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Caltech Authors (160.918 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = Institute for Quantum Information and Matter

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 209

  1. Quantum information in quantum cognition

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Crosson, Elizabeth
    Matthew Fisher recently postulated a mechanism by which quantum phenomena could influence cognition: Phosphorus nuclear spins may resist decoherence for long times. The spins would serve as biological qubits. The qubits may resist decoherence longer when in Posner molecules. We imagine that Fisher postulates correctly. How adroitly could biological systems process quantum information (QI)? We establish a framework for answering. Additionally, we apply biological qubits in quantum error correction, quantum communication, and quantum computation. First, we posit how the QI encoded by the spins transforms as Posner molecules form. The transformation points to a natural computational basis for qubits in Posner molecules....

  2. Characterization of surface-plasmon polaritons at lossy interfaces

    Sang-Nourpour, Nafiseh; Lavoie, Benjamin R.; Kheradmand, R.; Rezaei, M.; Sanders, Barry C.
    We characterize surface-plasmon polaritons at lossy planar interfaces between one dispersive and one nondispersive linear isotropic homogeneous media, i.e. materials or metamaterials. Specifically, we solve Maxwell's equations to obtain strict bounds for the permittivity and permeability of these media, such that satisfying these bounds implies surface-plasmon polaritons successfully propagate at the interface, and violation of the bounds impedes propagation, i.e. the field delocalizes from the surface into the bulk. Our characterization of surface-plasmon polaritons is valuable for checking the viability of a proposed application, and, as an example, we employ our method to falsify a previous prediction that surface-plasmon propagation...

  3. Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant

    Bao, Ning; Bousso, Raphael; Jordan, Stephen; Lackey, Brad
    Denef and Douglas have observed that in certain landscape models the problem of finding small values of the cosmological constant is a large instance of a problem that is hard for the complexity class NP (Nondeterministic Polynomial-time). The number of elementary operations (quantum gates) needed to solve this problem by brute force search exceeds the estimated computational capacity of the observable Universe. Here we describe a way out of this puzzling circumstance: despite being NP-hard, the problem of finding a small cosmological constant can be attacked by more sophisticated algorithms whose performance vastly exceeds brute force search. In fact, in...

  4. Quantum efficiency enhancement by photon recycling with backscatter evasion

    Nagano, Koji; Perreca, Antonio; Arai, Koji; Adhikari, Rana X.
    The non-unity quantum efficiency (QE) in photodiodes (PD) causes deterioration of signal quality in quantum optical experiments due to photocurrent loss as well as the introduction of vacuum fluctuations into the measurement. In this article, we report that the QE enhancement of a PD was demonstrated by recycling the reflected photons. The effective external QE for an InGaAs PD was increased by 2-6% over a wide range of incident angles. Moreover, we confirmed that this technique does not increase backscattered light when the recycled beam is properly misaligned.

  5. Generalized surface codes and packing of logical qubits

    Delfosse, Nicolas; Iyer, Pavithran; Poulin, David
    We consider a notion of relative homology (and cohomology) for surfaces with two types of boundaries. Using this tool, we study a generalization of Kitaev's code based on surfaces with mixed boundaries. This construction includes both Bravyi and Kitaev's and Freedman and Meyer's extension of Kitaev's toric code. We argue that our generalization offers a denser storage of quantum information. In a planar architecture, we obtain a three-fold overhead reduction over the standard architecture consisting of a punctured square lattice.

  6. A linear-time benchmarking tool for generalized surface codes

    Delfosse, Nicolas; Iyer, Pavithran; Poulin, David
    Quantum information processors need to be protected against errors and faults. One of the most widely considered fault-tolerant architecture is based on surface codes. While the general principles of these codes are well understood and basic code properties such as minimum distance and rate are easy to characterize, a code's average performance depends on the detailed geometric layout of the qubits. To date, optimizing a surface code architecture and comparing different geometric layouts relies on costly numerical simulations. Here, we propose a benchmarking algorithm for simulating the performance of surface codes, and generalizations thereof, that runs in linear time. We implemented...

  7. Linear-Time Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Surface Codes over the Quantum Erasure Channel

    Delfosse, Nicolas; Zémor, Gilles
    Surface codes are among the best candidates to ensure the fault-tolerance of a quantum computer. In order to avoid the accumulation of errors during a computation, it is crucial to have at our disposal a fast decoding algorithm to quickly identify and correct errors as soon as they occur. We propose a linear-time maximum likelihood decoder for surface codes over the quantum erasure channel. This decoding algorithm for dealing with qubit loss is optimal both in terms of performance and speed.

