Yesilada, Birol; Tanrikulu, Osman Goktug
Global Power Transition and the Future of the European Union
Will EU Leaders Stop Missing Key Opportunities?
Birol Yeşilada, Portland State University & Osman Göktuğ Tanrıkulu, Portland State University
Paper presented at the 2015 Conference of the European Union Studies Association in Boston, March 5-8. This paper applies power transition theory to EU’s future as a global power. It assesses economic and political/strategic capabilities of the EU vis-à-vis other global contenders as Transatlantic Alliance is challenged by rising powers in the east - China and India. Analysis includes simulations of how structural reforms (i.e fiscal union) and membership enlargement(s) are likely to affect...
Europe has pioneered regional integration, and studies on European integration have dominated the study of regionalism. Curiously, as much as the study of regionalism has long been Europe-centered, the study of European regionalism and the theories of European integration have centered on the European Union (EU), its organizational growth and performance. This literature is vast and discussed in entire handbooks on the EU (e.g. Jones et al. 2012; Jørgensen et al. 2006). By contrast, this chapter deliberately takes a regional perspective. It starts with a discussion of how “Europe” has been constructed as a civilizational and institutional region and how...
Savage, James D.; Verdun, Amy
Has the executive role of the European Commission changed since
the euro debt crisis? Intergovernmentalists point to the increased
role of the member states and the Council at the expense of the
Commission and other supranational institutions. This paper
examines how the Commission has responded to the expansion of
fiscal and economic rules such as the regulations that strengthen the
EU’s statistical competence and the Six-Pack and Two-Pack. Based
on interviews conducted with key staff, we find that these rules
have created significant coordination, information, and analytical
demands on the Commission. The latter has enhanced its horizontal
and vertical coordination efforts, prioritized staff for the
Directorate-Generals conducting surveillance activities, added DGs
Bonilla Saus, Javier; Isern, Pedro
Introduction: The cause of the 2008 crisis has not been the inability to deal with extreme greed, but the inability to deal with extreme abundance. In the past, societies have fallen into deep crises mainly due to endemic scarcity, but nowadays they have proven to be incapable of dealing with abundance.
Abundance is the distinctive quality of North American and Western European contemporary history. This prosperity is closely related to the validity of freedoms and equalities. However, how are abundance and institutional strength related? In extreme scarcity, the (complete) absence of goods tautologically implies the absence of property rights. After extreme...
Following the recent stalemate in the global trading system, the European Union (EU) has eschewed its insistence on multilateralism and spearheaded the signing of bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) with various states across the world. Furthermore, with the passage of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 the European Parliament (EP) now has to ratify all EU FTAs. How has civil society in the EU adapted to these changes? This paper explores the preferences and strategies of labor groups with regard to EU FTAs before and after these changes. It argues that the ability of civil society actors to influence EU...
Introduction: The litereature on the effects of corruption on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) does not point to a conclusive causal logic. Some studies show that high corruption discourages FDI since it is perceived as an additional tax on doing business. Others suggest that it is irrelevant and other factors matter more. Still others argue that it can actually help FDI since it “greases the wheels” of the system. Looking at the relationship between corruption and FDI in the context of the 12 countries which joined the EU in 2004-07 one can make a puzzeling observation (Chart 1). During the pre-accession...
Nicolaidis, Kalypso; Onar, Nora Fisher
Introduction: In this chapter, we start with the assumption that while the discussion as to whether or to
what extent the EU ought to be characterised as ‘empire’ is a fruitful and productive one, we
can take some of the axioms developed in this book as given (see also inter alia Zielonka,
2006). We argue first that Europe as embodied in today’s EU is best characterised by its
post-imperial condition, that is, the tension between its aspiration to transcend or overcome
its imperial legacies on one hand, and its propensity to reproduce and project these legacies
on the other; and second that in doing so, scholars...
Nelsen, Brent F.; Guth, James L.
Introduction: Christianity is apocalyptic. Christians since the days following the first-century crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth have anticipated a return of Christ Jesus—as stated in the Apostles’ Creed—“to judge the living and the dead.” Various Christian traditions have interpreted the prophetic utterances of the Jewish prophets, the author of Revelation and Jesus himself in their own particular ways—often arriving and very different views of the end of history. But orthodox Christians of all sorts have generally agreed that history will come to a dramatic conclusion with Jesus Christ returning in some manner to set things right.
For some conservative European...
Miettinen, Samuli; Kettunen, Merita
Introduction: For most of the current era of European integration, the Court of Justice has not admitted
preparatory work as evidence of the frames’ intent when interpreting Treaties. Even the
teleology of ‘ever closer union’, as radical as its application has been, is firmly rooted in the
text of the Treaties. Literature suggests this was linked to the secrecy surrounding early
negotiations, and poor public access to the documents. Some at the Court have considered
that these concerns are no longer relevant to the preparatory work to more recent Treaties. In
several recent cases, the Court has reversed its initial opposition to relying on preparatory
Konig, Thomas; Marbach, Moritz; Osnabrugge, Moritz
We investigate whether and, if so, when and where a new European integration
dimension emerges in national party competition that complements the traditional
left/right-dimension in Europe. We develop a Bayesian Finite Mixture Factor Analysis
to estimate the probability for the latent one-dimensional traditional left/right
and two-dimensional inverted U-shaped configuration with anti-European parties
at the peripheries. Our empirical analysis combines expert and transformed manifesto
data, covering the period since World War II. The estimation reveals that the
probability for a one-dimensional configuration becomes on average less likely than
the probability for a two-dimensional configuration since the late 1980s. We provide
evidence that the increasing transfer of competences to the EU...
