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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (74.597 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

26th Hayes Graduate Research Forum (February, 2012)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 33

  1. BIOMECHANICAL EVALUATION OF MEDIAL FEMORAL CONDYLAR SUBCHONDRAL CYSTIC LESIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT WITH INTERNAL FIXATION

    Williams, Jarred
    Purpose of the study: Subchondral cystic lesions (SCLs) in the medial femoral condyle are a common equine orthopedic problem occurring most commonly in the first two years of life. They are located on the weightbearing surface of the condyle and are frequently associated with lameness. While the pathophysiology of SCLs is poorly understood, they are believed to be the result of either osteochondrosis or trauma, or perhaps both. Similar to bone cysts in adolescent children, there are many treatments recommended for SCL, and like in children, recurrence and treatment failure rates are unacceptably high . Conservative management includes stall rest...

  2. Central IL-4 promotes a neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory brain environment following peripheral LPS injection

    Fenn, Ashley
    Aging is associated with the loss of appropriate immune regulation resulting in increased inflammatory status within the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia, the innate immune cell of the CNS, are particularly sensitive to age-associated dysregulation and promote an exaggerated inflammatory response following a peripheral or central immune challenge in aged animals. Recently our lab found that after a peripheral immune challenge, microglia from adult, but not aged, mice upregulated interleukin (IL)-4 receptor-alpha (IL-4Rα), the receptor for the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4. The functional consequence of impaired IL-4Rα upregulation was insensitivity to the anti-inflammatory promoting effects of IL-4. Thus, to further characterize...

  3. "For look you where my abridgement comes;" The Playability of Shakespeare's Variant Play Texts

    Vadnais, Matthew
    Shakespeare's plays were originally printed in varying conditions. Traditionally, the earlier, shorter printings have been understood as being derivative of the longer, original versions, even though the longer versions were frequently printed a full thirty years after the shorter first printings. The differences between texts have been attributed to corruption and/or abridgment introduced by performance. This study introduces a new metric to evaluate the way that texts would have been performed according to early modern practices of sundering a text into parts to be learned in isolation. Like their shorter counterparts, Shakespeare's lengthiest texts appear to have been written to...

  4. The Role of Acute Intraspinal Hemorrhage After Spinal Cord Injury

    Sahinkaya, F. Rezan
    Spinal cord (SCI) injury initiates a cascade of destructive and reparative processes, an understanding of which may help in designing strategies for minimizing tissue loss and enhancing endogenous repair. Vascular disruption and hemorrhage is a prominent characteristic of the acute lesion environment, and is central to many of the secondary pathological consequences of SCI, most notably lesion formation. However its role, if any, in reparative processes is not known. An important endogenous repair mechanism after SCI is the proliferation of NG2+ cells and their maturation into new oligodendrocytes. We created a rat model of collagenase-induced intraspinal hemorrhage (ISH), and investigated...

  5. Breed Associated miRNA Expression in Canine Osteosarcoma

    Fenger, Joelle
    Introduction: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-protein coding RNAs that have been implicated in humans as having a fundamental role in cancer initiation and progression. Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common bone tumor in dogs, however, little is known regarding mechanisms underlying malignant transformation in these tumors. Certain breeds such as Rottweilers and Greyhounds are at higher risk for developing OSA, suggesting that heritable factors play a role in this disease. We hypothesize that dysregulation of miRNAs in canine OSA is associated with specific breeds. In this study, we sought to characterize the expression of miRNAs in canine primary OSA tumors...

  6. Identity, Modernity, and Occupation: The Colonial Style of Taiwanese Painter Chen Chengbo (1895-1947)

    Mathison, Christina
    Identity, Modernity, and Occupation: The Colonial Style of Taiwanese Painter Chen Chengbo (1895-1947) I feel very fortunate to have examined the personal journal of Chen Chengbo (1895-1947). It has become an invaluable source for my research about this Taiwanese oil painter, but what struck me most was the way the journal surfaced from obscurity over sixty years after Chen was killed by the Kuomintang government in the 228 Massacre of 1947. After Chen’s death, his son hid the journal to protect the families it mentioned from government persecution, only deciding it was safe to release it a few months ago. This...

