Recursos de colección

Caltech Authors (167.915 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = Institute for Quantum Information and Matter

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 245

  1. Amortization does not enhance the max-Rains information of a quantum channel

    Berta, Mario; Wilde, Mark M.
    Given an entanglement measure E, the entanglement of a quantum channel is defined as the largest amount of entanglement E that can be generated from the channel, if the sender and receiver are not allowed to share a quantum state before using the channel. The amortized entanglement of a quantum channel is defined as the largest net amount of entanglement E that can be generated from the channel, if the sender and receiver are allowed to share an arbitrary state before using the channel. Our main technical result is that amortization does not enhance the entanglement of an arbitrary quantum...

  2. External quantum efficiency enhancement by photon recycling with backscatter evasion

    Nagano, Koji; Perreca, Antonio; Arai, Koji; Adhikari, Rana X.
    The nonunity quantum efficiency (QE) in photodiodes (PD) causes deterioration of signal quality in quantum optical experiments due to photocurrent loss as well as the introduction of vacuum fluctuations into the measurement. In this paper, we report that the external QE enhancement of a PD was demonstrated by recycling the reflected photons. The external QE for an InGaAs PD was increased by 0.01–0.06 from 0.86–0.92 over a wide range of incident angles. Moreover, we confirmed that this technique does not increase backscattered light when the recycled beam is properly misaligned.

  3. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix
    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to...

  4. Inversion symmetry and bulk Rashba effect in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite single crystals

    Frohna, Kyle; Deshpande, Tejas; Harter, John; Peng, Wei; Barker, Bradford A.; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.; Bakr, Osman M.; Hsieh, David; Bernardi, Marco
    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (MAPbI_3) exhibits long charge carrier lifetimes that are linked to its high efficiency in solar cells. Yet, the mechanisms governing these unusual carrier dynamics are not completely understood. A leading hypothesis—disproved in this work—is that a large, static bulk Rashba effect slows down carrier recombination. Here, using second harmonic generation rotational anisotropy measurements on MAPbI_3 crystals, we demonstrate that the bulk structure of tetragonal MAPbI_3 is centrosymmetric with I4/mcmspace group. Our calculations show that a significant Rashba splitting in the bandstructure requires a non-centrosymmetric lead iodide framework, and that incorrect structural relaxations are responsible for the...

  5. Quantum indistinguishability in chemical reactions

    Fisher, Matthew P. A.; Radzihovsky, Leo
    Quantum indistinguishability plays a crucial role in many low-energy physical phenomena, from quantum fluids to molecular spectroscopy. It is, however, typically ignored in most high-temperature processes, particularly for ionic coordinates, implicitly assumed to be distinguishable, incoherent, and thus well approximated classically. We explore enzymatic chemical reactions involving small symmetric molecules and argue that in many situations a full quantum treatment of collective nuclear degrees of freedom is essential. Supported by several physical arguments, we conjecture a “quantum dynamical selection” (QDS) rule for small symmetric molecules that precludes chemical processes that involve direct transitions from orbitally nonsymmetric molecular states. As we...

  6. Discriminative Cooperative Networks for Detecting Phase Transitions

    Liu, Ye-Hua; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P. L.
    The classification of states of matter and their corresponding phase transitions is a special kind of machine-learning task, where physical data allow for the analysis of new algorithms, which have not been considered in the general computer-science setting so far. Here we introduce an unsupervised machine-learning scheme for detecting phase transitions with a pair of discriminative cooperative networks (DCNs). In this scheme, a guesser network and a learner network cooperate to detect phase transitions from fully unlabeled data. The new scheme is efficient enough for dealing with phase diagrams in two-dimensional parameter spaces, where we can utilize an active contour...

  7. Renormalization group approach to symmetry protected topological phases

    van Nieuwenburg, Evert P. L.; Schnyder, Andreas P.; Chen, Wei
    A defining feature of a symmetry protected topological phase (SPT) in one dimension is the degeneracy of the Schmidt values for any given bipartition. For the system to go through a topological phase transition separating two SPTs, the Schmidt values must either split or cross at the critical point in order to change their degeneracies. A renormalization group (RG) approach based on this splitting or crossing is proposed, through which we obtain an RG flow that identifies the topological phase transitions in the parameter space. Our approach can be implemented numerically in an efficient manner, for example, using the matrix...

  8. Pressure-anisotropy-induced nonlinearities in the kinetic magnetorotational instability

    Squire, J.; Quataert, E.; Kunz, M. W.
    In collisionless and weakly collisional plasmas, such as hot accretion flows onto compact objects, the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can differ significantly from the standard (collisional) MRI. In particular, pressure anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic-field direction can both change the linear MRI dispersion relation and cause nonlinear modifications to the mode structure and growth rate, even when the field and flow perturbations are very small. This work studies these pressure-anisotropy-induced nonlinearities in the weakly nonlinear, high-ion-beta regime, before the MRI saturates into strong turbulence. Our goal is to better understand how the saturation of the MRI in a low-collisionality...

