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Archive of European Integration (68.133 recursos)

The Archive of European Integration (AEI) is an electronic repository and archive for research materials on the topic of European integration and unification. The AEI collects two types of materials: certain types of independently-produced research materials and official European Community/European Union documents

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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 63

  1. Coming full circle: Differential empowerment in the EU accession process

    Wunsch, Natasha
    The EU accession process brings a profound transformation not only to candidate countries’ institutions and policies, but also to the political opportunity structure in place, creating new possibilities for previously marginalised actors. Studying the differential empowerment of NGOs throughout the Croatian accession process, this paper makes two related claims: first, differential empowerment depends crucially on domestic actors’ awareness for and ability to use new opportunities to their advantage. Second, an overreliance on EU leverage poses important temporal and substantive limits on NGO empowerment and leads to a rapid decline of their relevance in the post-accession phase. I argue that a more sustainable shift in the domestic power balance...

  2. The scope and patterns of mobilization and conflict in EU interest group politics

    Wonka, Arndt; De Bruycker, Iskander; De Bievre, Dirk; Braun, Caelesta; Beyers, Jan
    The literature on interest group mobilization in EU legislative politics is heavily focused on organizations as much attention is concentrated on groups’ organizational characteristics, their activities towards different institutional venues, and their attempts to influence policies in one or a small set of policy cases. Yet, despite our growing knowledge about interest group politics, we know little about the pervasiveness of lobbying or the patterns of conflict and mobilization in EU interest group politics. How are conflict and mobilization in EU interest group politics structured? Can we speak of structural patterns of interest group conflict and mobilization or is the...

  3. Beyond Strategic Culture? Grand Strategy, the European Union and Security Cooperation

    Winn, Neil
    This paper will consider the extent to which European Union (EU) foreign policy is driven by humanitarian and/or geopolitical considerations. The paper will also analyse the extent to which the EU’s external actions have a sense of cohesion and shared culture that enables the Union to develop joined-up thinking on security questions. What can this also tell us about EU power and Grand Strategy in the world and the extent to which Europe is in relative decline as is often posited in the literature on global governance? The paper will do this by focusing on case studies which facilitate an...

  4. The Evolution of the European Council. Periods of Generations of Leaders

    Wessels, Wolfgang
    Introduction: Following the creation of the European Council in 1974, all generations of European leaders used this institution to deal with concrete problems they were facing, and to help search for opportunities to keep and – where possible – to extend their influence and power over all aspects of the multilevel game. However, the political and economic contexts of their work have changed dramatically, in particular following the historic watershed moment in 1989, and the subsequent entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993. Like all attempts to understand historical developments, this paper faces the methodological challenge of dealing with...

  5. The European Council as a crisis driven ‘gouvernement économique’

    Wessels, Wolfgang
    Introduction: High on the agenda of the European Council as the key institution within the EU’s architecture are issues of economic governance. The various policies that form part of economic governance – monetary, fiscal, and other economic and social policies – are usually regarded as the most important or at least the most often discussed areas of the European Council’s policy-making (see for example Van Rompuy 2010). Following their problem-solving instinct, since the 1970s, the Union’s political leaders have regularly and extensively used the European Council to cope with economic challenges that the European states were faced with. The performance and...

  6. Explaining the Creation of the EU Banking Union: The stability culture, the vicious circle, and the limits of power and interests

    Schafer, David
    The establishment of the EU banking union presents two major shortcomings of explanations focusing exclusively on material interests and bargaining power: first, they fail to explain the preference formation of the most important actor – the German government. The banking sector was divided between public and private banks, and there is no clear-cut pattern about whose interests the German government promoted. Second, material bargaining power cannot account for Germany’s concessions despite favourable power asymmetries. This article demonstrates that an ideational frame can fill the gaps. Ideas explain Germany’s preferences on the basis of beliefs about the ‘stability culture’. The use...

  7. Empirical Bases for Decision Making in Home Affairs – is there anything more than national differences in the EU!?

    Bug, Mathias
    Introduction: Crime as well as fear of crime play a crucial role regarding societal development, public life and individual planning. The legitimacy of democratic society can only be held up if it is the state having the monopoly over violence (executed through police forces), whilst the executive is overseen by parliaments and full access to the legal system for every citizen. However, there is very different cultures in policing and police compe-tences within the European Union. Here, Germany plays a special role. On the one hand Germany’s history of fascism and also communist ruling until 1990 in Eastern Germany might...

