Salines, Marion; Glockler, Gabriel; del Favero, Paola; Truchlewski, Zbigniew
This paper examines how and why the institutional framework governing EMU hasevolved since the creation of the euro. Building on theories of institutionalism, the paper in particular investigates to what extent functional spill-overs from the single currency to other policy domains, like macroeconomic policies or financial regulation, met with an
adequate institutional response, and to what extent the existing institutional framework conditioned the response to the financial crisis. The interaction between policy
requirements and institutional capabilities is examined both in “ordinary” times (1999-2007) and under “crisis conditions” (2007-2010). The paper uses a typology of change
which helps to put into perspective both the...
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) played a very important role in the process of European integration. Its jurisprudence has again and again strengthened the competencies of the supranational level to the disadvantage of the member states. The CJEU has always been criticized for this pro-integrationist activism but that never had a serious impact on the court’s behavior. In recent years, however, the environment for legal integration has changed: The CJEU is increasingly treading on political sensitive issues; and that in a period when the integration project as such is becoming more and more contested. Scholars of...
The foreign policies of several European states have been centrally engaged in national crisis management subsequent to the crisis in the euro-zone. In several instances this has included determined efforts to rebuild national credibility, intensively to engage with bilateral partners and multilateral agencies both in Europe and internationally and actively to contribute to trade promotion and the attraction of foreign direct investment as part of a programme of national economic recovery. In such a context, where a national diplomatic service is tasked with roles that can be seen to be addressing a near existential crisis for the state, what if...
The first country Japan signed an Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) was Singapore in January
2002. Since then, Japan has agreed upon EPAs with most of the Asian-Pacific countries, including
Australia (July 2014), but without Korea and China. This could be described as the first stage of
Japan’s FTA/EPA negotiations, set upon a strategy to conclude with countries “as many as possible”
and “in the order of conclude-able.” Japan’s EPAs with Mexico (May 2005), Chile (September 2007),
and Peru (March 2012) aimed to catch up with the US and the European Union’s (EU) free trade
policy with Latin American countries, so that Japanese multi-nationals would not reduce...
Steurs, Lies; Van Belle, Sara
This paper assesses the coherence between the global health policy of the European Union (EU) and those of its individual Member States. So far EU and public health scholars have paid little heed to this, despite the large budgets of the member states in this area. While the European Commission has recently attempted to define the ‘EU role in Global Health’, EU member states would like to keep a grip on the domain of global health as well. Therefore, this paper questions the existence of a common EU vision on global health by comparing the global health policy documents of...
Despite starting from a highly fragmentary development policy system, a considerable consensus on policy norms for effective development cooperation has become prevalent on the EU level. This consensus makes claims about the EU’s role in European development cooperation. This role embraces the EU’s active promotion of approximation and convergence of European policies on aid and development cooperation, the EU’s so called “federating role”. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretically-informed model for understanding institutional dynamics in European development cooperation in terms of competing ideas and discourses on the EU’s role in regard to national aid policies. After...
Ian Manners has proposed the concept of European Union normative power: the ability of the EU to change what is ‘normal’ in international relations. The EU-led international negotiations with Iran aimed at preventing the Islamic Republic from acquiring nuclear weapons may provide an example of EU normative power in action. In his 2002 state of the union address, president George W Bush included Iran in an ‘axis of evil’, a move which appeared to raise the possibility of an American military intervention against Iran. In response to the alarm raised by the International Atomic Energy Agency report on the Iranian...
This paper explains the build-up and the reversal of macroeconomic imbalances in the euro area from a social-model point of view. Imbalances between the core and the periphery have been attributed either to fundamental differences in competitiveness or to the fact that capital was flowing into low-income countries where returns were highest. The former hypothesis is unable to account for the decoupling of export performance and standard cost competitiveness indicators and can hardly fit the Irish case. The latter is weak on push factors or, when focused on credit demand, unable to explain why countries with similar per capita income...
Joseph, Joseph S.
This paper deals with Greek-Turkish relations and the Cyprus problem in the context of EU interests and concerns in the region. It argues that today, more than ever before, the EU can play a catalytic role in finding a long overdue settlement on Cyprus and improving Greek-Turkish relations. Following the development of a spirit of rapprochement across the Aegean in the late 1990s, the accession of Cyprus to the EU in 2004, and the commencement of accession negotiations between Turkey and the EU in October 2005, the political setting in the region is changing. It is also argued that a...
Pardo, Sharon; Gordon, Neve
This article describes the rules of origin dispute between the European Union and Israel, and argues that these technical customs rules are also instruments of foreign policy. Although the rules have had no direct impact on Israel’s industry in the Occupied Territories, they have bolstered the European Union’s self-identification as a “normative power” while constituting an important legal precedent that has served to legitimize other actions against Israel’s occupation.
Bindi, Federiga; Eliassen, Kjell A.; Moses, Jonathan; Wiberg, Matti; Falkner, Gerda; Muravska, Tatjana; Justaert, Arnout; Van Den Brande, Karoline; Delreux, Tom; Drieskens, Edith; Nachev, Ivan; Garaski, Salla; Jorgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian; Costa, Olivier; Borzel, Tanja; Heinze, Torben; Contogeorgis, George; Chryssochoou, Dmitris N.; Ocsko, Edina; Giusti, Serena; Dijkstra, Hylke; Vink, Maarten; Marino, Marit Sjovaag; Bergmann, Erikur; Pisarska, Katarzyna; Vila Maior, Paulo; Ramos, Claudia T.; Angelescu, Irina; Ollora, Izea; Sitter, Nick; Dunphy, Sarah; Laursen, Finn; Roy, Joaquim; Strelkov, Alexander; Entin, Mark; Barabanov, Oleg; Zeff, Eleanor; Shaw, Kelly B.; Andrews, Davis
The speed and depth with which the European Communities/
European Union has evolved is breathtaking and
has radically shaped the life of the continent. Ever since the
beginning of this ambitious economic and political project,
scholars around the world have tried to explain the underlying
logic behind it and the mechanisms of its functioning.