  9. Out-of-time-ordered correlators in a quantum Ising chain

    Lin, Cheng-Ju; Motrunich, Olexei I.
    Out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOC) have been proposed to characterize quantum chaos in generic systems. However, they can also show interesting behavior in integrable models, resembling the OTOC in chaotic systems in some aspects. Here we study the OTOC for different operators in the exactly-solvable one-dimensional quantum Ising spin chain. The OTOC for spin operators that are local in terms of the Jordan-Wigner fermions has a “shell-like” structure: After the wavefront passes, the OTOC approaches its original value in the long-time limit, showing no signature of scrambling; the approach is described by a t^(−1) power law at long time t. On the...

  10. Topological energy conversion through the bulk or the boundary of driven systems

    Peng, Yang; Refael, Gil
    Combining physical and synthetic dimensions allows a controllable realization and manipulation of high-dimensional topological states. In our work, we introduce two quasiperiodically driven one-dimensional systems which enable tunable topological energy conversion between different driving sources. Using three drives, we realize a four-dimensional quantum Hall state which allows energy conversion between two of the drives within the bulk of the one-dimensional system. With only two drives, we achieve energy conversion between the two at the edge of the chain. Both effects are a manifestation of the effective axion electrodynamics in a three-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulator. Furthermore, we explore the effects of...

  11. Wave-Function Hybridization in Yu-Shiba-Rusinov Dimers

    Ruby, Michael; Heinrich, Benjamin W.; Peng, Yang; von Oppen, Felix; Franke, Katharina J.
    Magnetic adsorbates on superconductors induce local bound states within the superconducting gap. These Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states decay slowly away from the impurity compared to atomic orbitals, even in 3D bulk crystals. Here, we use scanning tunneling spectroscopy to investigate their hybridization between two nearby magnetic Mn adatoms on a superconducting Pb(001) surface. We observe that the hybridization leads to the formation of symmetric and antisymmetric combinations of YSR states. We investigate how the structure of the dimer wave functions and the energy splitting depend on the shape of the underlying monomer orbitals and the orientation of the dimer with respect...

  12. Quasiprobability behind the out-of-time-ordered correlator

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Swingle, Brian; Dressel, Justin
    Two topics, evolving rapidly in separate fields, were combined recently: the out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) signals quantum-information scrambling in many-body systems. The Kirkwood-Dirac (KD) quasiprobability represents operators in quantum optics. The OTOC was shown to equal a moment of a summed quasiprobability [Yunger Halpern, Phys. Rev. A 95, 012120 (2017)]. That quasiprobability, we argue, is an extension of the KD distribution. We explore the quasiprobability's structure from experimental, numerical, and theoretical perspectives. First, we simplify and analyze Yunger Halpern's weak-measurement and interference protocols for measuring the OTOC and its quasiprobability. We decrease, exponentially in system size, the number of trials required...

  13. Thermalization dynamics of two correlated bosonic quantum wires after a split

    Huber, Sebastian; Buchhold, Michael; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Diehl, Sebastian
    Cherently splitting a one-dimensional Bose gas provides an attractive, experimentally established platform to investigate many-body quantum dynamics. At short enough times, the dynamics is dominated by the dephasing of single quasiparticles, and well described by the relaxation towards a generalized Gibbs ensemble corresponding to the free Luttinger theory. At later times on the other hand, the approach to a thermal Gibbs ensemble is expected for a generic, interacting quantum system. Here, we go one step beyond the quadratic Luttinger theory and include the leading phonon-phonon interactions. By applying kinetic theory and nonequilibrium Dyson-Schwinger equations, we analyze the full relaxation dynamics...

  14. Performance and structure of single-mode bosonic codes

    Albert, Victor V.; Noh, Kyungjoo; Duivenvoorden, Kasper; Young, Dylan J.; Brierley, R. T.; Reinhold, Philip; Vuillot, Christophe; Li, Linshu; Shen, Chao; Girvin, S. M.; Terhal, Barbara M.; Jiang, Liang
    The early Gottesman, Kitaev, and Preskill (GKP) proposal for encoding a qubit in an oscillator has recently been followed by cat- and binomial-code proposals. Numerically optimized codes have also been proposed, and we introduce codes of this type here. These codes have yet to be compared using the same error model; we provide such a comparison by determining the entanglement fidelity of all codes with respect to the bosonic pure-loss channel (i.e., photon loss) after the optimal recovery operation. We then compare achievable communication rates of the combined encoding-error-recovery channel by calculating the channel's hashing bound for each code. Cat...