  7. Regulating Reproduction: A Historical Analysis of the Legal Approaches to Advances in Assisted Reproduction Techonology

    Vernon, Jeffrey
    Curiously, scholars have largely focused on one piece of the human reproduction equation – preventing or terminating pregnancy through either contraception or abortion. Under a related analytical framework, scholars have also explored the issue of eugenics. However, little work has been completed on efforts to facilitate procreation and the advent of fertility treatment, which has advanced rapidly since the 1970s. Moreover, it is essential that scholars research and understand how society has responded to the continuously developing field of assisted reproduction, because it allows for a more accurate representation of rights associated with procreation. Even Roe v. Wade, a landmark...

  8. Designing Theory-based Curriculum to Positively Affect Psychosocial Variables for Weight Loss in College Students

    Thall, Michelle
    The percent of overweight/obese college students increased from 20.5% to 33.5% between 1995 and 2010. This growing segment of our college population is both understudied and underserved. The purpose of this multi-phase study was to investigate the feasibility of an academic class to promote exercise and weight loss by targeting theory-based psychosocial variables. One section of a Conditioning Principles academic class was re-designed to positively change psychosocial variables related to exercise, while maintaining required class content. The teaching strategies were based on assumptions from Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and focused on increasing intrinsic motivation and improving self-efficacy for exercise. Students self-selected...

  9. Who Wrote Those “Livery Stable Blues”?: Musical Ownership in Hart et al. v. Graham

    Maskell, Katherine
    In 1917, the Original Dixieland Jazz Band (ODJB) released what has been recognized as the first jazz record. During production, a title change led to the copyright registration for the B-side of this record bearing the title, “Barnyard Blues.” Due to a labeling error, the record itself displayed the title, “Livery Stable Blues.” The unauthorized release of sheet music titled “Livery Stable Blues,” allegedly based on the B-side song, prompted the ODJB to release sheet music titled “Barnyard Blues,” and to file for an injunction against the competition on copyright infringement grounds. In the resultant case, Hart et al. v....

  10. The Past is Ever-Present: Civil Wars as a Dynamic Process

    Jones, Benjamin
    The literature on civil wars is extensive and growing. Past studies have focused on a series of questions, most notably: what are the causes of civil wars, why do some conflicts last longer than others, what causes civil wars to end, and finally why do some civil wars recur, at times repeatedly? In answering these questions, previous studies have treated each of these problems as discrete and independent phenomena -- predominantly focusing on contemporaneous factors as the primary causes of the outcome of interest. While previous studies have made progress in answering each of these questions, I argue that by...

  11. RAPID ONSET OXIDATIVE MYOCARDIAL INSULT AND LOSS OF CARDIAC FUNCTION

    Banerjee, Jaideep
    Background- Dicer endonuclease, critical for maturation of microRNAs (miRNAs), is depleted in heart failure patients with certain forms of cardiomyopathy. We sought to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the rapid loss of cardiac function following cardiac-specific Dicer deletion in adult mice. Methods and Results- Conditional Dicer deletion was achieved by a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase in the adult murine myocardium. Heart function, determined using MRI and echocardiography, showed rapid and significant (p<0.05, n=5) decrease in fractional shortening, compromised ejection fraction, and increased left ventricular mass. Decreased respiratory control ratio (RCR) noted in isolated heart mitochondria (p<0.05, n=5), faster nitroxide radical decay in EPR spectroscopy...

  12. Finding the missing KASH

    Zhou, Xiao
    The nucleus holds and protects the genetic information of a cell. Nuclear positioning is correlated with several important cellular processes, such as cell division, migration and differentiation, and it is essential to the development of organisms ranging from worms to mammals. Nuclear positioning is mediated through a protein complex across the nuclear envelope (NE), formed by the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) KASH proteins and the inner nuclear membrane (INM) SUN proteins. The cytoplasmic part of KASH proteins is associated with the cytoskeleton, and the nucleoplasmic part of SUN proteins is associated with the nucleoskeleton. Meanwhile, in the perinuclear space (PNS),...

  13. Impact of Light at Night on Cardiac Arrest Outcome

    Fonken, Laura
    Little is known about the influence of hospital environment on patient recovery. Nighttime light exposure is particularly prevalent in the hospital setting and may be detrimental because of its neuroinflammatory effects. We used a mouse model of cardiac arrest (CA) to test the hypothesis that exposure to dim light at night after cerebral ischemia impairs recovery. Mice housed in a standard light/dark cycle (LD) underwent a CA or SHAM procedure, then either remained in LD or were exposed to a light/dim light cycle (dLAN). Mortality during the first week after CA was 4-fold higher in mice exposed to dLAN relative...