  8. Legislating in the shadow of the European Council: Empowering or silencing the European Parliament?

    Bressanelli, Edoardo; Chelotti, Nicola
    Introduction: “As a result of this trend towards ‘summitization’, the fixation with meetings at which the Heads of State and Government, in a clear breach of the spirit of the Treaties, take more and more decisions themselves and seek to put their stamp even on the fine print of legislation, the Community institutions are increasingly being marginalized”.ii This is how the President of the European Parliament (EP) Martin Schulz recently portrayed decision-making in the European Union (EU): “a state of affairs” he added “reminescent of the era of the Congress of Vienna”. The academic literature has also captured a similar...

  9. “Opposing Europe inside the European Parliament: Which strategies for Eurosceptic MEPs?”

    Brack, Nathalie
    Introduction: European integration has entered a new and more difficult phase of its existence, characterized by mass Euroscepticism, the rise of radical and anti-establishment parties and a mainstreaming of anti-EU rhetoric (Brack & Startin 2015; Vasilopoulou 2013). The ongoing economic and financial crisis has not only re-opened debates on the raison d’être of European integration and the legitimacy of European Union (EU)’s intervention but it has also increased the EU’s visibility in the public sphere. This context has provided fertile ground for the galvanization of oppositions to the EU. As a result, there has been an unprecedented success for Eurosceptic...

  10. Theorizing Regionalism: Cooperation, Integration, and Governance

    Borzel, Tanja A.
    Introduction: The end of the Cold War saw a surge in regionalism. While the number of preferential trading agreements (PTA) exploded (Mansfield and Pevehouse 2013), long-standing regional organizations, such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) or the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), experienced the delegation of more political authority and policy competencies in the past two decades (Börzel 2013). These two trends of more and deeper regionalism, respectively, are often attributed to processes of diffusion or interdependent decision-making. Regional cooperation and integration spread across time and space once the constraints of geopolitics had ceased to exist...

  11. European Parliamentary Elections: Global Lessons from a Regional Political Crisis

    Birchfield, Vicki L.; Harris, Geoffrey
    In May 2014 for the eighth time in the history of European integration, citizens across Europe had the opportunity to vote in the only directly elected transnational legislative elections in the world. This was the first EU parliamentary election held since the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, which brought political and institutional changes ostensibly designed to enhance the democratic legitimacy of the EU. Ironically, neither the expanded powers of the European Parliament, nor its rallying slogan of “this time it’s different” succeeded in mobilizing voters and instead, the downward trend in turnout continued with an abstention rate of nearly 58...

  12. Conceptualizing and Measuring the Political Salience of EU Legislative Processes

    Beyers, Jan; Dür, Andreas; Wonka, Arndt
    Salience, which can be broadly understood as the importance actors attribute to a political matter, is a key concept in political science. It has been shown to affect diverse matters such as the behaviour of interest groups and decision-makers in concrete policymaking processes as well as citizen attitudes and their voting behaviour. However, quite regularly salience is differently conceptualized and operationalized within and between different political science subfields, which raises questions of theoretical (non-) complementarity and conceptual boundaries as well as of measurement validity. In this paper we review how salience is conceptualized and measured in studies on public opinion, interest groups, political communication and EU legislative policy-making....

  13. European Union: An Empire in New Clothes?

    Behr, Hatmut; Stivachtis, Yannis A.
    Introduction: The political and academic discourse(s) of whether, or not, the European Union (EU) can be understood as a form of empire are, first, controversial and, second, encounter widely indignant disapproval by those who those who ‘like’ the EU and by orthodox EU scholarship. From such perspectives, the EU is understood as a ‘normative’, i.e., good, power that spreads and conducts politics guided by human rights, democracy, and free markets, while ‘empire’ is understood as something evil, martial, and aggressive (amongst others, Manners, 2002; Telo, 2006; Whitman, 1998). This, somewhat simplified, dichotomy is in desperate need of clarification; and in this...

