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Caltech Authors (157.532 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = Institute for Quantum Information and Matter

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 129

  1. Fiber taper characterization by optical backscattering reflectometry

    Lai, Yu-Hung; Yang, Ki Youl; Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.
    Fiber tapers provide a way to rapidly measure the spectra of many types of optical microcavities. Proper fabrication of the taper ensures that its width varies sufficiently slowly (adiabatically) along the length of the taper so as to maintain single spatial mode propagation. This is usually accomplished by monitoring the spectral transmission through the taper. In addition to this characterization method it is also helpful to know the taper width versus length. By developing a model of optical backscattering within the fiber taper, it is possible to use backscatter measurements to characterize the taper width versus length. The model uses...

  2. Sensing Floquet-Majorana fermions via heat transfer

    Molignini, Paolo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert; Chitra, R.
    Time periodic modulations of the transverse field in the closed XY spin-1/2 chain generate a very rich dynamical phase diagram, with a hierarchy of Z_n topological phases characterized by differing numbers of Floquet-Majorana modes. This rich phase diagram survives when the system is coupled to dissipative end reservoirs. Circumventing the obstacle of preparing and measuring quasienergy configurations endemic to Floquet-Majorana detection schemes, we show that stroboscopic heat transport and spin density are robust observables to detect both the dynamical phase transitions and Majorana modes in dissipative settings. We find that the heat current provides very clear signatures of these Floquet...

  3. On thermalization in the SYK and supersymmetric SYK models

    Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Zhou, Yehao
    The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis is a compelling conjecture which strives to explain the apparent thermal behavior of generic observables in closed quantum systems. Although we are far from a complete analytic understanding, quantum chaos is often seen as a strong indication that the ansatz holds true. In this paper, we address the thermalization of energy eigenstates in the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, a maximally chaotic model of strongly-interacting Majorana fermions. We numerically investigate eigenstate thermalization for specific few-body operators in the original SYK model as well as its $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric extension and find evidence that these models satisfy ETH. We discuss the implications of ETH for a gravitational dual and the quantum...

  4. Contextuality as a Resource for Models of Quantum Computation with Qubits

    Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Delfosse, Nicolas; Browne, Dan E.; Okay, Cihan; Raussendorf, Robert
    A central question in quantum computation is to identify the resources that are responsible for quantum speed-up. Quantum contextuality has been recently shown to be a resource for quantum computation with magic states for odd-prime dimensional qudits and two-dimensional systems with real wave functions. The phenomenon of state-independent contextuality poses a priori an obstruction to characterizing the case of regular qubits, the fundamental building block of quantum computation. Here, we establish contextuality of magic states as a necessary resource for a large class of quantum computation schemes on qubits. We illustrate our result with a concrete scheme related to measurement-based...

  5. Overlapping qubits

    Chao, Rui; Reichardt, Ben W.; Sutherland, Chris; Vidick, Thomas
    An ideal system of $n$ qubits has $2^n$ dimensions. This exponential grants power, but also hinders characterizing the system's state and dynamics. We study a new problem: the qubits in a physical system might not be independent. They can "overlap," in the sense that an operation on one qubit slightly affects the others. We show that allowing for slight overlaps, $n$ qubits can fit in just polynomially many dimensions. (Defined in a natural way, all pairwise overlaps can be $\leq \epsilon$ in $n^{O(1/\epsilon^2)}$ dimensions.) Thus, even before considering issues like noise, a real system of $n$ qubits might inherently lack any potential for exponential power. On the other...

  6. QCMA hardness of ground space connectivity for commuting Hamiltonians

    Gosset, David; Mehta, Jenish C.; Vidick, Thomas
    In this work we consider the ground space connectivity problem for commuting local Hamiltonians. The ground space connectivity problem asks whether it is possible to go from one (efficiently preparable) state to another by applying a polynomial length sequence of 2-qubit unitaries while remaining at all times in a state with low energy for a given Hamiltonian H. It was shown in [Gharibian and Sikora, ICALP15] that this problem is QCMA-complete for general local Hamiltonians, where QCMA is defined as QMA with a classical witness and BQP verifier. Here we show that the commuting version of the problem is also...

  7. Topological frequency conversion in strongly driven quantum systems

    Martin, Ivar; Refael, Gil; Halperin, Bertrand I.
    When a physical system is subjected to a strong external multi-frequency drive, its dynamics can be conveniently represented in the multi-dimensional Floquet lattice. The number of the Floquet lattice dimensions equals the number of {\em irrationally}-related drive frequencies, and the evolution occurs in response to a built-in effective "electric" field, whose components are proportional to the corresponding drive frequencies. The mapping allows to engineer and study temporal analogs of many real-space phenomena. Here we focus on the specific example of a two-level system under two-frequency drive that induces topologically nontrivial band structure in the 2D Floquet space. The observable consequence of such construction is quantized pumping of energy between the...