Thus, a plethora of studies developed alongside the evolution
of the EU.
SENT (Network of European Studies) is an innovative
and ambitious project which brought together about 100
partners from the EU member states, candidate and associated
countries, and other parts of the world. It was a far
reaching project aimed to overcome disciplinary and geographical-
linguistic boundaries in...
Eliasson, Leif Johan
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) constitutes an attempt to improve job creation and boost the economies on both sides of the Atlantic. Yet economic benefits and standard setting impacts notwithstanding, policy makers and legislators assess trade and investment agreements by a different metric. Politics, not economics, will determine the fate of TTIP, and opponents appear to have made some inroads with the public. This paper looks at the influence of interest groups and public opinions on developments in TTIP. This initial study finds correlations between public interest group activity, public opinion, and changes in TTIP.
Key words: Transatlantic trade,...
Introduction: The European Union’s focus on political integration2, in the sense of evaluating and supporting democratic regime consolidation and democratic institutions, rule of law, human and minorities’ rights dates back to the early years of the 2004-2007 enlargement. While the EU was considered an important factor in the consolidation of democratic regimes in Spain and Portugal (Preston 1997), the Spanish and Portuguese transitions were viewed as nearly completed when these countries joined the European Community. While the EU’s contribution to the overall strengthening of democratic institutions is considered by many (Vachudova 2005; Dimitrova/ Pridham 2005; Schimmelfennig/Sedelmeier 2005; Levitz/ Pop-Eleches 2010...
Damay, Ludivine; Mercenier, Heidi
Introduction: One of the main contributions of sociological approaches to the academic debates about the
European Union (EU) democratic deficit is to focus on the social acceptance of the EU.
Nowadays, EU institutions themselves seem to share the same focus on citizens’ subjective
perceptions. Indeed, fostering a sense of belonging to the EU becomes one of the strategies
to fix the EU democratic deficit and strengthen its legitimacy. For EU institutions, it is
necessary to bring the citizen closer to the EU as this would provide, at least partly, the
solution to the democratic deficit. Hence, sociological approaches should now widen their
focus, so to include the...
Ben Cheikh, Nidhaleddine; Rault, Christophe
This paper provides an update on the exchange rate pass-through (ERPT) estimates
for 12 euro area (EA) countries. First, based on quarterly data over the 1990-2012 period, our
study does not find a significant heterogeneity in the degree of pass-through across the
monetary union members, in contrast to previous empirical studies. As we use a longer time
span for the post-EA era than existing studies, this is not surprising, since the process of
monetary union has entailed some convergence towards more stable macroeconomic
conditions across euro area (EA) member states. Second, when assessing the stability of passthrough
elasticities, we find very weak evidence of a decline around...
Buonanno, Laurie; Dudek, Carolyn Marie
Since ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, the European Parliament’s (EP) newly conferred power in international negotiations is being put to the test through the complex and lengthy negotiations between the EU and the US for a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). The TTIP represents a fruitful area to investigate the way in which the EP is utilizing (or underutilizing) its new power as well as implications for the EU’s democratic deficit. TTIP represents a particularly fruitful policy to study the EP’s power because it offers the ability to directly compare the EP’s behavior with that of the US Congress....
Belot, Céline; Van Ingelgom, Virginie
On the 2nd of June 1992, a majority of Danish voters said “no” to the Maastricht Treaty.
Asked about the same time what they thought of the EC, 56% of Danish people claimed that
membership to the EC was a good thing, 61% approved European Unification and 67%
acknowledged their country benefited from its membership. At the time of the “No vote”
relative to the Nice referendum, the Irish were even more euro-enthusiast with 81% claiming
their country membership was a good thing and 83% that it benefited from this membership.
Seven years later, still a majority of French and Dutch people considered their country
Does the European Union engender practices within national administrations that represent a departure from traditional intergovernmental executive orders? Are European and global issues compartmentalized in a national administration in such a way as to create different implementation practices within the same administrative organization? In this paper I discuss the results from a case-study of a national administration’s practice of transposing or incorporating rules stemming from two international levels – the global and the regional. Through in-depth interviews with national officials in the Norwegian Maritime Directorate and its parent ministry responsible for maritime affairs I reveal how different international enforcement capacities...
Dimitrova, Antoaneta; Steunenberg, Bernard
This paper proposes an analytical framework, which we use to examine the implementation of the European Union’s policy on movable cultural heritage. We apply this framework to the case of transposition and implementation of the EU rules regarding movable cultural heritage in Bulgaria. We
find different implementation outcomes stemming from one and the same formal policy. Due to high levels of polarization between political decision makers, the implementing actors have broad discretion to apply different informal policies. In depth analysis of implementation also suggests that under these conditions different implementing players have followed their normative orientations and applied completely different informal...
The EU accession process brings a profound transformation not only to candidate countries’
institutions and policies, but also to the political opportunity structure in place, creating new
possibilities for previously marginalised actors. Studying the differential empowerment of
NGOs throughout the Croatian accession process, this paper makes two related claims: first,
differential empowerment depends crucially on domestic actors’ awareness for and ability to
use new opportunities to their advantage. Second, an overreliance on EU leverage poses
important temporal and substantive limits on NGO empowerment and leads to a rapid decline
of their relevance in the post-accession phase. I argue that a more sustainable shift in the
domestic power balance...