  14. Assessing and managing soil quality for urban agriculture in Ohio

    Beniston, Josh
    Urban agriculture (UA) is rapidly expanding in the majority of Ohio's cities and is widely recognized as a means of improving the ecological conditions, quality of life, and food security in urban areas. This project will apply the soil quality evaluation process to soils being used for specialty crop production in urban areas in Ohio with the goal of better understanding their soil properties and identifying appropriate management strategies. The project is focused around two major components: an experimental research site and a field study of production sites. The experimental site is located in a series of adjacent vacant urban...

  15. MICE INJECTED WITH E.COLI AS NEONATES HAVE HYPERACTIVE BEHAVIOR AND AN INCREASED MICROGLIAL INFLAMMATORY PROFILE

    Lieblein, Jacqueline
    Newborns surviving an early-life insult may have greater vulnerability to neuro-developmental complications including autism. We hypothesize that early-life infection (ELI) promotes microglial dysregulation resulting in hyperactivation of these cells following a secondary immune challenge. We have previously published that a hyperactive microglial response corresponds with the induction of behavioral complications. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which an Escherichia coli (E.coli) infection in neonatal BALB/c mice causes locomotor disorders and increases the inflammatory reactivity of microglia. To accomplish this goal, three day old mice were injected subcutaneously with either saline or E.coli. Brain inflammation...

  16. The Disruption of Real Kinship

    McKee, Kimberly D.
    Since the end of the Korean War (1950-1953), approximately 200,000 Korean children have been sent abroad for adoption. Two thirds of these children arrived in the United States, and they constitute the earliest and largest group of international adoptees in this country. The intention of this paper is to foreground theoretical understandings of kinship and family to produce new insights into transracial and transnational families. The term transnational captures the international nature of their family formation vis-à-vis intercountry adoption. At the same time, the term transracial highlights the inter-racial nature of the family formation as an estimated 75% of adoptees...

  17. Unstable Relations?

    Mattiacci, Eleonora
    Studies of nuclear proliferation and of its impact in the international system find that once countries acquire nuclear weapons, they start behaving differently: they are involved in more low level disputes (Rauchhaus, 2009), they prevail in crises (Beardsley and Asal, 2009) and their diplomatic status increases (Gartzke and Jo, 2009). While a lot of these studies focus on the effects of horizontal proliferation, that is, the increase in the number of states that acquire the weapon, most of the strategic action happens before states conduct their first nuclear weapon test. At which stage of their nuclear weapon acquisition do states...

  18. Feasibility Analysis and Intelligent Technologies for An Innovative Nuclear Reactor Enabling Waste Transmutation

    Bhattacharyya, Sampriti
    Nuclear energy has tremendous potential as a reliable source of cheap, clean energy. The two key impediments to expanded use of nuclear energy are safety, as highlighted by the accidents at Chernobyl and Fakushima; proliferation, as seen in the ambiguous nature of Iran’s nuclear program; and disposal of waste which remains dangerously radioactive for thousands of years. At present nuclear waste is stored at, and managed by, the power plant that generates it. This system was created as an interim solution, the intent being to allow the waste to “cool” (shorter lived isotopes to decay) before being transported to long...

  19. A Generalized Framework for Learning and Recovery of Structured Sparse Signals

    Ziniel, Justin
    We report on a framework for recovering single- or multi-timestep sparse signals that can learn and exploit a variety of probabilistic forms of structure. Message passing-based inference and empirical Bayesian parameter learning form the backbone of the recovery procedure. We further describe an object-oriented software paradigm for implementing our framework, which consists of assembling modular software components that collectively define a desired statistical signal model. Lastly, numerical results for an example structured sparse signal model are provided.

  20. Isomerization of Carotenoids During Processing of Tangerine Tomatoes

    Cooperstone, Jessica
    Epidemiological evidence, as well as in vitro and in vivo studies suggests that tomato-rich diets may be protective against different cancers, especially prostate cancer. Lycopene is the predominant carotenoid in tomatoes and Tangerine varieties are naturally high in tetra-cis lycopene, imparting an orange color. Human nutrition studies have demonstrated that cis isomers of lycopene are more bioavailable than the all-trans form. This has prompted interest in Tangerine tomatoes, as they are high in cis-lycopene when raw. The carotenoid profile of Tangerine tomatoes is quite different than red tomatoes. Little has been done to determine the effects of different degrees of...

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