  14. At Cross‐Purposes: Commercial Versus Technocratic Governance of Sovereign Debt in the EU

    Barta, Zsófia; Schelke, Waltraud
    A perennial problem for fiscal governance in the euro area has been the lack of support from markets. Far from disciplining budgetary policies, capital flows financed deficits at historically low interest rates even when they broke EU fiscal rules. Theory would lead us to expect that the international-­‐commercial and the supranational-­‐technocratic assessments of sovereign debt are fairly aligned. But they were not. We show that credit rating agencies (CRAs) and Eurostat have rather different assessments of what certain policies mean for sovereign debt: the privatization of state-­‐owned enterprises, pension reforms and more recently bank rescue programs. These assessments reveal divergent approaches. Private agencies are prone to conformism and herding behavior, allowing for little consistent discipline, while the public agency follows a bureaucratic imperative of accountability and transparency, which gets in the way of evolving policy priorities. Our findings thus shed light on the difficulties of fiscal governance by regulation only.

  15. Mañana: The societal origins of delayed fiscal adjustment

    Barta, Zsófia
    Heavily indebted and in the throes of drastic austerity programmes, Italy and Ireland find themselves much in the same situation as a quarter of a century ago. In the second half of the 1980s and the early 1990s, the two countries carried out successful fiscal and economic stabilization programmes that elicited intense attention from scholars of economic adjustment. The recurrence of the two countries’ troubles provides an exceptional opportunity to put theories of economic adjustment to test. Comparative analyses of the earlier instances of stabilization concentrated on the similarities between the two cases and converged on emphasizing the importance of social pacts in allowing successful reform. In contrast, this paper shows that already a quarter century ago, the two countries followed very different trajectories to stabilization despite the institutional similarities of the solutions they adopted. It argues that fundamental differences in the two countries’ societal structure – more specifically, differences in the level of socio-­economic polarization – are crucial in understanding the differences in the two countries’ ability to renegotiate redistributive arrangements and thus to carry out successful adjustment then as now.

  16. Constitutional principles and ethno-regional parties

    Baroncelli, Stefania; Rosini, Monica; Farneti, Roberto
    Introduction: This paper surveys the norms and procedures adopted in a number of European countries to facilitate representation and participation of ethnic minorities in the political process. The emergence of regional parties is the result of a process of mobilization of new constituencies in places in which local ethnic realities possessed little political weight or national influence. Ad hoc political parties were created to redress a strong majoritarian bias and allow minorities into the political process.

  17. Lasting Effects of the Kinnock Reforms? The Case of Staff Appraisals

    Ban, Carolyn
    In response to the 1999 crisis caused by the mass resignation of the European Commission, the Commission introduced a series of administrative reforms based in large part on New Public Management models. A centerpiece of those reforms was a new staff appraisal process linking numeric ratings with promotions. Of all parts of the reform, this was by far the most controversial. This paper traces the long arc of reform, as the original reform was replaced with another version, even more rigid and complex, and finally, in 2012, the Commission moved to yet another system, which returned the Commission in large part to the status quo ante, abandoning...

  18. The Open method of coordination in European Education and Training Policy: New forms of integration through soft policy-making

    Drachenberg, Ralf
    New forms of governance, such as the Open Method of Coordination have become more and more popular within European policy-making. This paper discusses an example of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) under-analysed so far by the literature, namely the OMC in Education and Training. The argument presented here is that exactly this policy area has experienced through the use of the OMC significant developments over the last 10 years resulting in a fundamentally changed EU involvement in the education and training policy. Understanding the sometimes contradictory motivation of the different actors when creating the OMC in E&T is essential...

  19. Latin America-European Union Trade and Investment Relations after the Financial Crisis

    Toral, Pablo
    This article reviews Latin America–Spain relations from 1982 to 2014, with a focus on the financial crisis (2008–2014). The theoretical framework for the study follows rule-oriented constructivism, which regards social activity as a process of interaction among actors mediated by rules. The focus thus falls on rules, rulemaking, and the actors (norm entrepreneurs) who exercise their “normative power” (material or symbolic) to shape these rules. The empirical section of the article analyzes the creation of a “normative Iberoamerican community” constituted by Latin America (the article focuses on Brazil and Mexico) and Spain in the 1980s–1990s and takes the promotion of...

  20. TTIP as 21st Century Trade Politics

    Young, Alisdair R.
    Trade policy is commonly understood as the product of competition between export-oriented and import-competing interests. The politics that has emerged early in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership negotiations, however, reflects a very different cleavage. Transatlantic alliances of transnational firms have emerged as the champions of a far-reaching agreement, while a variety of civic interest groups have formed the principal opposition. This paper contends this distinctive pattern of trade politics is primarily the product of the distinctive degree of interpenetration between the American and European economies. The high-level of interpenetration means that much of transatlantic economic exchange occurs through trade...

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