  15. Floquet Engineering in Quantum Chains

    Kennes, D. M.; de la Torre, A.; Ron, A.; Hsieh, D.; Millis, A. J.
    We consider a one-dimensional interacting spinless fermion model, which displays the well-known Luttinger liquid (LL) to charge density wave (CDW) transition as a function of the ratio between the strength of the interaction U and the hopping J . We subject this system to a spatially uniform drive which is ramped up over a finite time interval and becomes time periodic in the long-time limit. We show that by using a density matrix renormalization group approach formulated for infinite system sizes, we can access the large-time limit even when the drive induces finite heating. When both the initial and long-time states...

  16. Subradiant states of quantum bits coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide

    Albrecht, Andreas; Henriet, Loïc; Asenjo-Garcia, Ana; Dieterle, Paul B.; Painter, Oskar; Chang, Darrick E.
    The properties of coupled emitters can differ dramatically from those of their individual constituents. Canonical examples include sub- and super-radiance, wherein the decay rate of a collective excitation is reduced or enhanced due to correlated interactions with the environment. Here, we systematically study the properties of collective excitations for regularly spaced arrays of quantum emitters coupled to a one-dimensional (1D) waveguide. We find that, for low excitation numbers, the modal properties are well-characterized by spin waves with a definite wavevector. Moreover, the decay rate of the most subradiant modes obeys a universal scaling with a cubic suppression in the number...

  17. Superconducting metamaterials for waveguide quantum electrodynamics

    Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Kim, Eunjong; Ferreira, Vinicius S.; Kalaee, Mahmoud; Sipahigil, Alp; Keller, Andrew J.; Painter, Oskar
    The embedding of tunable quantum emitters in a photonic bandgap structure enables the control of dissipative and dispersive interactions between emitters and their photonic bath. Operation in the transmission band, outside the gap, allows for studying waveguide quantum electrodynamics in the slow-light regime. Alternatively, tuning the emitter into the bandgap results in finite range emitter-emitter interactions via bound photonic states. Here we couple a transmon qubit to a superconducting metamaterial with a deep sub-wavelength lattice constant ($\lambda/60$). The metamaterial is formed by periodically loading a transmission line with compact, low loss, low disorder lumped element microwave resonators. We probe the coherent and dissipative dynamics of the system by measuring the...

  18. Multiple-scale structures: from Faraday waves to soft-matter quasicrystals

    Savitz, Samuel; Babadi, Mehrtash; Lifshitz, Ron
    For many years, quasicrystals were observed only as solid-state metallic alloys, yet current research is now actively exploring their formation in a variety of soft materials, including systems of macromolecules, nanoparticles and colloids. Much effort is being invested in understanding the thermodynamic properties of these soft-matter quasicrystals in order to predict and possibly control the structures that form, and hopefully to shed light on the broader yet unresolved general questions of quasicrystal formation and stability. Moreover, the ability to control the self-assembly of soft quasicrystals may contribute to the development of novel photonics or other applications based on self-assembled metamaterials....

  19. Beyond heat baths II: framework for generalized thermodynamic resource theories

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole
    Thermodynamics, which describes vast systems, has been reconciled with small scales, relevant to single-molecule experiments, in resource theories. Resource theories have been used to model exchanges of energy and information. Recently, particle exchanges were modeled; and an umbrella family of thermodynamic resource theories was proposed to model diverse baths, interactions, and free energies. This paper motivates and details the family's structure and prospective applications. How to model electrochemical, gravitational, magnetic, and other thermodynamic systems is explained. Szilárd's engine and Landauer's Principle are generalized, as resourcefulness is shown to be convertible not only between information and gravitational energy, but also among...

  20. Evidence of an Improper Displacive Phase Transition in Cd_2Re_2O_7 via Time-Resolved Coherent Phonon Spectroscopy

    Harter, J. W.; Kennes, D. M.; Chu, H.; de la Torre, A.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Yan, J.-Q.; Mandrus, D. G.; Millis, A. J.; Hsieh, D.
    We have used a combination of ultrafast coherent phonon spectroscopy, ultrafast thermometry, and time-dependent Landau theory to study the inversion symmetry breaking phase transition at T_c=200  K in the strongly spin-orbit coupled correlated metal Cd_2Re_2O_7. We establish that the structural distortion at T_c is a secondary effect through the absence of any softening of its associated phonon mode, which supports a purely electronically driven mechanism. However, the phonon lifetime exhibits an anomalously strong temperature dependence that decreases linearly to zero near T_c. We show that this behavior naturally explains the spurious appearance of phonon softening in previous Raman spectroscopy experiments and...

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