood states. Despite their different paradigms and approaches, the results of these three studies converge on the idea that,...

8. School experience, relational justice and legitimation of institutional - Pereira, Maria Gouveia; Vala, Jorge; Palmonari, Augusto; Rubini, Monica
This study analysis the relationship between perceptions of the justice of teacher' behaviour and (a) the legitimation of school authority and (b) the legitimation of institutional authorities outside school. 448 adolescent students participated in the study. In a questionnaire participants were asked about (a) perceptions of the justice of teachers' behaviour; (b) evaluation of the school experience; and (c) evaluation of institutional authorities. Results show that the evaluation of the justice of teacher behaviour, in particular relational and procedural justice, have an impact on the legitimation of the authority of teachers and on the evaluation of institutional authorities outside school....

9. Maternal secure-base scripts and children’s attachment security in an adopted sample - Veríssimo, Manuela; Salvaterra, Maria Fernanda
Studies of families with adopted children are of special interest to attachment theorists because they afford opportunities to probe assumptions of attachment theory with regard to the developmental timing of interactions necessary to form primary attachments and also with regard to effects of shared genes on child attachment quality. In Bowlby’s model, attachment-relevant behaviors and interactions are observable from the moment of birth, but for adoptive families, these interactions cannot begin until the child enters the family, sometimes several months or even years post-partum. Furthermore, because adoptive parents and adopted children do not usually share genes by common descent, any correspondence between attachment representations of the parent...

10. The effect of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic suggesttibility, and goal intentions on adherence to medical instructions - Carvalho, Cláudia Maria Constante Ferreira de; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving; Meo, Maria; Santandrea, Maura
The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a...

11. The diet of Atlantic Yellow-legged Gulls (Larus michahellisatlantis) at an oceanic seabird colony: estimating predatory impact upon breeding petrels - Matias, Rafael; Catry, Paulo
The diet and breeding ecology of Yellowlegged Gulls (Larus michahellis atlantis) were studied on Selvagem Grande, North Atlantic in the nesting season of 2007. We collected and analyzed 715 pellets from adults. The most frequent prey were White-faced Stormpetrels (Pelagodroma marina; present on 40.8% of all pellets) and the endemic land snails (Theba macandrewiana; present on 36.5% of all pellets). Other birds, namely Cory’s Shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea), Macaronesian Shearwaters (Puffinus assimilis), Bulwer’s Petrels (Bulweria bulwerii), and Band-rumped Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma castro) were relatively less frequent, but overall, seabirds were present in ca. 50% of all pellets, representing an estimated 60.4% of all...

12. Longitudinal stability of social competence indicators in a portuguese sample: Q-sort profiles of social competence, measures of social engagement, and peer sociometric acceptance - Santos, António José; Vaughn, Brian E.; Peceguina, Maria Inês Duarte; Daniel, João Rodrigo
This study examines the temporal stability (over 3 years) of individual differences in 3 domains relevant to preschool children’s social competence: social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior and personality attributes characteristic of socially competent young children, and peer acceptance. Each domain was measured with multiple indicators. Sociometric status categories (Asher & Dodge, 1986) and reciprocated friendships were derived from sociometric data. Composites for social competence domains were significantly associated across all time points. Within age-periods, social competence domains were associated with both sociometric and friendship status categories; however, neither sociometric status nor reciprocated friendships were stable over time. Nevertheless, analyses examining the social competence antecedents to reciprocated friendship at...

13. Time and outcome framing in intertemporal tradeoffs - Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel
A robust anomaly in intertemporal choice is the delay–speedup asymmetry: Receipts are discounted more, and payments are discounted less, when delayed than when expedited over the same interval. We developed 2 versions of the tradeoff model (Scholten & Read, 2010) to address such situations, in which an outcome is expected at a given time but then its timing is changed. The outcome framing model generalizes the approach taken by the hyperbolic discounting model (Loewenstein & Prelec, 1992): Not obtaining a positive outcome when expected is a worse than expected state, to which people are over-responsive, or hypersensitive, and not incurring a negative outcome when expected is...

14. Emotion regulation and attachment: Relationships with children’s secure base, during different situational and social contexts in naturalistic settings - Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela; Fernandes, Marília; Rebelo, Ana
This study investigated the relationships between children’s secure base and emotion regulation, namely their behavioral strategies and emotional expressiveness, during different situational and social contexts in naturalistic settings. Fifty-five children ranging in age from 18 to 26 months of age and their mothers participated in this study. Children were exposed to three situational (fear, positive affect and frustration/anger) and two social (maternal constraint and involvement) contexts. Toddlers’ behavioral strategies differed as function of emotion-eliciting context, maternal involvement and attachment quality. Emotional expressiveness varied as function of an interaction involving situational contexts, maternal involvement and children’s attachment security.