  8. The quasiprobability behind the out-of-time-ordered correlator

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Swingle, Brian; Dressel, Justin
    Two topics, evolving rapidly in separate fields, were combined recently: The out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) signals quantum-information scrambling in many-body systems. The Kirkwood-Dirac (KD) quasiprobability represents operators in quantum optics. The OTOC was shown to equal a moment of a summed quasiprobability. That quasiprobability, we argue, is an extension of the KD distribution. We explore the quasiprobability's structure from experimental, numerical, and theoretical perspectives. First, we simplify and analyze Yunger Halpern's weak-measurement and interference protocols for measuring the OTOC and its quasiprobability. We decrease, exponentially in system size, the number of trials required to infer the OTOC from weak measurements. We also construct...

  9. Test for a large amount of entanglement, using few measurements

    Chao, Rui; Reichardt, Ben W.; Sutherland, Chris; Vidick, Thomas
    Bell-inequality violations establish that two systems share some quantum entanglement. We give a simple test to certify that two systems share an asymptotically large amount of entanglement, n EPR states. The test is efficient: unlike earlier tests that play many games, in sequence or in parallel, our test requires only one or two CHSH games. One system is directed to play a CHSH game on a random specified qubit i, and the other is told to play games on qubits {i,j}, without knowing which index is i. The test is robust: a success probability within delta of optimal guarantees distance O(n^{5/2} sqrt{delta})...

  10. Contextuality as a resource for models of quantum computation on qubits

    Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Delfosse, Nicolas; Browne, Dan E.; Okay, Cihan; Raussendorf, Robert
    A central question in quantum computation is to identify the resources that are responsible for quantum speed-up. Quantum contextuality has been recently shown to be a resource for quantum computation with magic states for odd-prime dimensional qudits and two-dimensional systems with real wavefunctions. The phenomenon of state-independent contextuality poses a priori an obstruction to characterizing the case of regular qubits, the fundamental building block of quantum computation. Here, we establish contextuality of magic states as a necessary resource for a large class of quantum computation schemes on qubits. We illustrate our result with a concrete scheme related to measurement-based quantum computation.

  11. Contextuality as a resource for models of quantum computation on qubits

    Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Delfosse, Nicolas; Browne, Dan E.; Okay, Cihan; Raussendorf, Robert
    A central question in quantum computation is to identify the resources that are responsible for quantum speed-up. Quantum contextuality has been recently shown to be a resource for quantum computation with magic states for odd-prime dimensional qudits and two-dimensional systems with real wave functions. The phenomenon of state-independent contextuality poses a priori an obstruction to characterizing the case of regular qubits, the fundamental building block of quantum computation. Here, we establish contextuality of magic states as a necessary resource for a large class of quantum computation schemes on qubits. We illustrate our result with a concrete scheme related to measurement-based...

  12. Matrix Product Representation of Locality Preserving Unitaries

    Sahinoğlu, M. Burak; Shukla, Sujeet K.; Bi, Feng; Chen, Xie
    The matrix product representation provides a useful formalism to study not only entangled states, but also entangled operators in one dimension. In this paper, we focus on unitary transformations and show that matrix product operators that are unitary provides a necessary and sufficient representation of 1D unitaries that preserve locality. That is, we show that matrix product operators that are unitary are guaranteed to preserve locality by mapping local operators to local operators while at the same time all locality preserving unitaries can be represented in a matrix product way. Moreover, we show that the matrix product representation gives a straight-forward...

  13. Variational optimization algorithms for uniform matrix product states

    Zauner-Stauber, V.; Vanderstraeten, L.; Fishman, M. T.; Verstraete, F.; Haegeman, J.
    We combine the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) with Matrix Product State tangent space concepts to construct a variational algorithm for finding ground states of one dimensional quantum lattices in the thermodynamic limit. A careful comparison of this variational uniform Matrix Product State algorithm (VUMPS) with infinite Density Matrix Renormalization Group (IDMRG)and with infinite Time Evolving Block Decimation (ITEBD) reveals substantial gains in convergence speed and precision. We also demonstrate that VUMPS works very efficiently for Hamiltonians with long range interactions. The new algorithm can be conveniently implemented as an extension of an already existing DMRG implementation.