  8. Robust Helical Edge Transport in Quantum Spin Hall Quantum Wells

    Skolasinski, Rafal; Pikulin, Dmitry I.; Alicea, Jason; Wimmer, Michael
    We show that burying of the Dirac point in semiconductor-based quantum-spin-Hall systems can generate unexpected robustness of edge states to magnetic fields. A detailed ${\bf k\cdot p}$ band-structure analysis reveals that InAs/GaSb and HgTe/CdTe quantum wells exhibit such buried Dirac points. By simulating transport in a disordered system described within an effective model, we further demonstrate that buried Dirac points yield nearly quantized edge conduction out to large magnetic fields, consistent with recent experiments.

  9. Three-dimensional color code thresholds via statistical-mechanical mapping

    Kubica, Aleksander; Beverland, Michael E.; Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Preskill, John; Svore, Krysta M.
    Three-dimensional (3D) color codes have advantages for fault-tolerant quantum computing, such as protected quantum gates with relatively low overhead and robustness against imperfect measurement of error syndromes. Here we investigate the storage threshold error rates for bit-flip and phase-flip noise in the 3D color code on the body-centererd cubic lattice, assuming perfect syndrome measurements. In particular, by exploiting a connection between error correction and statistical mechanics, we estimate the threshold for 1D string-like and 2D sheet-like logical operators to be $p^{(1)}_\mathrm{3DCC} \simeq 1.9\%$ and $p^{(2)}_\mathrm{3DCC} \simeq 27.6\%$. We obtain these results by using parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations to study the disorder-temperature phase diagrams of two new 3D statistical-mechanical models: the...

  10. Explicit construction of quasi-conserved local operator of translationally invariant non-integrable quantum spin chain in prethermalization

    Lin, Cheng-Ju; Motrunich, Olexei I.
    We numerically construct translationally invariant quasi-conserved operators with maximum range M which best-commute with a non-integrable quantum spin chain Hamiltonian, up to M = 12. In the large coupling limit, we find that the residual norm of the commutator of the quasi-conserved operator decays exponentially with its maximum range M at small M, and turns into a slower decay at larger M. This quasi-conserved operator can be understood as a dressed total "spin-z" operator, by comparing with the perturbative Schrieffer-Wolff construction developed to high order reaching essentially the same maximum range. We also examine the operator inverse participation ratio of the operator, which suggests its localization in the operator...

  11. Stable Unitary Integrators for the Numerical Implementation of Continuous Unitary Transformations

    Savitz, Samuel; Refael, Gil
    The technique of continuous unitary transformations has recently been used to provide physical insight into a diverse array of quantum mechanical systems. However, the question of how to best numerically implement the flow equations has received little attention. The most immediately apparent approach, using standard Runge-Kutta numerical integration algorithms, suffers from both severe inefficiency due to stiffness and the loss of unitarity. After reviewing the formalism of continuous unitary transformations and Wegner's original choice for the infinitesimal generator of the flow, we present a number of approaches to resolving these issues including a choice of generator which induces what we...

  12. MBL-mobile: Many-body-localized engine

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; White, Christopher David; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Refael, Gil
    Many-body-localized (MBL) systems do not thermalize under their intrinsic dynamics. The athermality of MBL, we propose, can be harnessed for thermodynamic tasks. We illustrate by formulating an Otto engine cycle for a quantum many-body system. The system is ramped between a strongly localized MBL regime and a thermal (or weakly localized) regime. MBL systems' energy-level correlations differ from thermal systems'. This discrepancy enhances the engine's reliability, suppresses worst-case trials, and enables mesoscale engines to run in parallel in the thermodynamic limit. We estimate analytically and calculate numerically the engine's efficiency and per-cycle power. The efficiency mirrors the efficiency of the conventional thermodynamic Otto engine. The per-cycle power scales linearly with...

  13. Setting Boundaries with Memory: Generation of Topological Boundary States in Floquet-Induced Synthetic Crystals

    Baum, Yuval; Refael, Gil
    When a d-dimensional quantum system is subjected to a periodic drive, it may be treated as a (d+1)-dimensional system, where the extra dimension is a synthetic one. In this work, we take these ideas to the next level by showing that non-uniform potentials, and particularly edges, in the synthetic dimension are created whenever the dynamics of system has a memory component. We demonstrate that topological states appear on the edges of these synthetic dimensions and can be used as a basis for a wave packet construction. Such systems may act as an optical isolator which allows transmission of light in a directional way. We supplement our ideas by...

  14. Quantum dynamics of thermalizing systems

    White, Christopher David; Zaletel, Michael; Mong, Roger S. K.; Refael, Gil
    We introduce a method "DMT" for approximating density operators of 1D systems that, when combined with a standard framework for time evolution (TEBD), makes possible simulation of the dynamics of strongly thermalizing systems to arbitrary times. We demonstrate that the method performs well for both near-equilibrium initial states (Gibbs states with spatially varying temperatures) and far-from-equilibrium initial states, including quenches across phase transitions and pure states.