15. Motivation for reading and writing in kindergarten children - Mata, Maria de Lourdes Estorninho Neves
This study characterizes the reading and writing motivations of kindergarten children. Four hundred fifty-one children participated in the study, answering questions measuring value, self-concept, and enjoyment of reading and writing. A factor analysis validated the conceptual motivational constructs. Findings indicate that kindergarten children have high motivation for both reading and writing, although scores for writing motivation were not as high as those for reading. Among the group studied, boys’ and girls’ motivational profiles are not markedly differentiated. Implications for future research and educational practices are discussed.

16. Reasoning with 'unless' counterfactual conditionals - García-Madruga, Juan A.; Moreno-Ríos, Sérgio; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Juhos, Csongor
This article tackles factual and counterfactual 'unless' expressions such as "Virginia will not pass the exam unless she works harder" and "Virginia would not passed the exam unless she had worked harder". 'Unless' is a negative conditional that is semantically equivalent to 'if not'. However, some authers have claimed that 'unless' is more closely related to 'only if' than to 'if not'. We report two experiments that compare conditional inferences from 'unless' to 'if-not' amd 'only if' factual and counterfactual conditionals. The first experiment compared 'not-A unless B' and 'if not-B then not-A' and showed a difference between affirmative (i.e....

17. Longitudinal analyses of a hierarchical model of peer social competence for preschool children: Structural fidelity and external correlates - Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.; Kim, Mina; Krzysik, Lisa; Bost, Kelly K.; McBride, Brent; Santos, António José; Peceguina, Maria Inês Duarte; Coppola, Gabrielle
Achieving consensus on the definition and measurement of social competence (SC) for preschool children has proven difficult in the developmental sciences. We tested a hierarchical model in which SC is assumed to be a second-order latent variable by using longitudinal data (N = 345). We also tested the degree to which peer SC at Time 1 predicted changes in positive adjustment from Time 1 to Time 2, based on teacher and peer ratings. Using a multiple-method datacollection strategy, information for three subdomains of SC (social engagement/ motivation, profiles of social interaction and personality assets assessed with Q-sorts, peer acceptance) were collected across consecutive years in preschool programs. Longitudinal confirmatory...

18. Correlates of self-directed behaviors in captive Cercopithecus aethiops - Daniel, João Rodrigo; Santos, António José; Vicente, Luís A.
Researchers have widely used self-directed behaviors (SDB) as a behavioral indicator of anxiety in nonhuman primates. We examined if SDB rates in captive vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) were associated with 1) proximity to conspecifics in general, 2) relative dominance rank of proximity partners, and 3) postconflict situations. Subjects were members of a captive group of vervets at the Lisbon Zoo, Portugal. The group comprised 3 males and 7 females, which were focal sampled for 10.5 h each. Vervets did not engage in more SBD while in proximity of conspecifics than while alone, and individual SDB rates were not generally influenced by dominance ranks of neighbors. Yet, victims of conflicts significantly...

19. The quality of maternal secure-base scripts predicts children's secure-base behavior at home in three sociocultural groups - Vaughn, Brian E.; Coppola, Gabrielle; Veríssimo, Manuela; Monteiro, Lígia Maria Santos; Santos, António José; Posada, German; Carbonell, Olga A.; Plata, Sandra J.; Waters, Harriet S.; Bost, Kelly K.; McBride, Brent; Shin, Nana; Korth, Bryan
The secure-base phenomenon is central to the Bowlby/Ainsworth theory of attachment and is also central to the assessment of attachment across the lifespan. The present study tested whether mothers’ knowledge about the secure-base phenomenon, as assessed using a recently designed wordlist prompt measure for eliciting attachment-relevant stories, would predict their children’s securebase behavior, as assessed by observers in the home and summarized with the Attachment Q-set (AQS). In each of three sociocultural groups (from Colombia, Portugal, and the US), scores characterizing the quality of maternal secure-base narratives elicited using the word-list prompt procedure were internally consistent, as indicated by tests of cross-story reliability, and they were positively...

20. Emotional context, maternal behavior and emotion regulation - Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela
This study investigated the importance of emotion-eliciting context (positive and negative) and mother’s behaviors (constrained and involved) on toddlers’ emotion regulation behavioral strategies, emotional expressiveness and intensity, during three episodes eliciting fear, frustration/anger and positive affect. Fifty-five children between 18 and 26 months of age and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers’ regulatory strategies varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited behavioral strategies more frequently during positive affect and frustration/anger episodes and less frequently during fear episodes) and maternal involvement. Toddlers’ expression of emotion varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited more emotional expressions, both negative and positive during fear and frustration/anger episodes compared to positive...

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