This paper offers an insight into how emigration countries influence immigrants in their host society.
Our main objective is to explore the following questions: first, whether and how emigration countries
can influence the civic participation of immigrants in immigration countries and second, whether
transnational links, in particular political transnational activities, have an impact on civic participation
in receiving countries.
Civic participation is approached as a form of political participation outside of traditional political
institutions. As an active and collective dimension of engagement in society, one form of civic
participation consists in being active in organizations. This paper addresses three forms of
involvement: in local politics (mainstream organizations focused...
Introduction: The transnational dimension ascribed to may phenomena traditionally associated with domestic, or internal, security such as terrorism, drug trafficking, pandemics, or people smuggling has led to increased pressures to increase cooperation across national borders to ‘fight’ or ‘manage’ many of the new, transnational security threats. The ESS describes the post-Cold War environment as ‘one of increasingly open borders in which the internal and external aspects of security are indissolubly linked’ (European Union 2003b, 3). The perceived diffusion between internal and external security has not only accelerated demands for a greater cooperation between the EU and third states and international...
Hartmann, Christof; Striebinger, Kai
Introduction: In 1999, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) adopted an innovative protocol. The ECOWAS Protocol relating to the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peace-Keeping, and Security (Protocol-Mechanism) established a nine member state Mediation and Security Council (MSC) deciding with majority rule upon military interventions in member states against the will of target countries in cases of, among others, violation of human rights, the rule of law, or democratic principles. Up until then the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) had been the sole organization to have this right, and so far no other regional organization had followed...
Genschel, Philipp; Jachtenfuchs, Markus
The literature on European integration has its own business cycles. In the 2000s, the
common wisdom was that the Maastricht Treaty had ushered the EU into a stable constitutional
equilibrium that was unlikely to be upset soon (Hix 2007: 143–44; Moravcsik
2005: 349). In the 2010s, by contrast, the common wisdom holds that Maastricht has
unleashed new dynamics of change that transform the institutional architecture of the
EU in significant ways. Some scholars diagnose the rise of a ‘new intergovernmentalism’
that allegedly overlays and partly displaces the supranational actors and institutions of
the traditional community method (Bickerton et al. 2014; Puetter 2014). Others note
the creeping territorial differentiation...
Gehring, Thomas; Urbanski, Kevin; Oberthür, Sebastian
Introduction: Since 2014, the European Union (EU) finds itself in the midst of an international crisis over the status and territorial integrity of Ukraine that might have the potential of creating a new conflict among great powers in Europe (Smith 2014, Ferreira-Pereira and Vieira 2014). Moreover, the EU seems to be a major Western player in this conflict– not its member states, nor the United States. The EU seems to behave as a great regional power in its own right that is capable of confronting the newly empowered Russia that is gradually recovering from its defeat upon the breakdown of...
Fuller, Gregory W.
Both International and Comparative Political Economy have a blind spot
where households – and particularly households' finances – are concerned. This is a
problem. Household financial activities have a large and growing impact on economic
outcomes; however, our understanding of the underlying causal mechanisms remains
weak. This weakness stems from the fact that discussions of household finance are
limited – and what discussions are taking place are spread across scholarly communities
that don’t always communicate well with one another. This paper attempts to rectify that
problem. It surveys the existing theoretical treatments of household financial activities,
provides data showing that those activities are important, and lays out both...
Introduction: In the last 50 years the academic community has tried to conceptualize Europe's "Power" in order to understand its political nature. On the one hand, the EU has been perceived as an economic giant, and on the other hand as a political dwarf whose political power does not fit its economic abilities (Medrano, 1999: 155(.This paper uses Regime Theory as a heuristic base which enable a very comprehensive explanation for the creation, institutionalization, function and growth of international cooperation, through which the EU convey its global political and normative influence. The international regime functions in this matter as a...
Elman, R. Amy
Introduction: In 2014, the European Commissioner's former president (José Manuel Barroso)
refuted suggestions that Europe's Jewish communities had no future; he maintained that
European values are incompatible with antisemitism and insisted Europe's integration is
an antidote against it. His remarks were in tribute to the four people murdered by a
French jihadist at the Brussels Jewish Museum, an attack he characterized as “a wound to
the heart of the European Union.”1 Since the additional slayings of Jews in 2015, that
wound has deepened.
Barroso's faith in European values and the EU's ability to condemn antisemitism
seems misplaced. For instance, shortly after the slaughters at Charlie Hebdo and the
Cross, Mai’a K. Davis
This article seeks to explain how and why the EU’s relatively frequent existential crises – complete with ‘end of Europe’ rhetoric – ultimately result in new areas of consensus regarding the EU’s integration project. During the course of these existential crises, member states are able to release underlying societal tensions that might have stood as stumbling blocks to further consensus, and thus achieve a sense of ‘catharsis,’ as evidenced by convergence in attitudes. To illustrate this process, the article examines the case of the Eurozone crisis, and describes how North-South tensions that pre-dated this crisis period were openly aired during...
Clark, Nicholas; Curtis, K. Amber
Some observers of the EU have expressed concern about the quality of its
democratic governance. Such sentiments are reflected in much of the research conducted on
attitudes toward the EU and voting in European Parliament elections, both of which seek to
assess the vibrancy of public engagement with the European project. Yet few—if any—have
considered other types of behavior that may be associated with an active EU citizenry. This
paper uses original survey data from the United Kingdom to complement existing research by
identifying a fuller picture of the types and frequency of EU participation. We also assess the
extent to which predictors from existing public opinion...