  15. Contextuality as a Resource for Models of Quantum Computation with Qubits

    Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Delfosse, Nicolas; Browne, Dan E.; Okay, Cihan; Raussendorf, Robert
    A central question in quantum computation is to identify the resources that are responsible for quantum speed-up. Quantum contextuality has been recently shown to be a resource for quantum computation with magic states for odd-prime dimensional qudits and two-dimensional systems with real wave functions. The phenomenon of state-independent contextuality poses a priori an obstruction to characterizing the case of regular qubits, the fundamental building block of quantum computation. Here, we establish contextuality of magic states as a necessary resource for a large class of quantum computation schemes on qubits. We illustrate our result with a concrete scheme related to measurement-based...

  16. Lattice realization of a bosonic integer quantum Hall state–trivial insulator transition and relation to the self-dual line in the easy-plane NCCP1 model

    Geraedts, Scott; Motrunich, Olexei I.
    We provide an explicit lattice model of bosons with two separately conserved boson species [U(1)×U(1) global symmetry] realizing a direct transition between an integer quantum Hall effect of bosons and a trivial phase, where any intermediate phase is avoided by an additional symmetry interchanging the two species. If the latter symmetry is absent, we find intermediate superfluid phases where one or the other boson species condenses. We know the precise location of the transition since at this point our model has an exact nonlocal antiunitary particle-hole-like symmetry that resembles particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level of electrons. We exactly...

  17. Distinguishability of black hole microstates

    Bao, Ning; Ooguri, Hirosi
    We use the Holevo information to estimate distinguishability of microstates of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space by measurements one can perform on a subregion of a Cauchy surface of the dual conformal field theory. We find that microstates are not distinguishable at all until the subregion reaches a certain size and that perfect distinguishability can be achieved before the subregion covers the entire Cauchy surface. We will compare our results with expectations from the entanglement wedge reconstruction, tensor network models, and the bit threads interpretation of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula.

  18. Anisotropic exchange and spin-wave damping in pure and electron-doped Sr_2IrO_4

    Pincini, D.; Vale, J. G.; Donnerer, C.; de la Torre, A.; Hunter, E. C.; Perry, R.; Moretti Sala, M.; Baumberger, F.; McMorrow, D. F.
    The collective magnetic excitations in the spin-orbit Mott insulator (Sr_(1−x)La_x)_2IrO_4 (x=0, 0.01, 0.04, 0.1) were investigated by means of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. We report significant magnon energy gaps at both the crystallographic and antiferromagnetic zone centers at all doping levels, along with a remarkably pronounced momentum-dependent lifetime broadening. The spin-wave gap is accounted for by a significant anisotropy in the interactions between J_(eff)=1/2 isospins, thus marking the departure of Sr_2IrO_4 from the essentially isotropic Heisenberg model appropriate for the superconducting cuprates.

  19. Nanophotonic rare-earth quantum memory with optically controlled retrieval

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Bartholomew, John G.; Rochman, Jake; Craiciu, Ioana; Miyazono, Evan; Bettinelli, Marco; Cavalli, Enrico; Verma, Varun; Nam, Sae Woo; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Beyer, Andrew D.; Faraon, Andrei
    Optical quantum memories are essential elements in quantum networks for long distance distribution of quantum entanglement. Scalable development of quantum network nodes requires on-chip qubit storage functionality with control of its readout time. We demonstrate a high-fidelity nanophotonic quantum memory based on a mesoscopic neodymium ensemble coupled to a photonic crystal cavity. The nanocavity enables >95% spin polarization for efficient initialization of the atomic frequency comb memory, and time-bin-selective readout via enhanced optical Stark shift of the comb frequencies. Our solid-state memory is integrable with other chip-scale photon source and detector devices for multiplexed quantum and classical information processing at...

  20. Nanophotonic rare-earth quantum memory with optically controlled retrieval

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Bartholomew, John G.; Rochman, Jake; Craiciu, Ioana; Miyazono, Evan; Bettinelli, Marco; Cavalli, Enrico; Verma, Varun; Nam, Sae Woo; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Beyer, Andrew D.; Faraon, Andrei
    Optical quantum memories are essential elements in quantum networks for long distance distribution of quantum entanglement. Scalable development of quantum network nodes requires on-chip qubit storage functionality with control of its readout time. We demonstrate a high-fidelity nanophotonic quantum memory based on a mesoscopic neodymium ensemble coupled to a photonic crystal cavity. The nanocavity enables >95% spin polarization for efficient initialization of the atomic frequency comb memory, and time-bin-selective readout via enhanced optical Stark shift of the comb frequencies. Our solid-state memory is integrable with other chip-scale photon source and detector devices for multiplexed quantum and classical information processing at...

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