  14. Variational optimization algorithms for uniform matrix product states

    Zauner-Stauber, V.; Vanderstraeten, L.; Fishman, M. T.; Verstraete, F.; Haegeman, J.
    We combine the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) with Matrix Product State tangent space concepts to construct a variational algorithm for finding ground states of one dimensional quantum lattices in the thermodynamic limit. A careful comparison of this variational uniform Matrix Product State algorithm (VUMPS) with infinite Density Matrix Renormalization Group (IDMRG)and with infinite Time Evolving Block Decimation (ITEBD) reveals substantial gains in convergence speed and precision. We also demonstrate that VUMPS works very efficiently for Hamiltonians with long range interactions. The new algorithm can be conveniently implemented as an extension of an already existing DMRG implementation.

  15. Local Master Equation for Small Temperatures

    Mozgunov, Evgeny
    We present a local Master equation for open system dynamics in two forms:Markovian and non-Markovian. Both have a wider range of validity than the Lindblad equation investigated by Davies. For low temperatures, they do not require coupling to be exponentially weak in the system size. If the state remains a low bond dimension Matrix Product State throughout the evolution, the local equation can be simulated in time polynomial in system size.

  16. Area law in the exact solution of many-body localized systems

    Mozgunov, Evgeny
    Many-body localization was proven under realistic assumptions by constructing a quasi-local unitary rotation that diagonalizes the Hamiltonian (Imbrie, 2016). A natural generalization is to consider all unitaries that have a similar structure. We bound entanglement for states generated by such unitaries, thus providing an independent proof of area law in eigenstates of many-body localized systems. An error of approximating the unitary by a finite-depth local circuit is obtained. We connect the defined family of unitaries to other results about many-body localization (Kim et al, 2014), in particular Lieb-Robinson bound. Finally we argue that any Hamiltonian can be diagonalized by such a unitary, given...

  17. Anyons are not energy eigenspaces of quantum double Hamiltonians

    Kómár, Anna; Landon-Cardinal, Olivier
    Kitaev's quantum double models, including the toric code, are canonical examples of quantum topological models on a 2D spin lattice. Their Hamiltonian defines the groundspace by imposing an energy penalty to any nontrivial flux or charge, but does not distinguish among those. We generalize this construction by introducing a novel family of Hamiltonians made of commuting four-body projectors that provide an intricate splitting of the Hilbert space by discriminating among non-trivial charges and fluxes. Our construction highlights that anyons are not in one-to-one correspondence with energy eigenspaces, a feature already present in Kitaev's construction. This discrepancy is due to the presence of...

  18. Anyons are not energy eigenspaces of quantum double Hamiltonians

    Kómár, Anna; Landon-Cardinal, Olivier
    Kitaev's quantum double models, including the toric code, are canonical examples of quantum topological models on a 2D spin lattice. Their Hamiltonian defines the groundspace by imposing an energy penalty to any nontrivial flux or charge, but does not distinguish among those. We generalize this construction by introducing a novel family of Hamiltonians made of commuting four-body projectors that provide an intricate splitting of the Hilbert space by discriminating among non-trivial charges and fluxes. Our construction highlights that anyons are not in one-to-one correspondence with energy eigenspaces, a feature already present in Kitaev's construction. This discrepancy is due to the presence of...

  19. Anyons are not energy eigenspaces of quantum double Hamiltonians

    Kómár, Anna; Landon-Cardinal, Olivier
    Kitaev's quantum double models, including the toric code, are canonical examples of quantum topological models on a two-dimensional spin lattice. Their Hamiltonian defines the ground space by imposing an energy penalty to any nontrivial flux or charge, but does not distinguish among those. We generalize this construction by introducing a family of Hamiltonians made of commuting four-body projectors that provide an intricate splitting of the Hilbert space by discriminating among nontrivial charges and fluxes. Our construction highlights that anyons are not in one-to-one correspondence with energy eigenspaces, a feature already present in Kitaev's construction. This discrepancy is due to the...

  20. Chaos, Complexity, and Random Matrices

    Cotler, Jordan; Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Yoshida, Beni
    Chaos and complexity entail an entropic and computational obstruction to describing a system, and thus are intrinsically difficult to characterize. In this paper, we consider time evolution by Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) Hamiltonians and analytically compute out-of-time-ordered correlation functions (OTOCs) and frame potentials to quantify scrambling, Haar-randomness, and circuit complexity. While our random matrix analysis gives a qualitatively correct prediction of the late-time behavior of chaotic systems, we find unphysical behavior at early times including an $\mathcal{O}(1)$ scrambling time and the apparent breakdown of spatial and temporal locality. The salient feature of GUE Hamiltonians which gives us computational traction is the Haar-invariance...

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