PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
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Imprinting disorders: a group of congenital disorders with overlapping patterns of molecular changes affecting imprinted loci - Eggermann, Thomas; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Maher, Eamonn R.; Temple, I. Karen; Tümer, Zeynep; Monk, David; Mackay, Deborah J. G.; Grønskov, Karen; Riccio, Andrea; Linglart, Agnès; Netchine, Irène
Congenital imprinting disorders (IDs) are characterised by molecular changes affecting imprinted chromosomal regions and genes, i.e. genes that are expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Recent years have seen a great expansion in the range of alterations in regulation, dosage or DNA sequence shown to disturb imprinted gene expression, and the correspondingly broad range of resultant clinical syndromes. At the same time, however, it has become clear that this diversity of IDs has common underlying principles, not only in shared molecular mechanisms, but also in interrelated clinical impacts upon growth, development and metabolism. Thus, detailed and systematic analysis of IDs...
Epigenetic alterations following early postnatal stress: a review on novel aetiological mechanisms of common psychiatric disorders - Jawahar, Magdalene C.; Murgatroyd, Chris; Harrison, Emma L.; Baune, Bernhard T.
Stressor exposure during early life has the potential to increase an individual’s susceptibility to a number of neuropsychiatric conditions such as mood and anxiety disorders and schizophrenia in adulthood. This occurs in part due to the dysfunctional stress axis that persists following early adversity impairing stress responsivity across life. The mechanisms underlying the prolonged nature of this vulnerability remain to be established. Alterations in the epigenetic signature of genes involved in stress responsivity may represent one of the neurobiological mechanisms. The overall aim of this review is to provide current evidence demonstrating changes in the epigenetic signature of candidate gene(s)...
Epigenetics and male reproduction: the consequences of paternal lifestyle on fertility, embryo development, and children lifetime health - Stuppia, Liborio; Franzago, Marica; Ballerini, Patrizia; Gatta, Valentina; Antonucci, Ivana
The correlation between epigenetics and human reproduction represents a very interesting field of study, mainly due to the possible transgenerational effects related to epigenetic modifications of male and female gametes. In the present review, we focused our attention to the role played by epigenetics on male reproduction, evidencing at least four different levels at which sperm epigenetic modifications could affect reproduction: (1) spermatogenesis failure; (2) embryo development; (3) outcome of assisted reproduction technique (ART) protocols, mainly as concerning genomic imprinting; and (4) long-term effects during the offspring lifetime. The environmental agents responsible for epigenetic modifications are also examined, suggesting that...
Histone acetylation: novel target for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia - Zhang, Cheng; Zhong, Jiang F.; Stucky, Andres; Chen, Xue-Lian; Press, Michael F.; Zhang, Xi
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been generally considered a genetic disease (disorder) with an aggressive tumor entity of highly proliferative malignant lymphoid cells. However, in recent years, significant advances have been made in the elucidation of the ALL-associated processes. Thus, we understand that histone acetylation is involved in the permanent changes of gene expression controlling ALL developmental outcomes. In this article, we will focus on histone acetylation associated with ALL, their implications as biomarkers for prognostic, and their preclinical and clinical applications.
Epigenetic control of HIV-1 post integration latency: implications for therapy - Kumar, Amit; Darcis, Gilles; Van Lint, Carine; Herbein, Georges
With the development of effective combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART), there is significant reduction in deaths associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, the complete cure of HIV-1 infection is difficult to achieve without the elimination of latent reservoirs which exist in the infected individuals even under cART regimen. These latent reservoirs established during early infection have long life span, include resting CD4+ T cells, macrophages, central nervous system (CNS) resident macrophage/microglia, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue/macrophages, and can actively produce virus upon interruption of the cART. Several epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of viral...
Musical patterns for comparative epigenomics - Brocks, David
Scientific data has been transformed into music in order to raise awareness in the non-scientific community. While the general public is nowadays familiar with the genetic code, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding epigenetic regulation. By making use of the binary nature of the methylome, we here describe a method that transforms methylation patterns into music. The resulting musical pieces show decent complexity and allow the audible recognition between music and underlying methylation state. This approach might therefore facilitate the recognition of complex methylation patterns and increase awareness for epigenetic regulation in the general public.
DNA methylation signature of interleukin 1 receptor type II in asthma - Gagné-Ouellet, Valérie; Guay, Simon-Pierre; Boucher-Lafleur, Anne-Marie; Bouchard, Luigi; Laprise, Catherine
Interleukin 1 and its receptors are associated with allergic diseases such as asthma. In the present study, we measured DNA methylation at the IL1R1 and IL1R2 gene loci and assessed for associations with asthma-related phenotypes and gene expressions. We found that asthmatic and atopic individuals have higher IL1R2 promoter DNA methylation than control subjects. Additionally, we observed a negative correlation between DNA methylation at the IL1R2 promoter and IL1R2 mRNA expression. These results suggest for the first time that IL1R2 promoter DNA methylation is associated with its gene repression in allergic diseases such as asthma.