PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (decitabine) in the design of its dose-schedule for cancer therapy - Karahoca, Metin; Momparler, Richard L
5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-CdR, decitabine), an epigenetic drug that inhibits DNA methylation, is currently used to treat myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and is under investigation for treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignancies. 5-AZA-CdR can reactivate tumor suppressor genes silenced by aberrant DNA methylation, a frequent event in all types of cancer. Because this epigenetic change is reversible, it is a good target for 5-AZA-CdR therapy. We have reviewed the preclinical data of 5-AZA-CdR to analyze the concentrations and exposure times required to eradicate cancer stem cells. We analyzed the dose-schedules used in animal models that show potent antineoplastic activity of 5-AZA-CdR....
Epigenetic alterations in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix - Saavedra, Kathleen P; Brebi, Priscilla M; Roa, Juan Carlos S
Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most malignant tumors and the second or third most common type of cancer in women worldwide. The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and CC is widely known and accepted (99.7% of cases). At present, the pathogenesis mechanisms of CC are not entirely clear. It has been shown that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes play a significant role in carcinogenesis, caused by the genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the past, it was generally thought that genetic mutation was a key event of tumor pathogenesis, especially somatic mutation of tumor suppressor...
DNA promoter methylation as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker in gallbladder cancer - Letelier, Pablo; Brebi, Priscilla; Tapia, Oscar; Roa, Juan Carlos
Gallbladder cancer is an infrequent neoplasia with noticeable geographical variations in its incidence around the world. In Chile, it is the main cause of death owing to cancer in women over 40 years old, with mortality rates up to 16.5 per 100,000 cases. The prognosis is poor with few therapeutic options; in advanced cases there is only a 10% survival at 5 years.
On the epigenetics of vascular regulation and disease - Schleithoff, Christina; Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne; Dahmke, Indra Navina; Mahlknecht, Ulrich
Consolidated knowledge is accumulating as to the role of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the physiology of vascular development and vascular tone as well as in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The modulation of gene expression through modification of the epigenome by structural changes of the chromatin architecture without alterations of the associated genomic DNA sequence is part of the cellular response to environmental changes. Such environmental conditions, which are finally being translated into adaptations of the cardiovascular system, also comprise pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis or myocardial infarction. This review summarizes recent findings on the epigenetics of vascular regulation and...
A macroepigenetic approach to identify factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States - Dufault, Renee; Lukiw, Walter J; Crider, Raquel; Schnoll, Roseanne; Wallinga, David; Deth, Richard
The number of children ages 6 to 21 in the United States receiving special education services under the autism disability category increased 91% between 2005 to 2010 while the number of children receiving special education services overall declined by 5%. The demand for special education services continues to rise in disability categories associated with pervasive developmental disorders. Neurodevelopment can be adversely impacted when gene expression is altered by dietary transcription factors, such as zinc insufficiency or deficiency, or by exposure to toxic substances found in our environment, such as mercury or organophosphate pesticides. Gene expression patterns differ geographically between populations...