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Repositório do ISPA Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (12.289 recursos)

No Repositório do ISPA pode encontrar diversos tipos de documentos, em formato digital, resultantes da produção científica do ISPA designadamente: teses de doutoramento, teses de mestrado, artigos em publicações periódicas nacionais e internacionais, relatórios técnicos, artigos em actas de conferências nacionais e internacionais e capítulos de livros.

UIE-E - Artigos em revistas nacionais

Mostrando recursos 1 - 19 de 19

  1. Sobre o uso de estatística de simulação em estudos de comportamento

    Almada, Vítor Carvalho; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
    Neste artigo discutimos sucintamente as potencialidades da estatística de simulação nas ciências do comportamento. São apresentadas duas aplicações: uma desenvolvida por Estabrook e Estabrook (1 989) para a análise de tabelas de contingência e uma outra desenvolvida na nossa unidade de investigação para testes de verosimilhança. Ambos os procedimentos superam os problemas de valores esperados baixos que limitam o uso da estatística X2 em muitas circunstâncias, e oferecem ainda a possibilidade de se avaliar a significância de células/classes específicas. ------- ABSTRACT ------ In this paper we discuss briefly the potential of simulation statistics in the behavioural sciences. We present two applications: one developed by Estabrook and Estabrook ( 1989) for the analysis of...

  2. The study of inshore fishes in Portugal - A brief history and prospects for the future

    Almada, Vítor Carvalho; Henriques, Miguel; Gonçalves, Emanuel João

  3. A new northern limit for the distribution range of Lipophrys canevae (Pisces: Blenniidae) in the Atlantic Ocean

    Almada, Vítor Carvalho; Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Gonçalves, Emanuel João; Almeida, Armando J.; Barata, Eduardo Nuno
    In this note, the occurence of Lipophris canevae at Arrábida (Portugal) is reported, which extends 160 Km north the known range ot this species in the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. This species has been consistently found at Arrábida since 1987. The presence of a crest on the head of the males, which is considered a rare secondary sexual character in the Mediterranean populations, is very common in the specimens known from portuguese waters, even in the females, where it is vestigial. The meristic and morphometric data from specimens known from portuguese waters are summarized. At Arrábida, the nests...

  4. Agonistic behaviour and control of access to hiding places in two intertidal blennies, Lipophrys pholis and Coryphoblennius galerita (Pisces: Blenniidae)

    Faria, Cláudia Barreiros Macedo de; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    In this study we investigated the relationships between dominance rank and access to shelters in captive groups of Lipophrys pholis and Coryphoblennius galerita, as well as the effects of group size and shelter availability. Dominance rank was strongly correlated with size in juvenile L. pholis and with sex and size in adult C. galerita, males being dominant over females of similar size. Access to shelters was significantly correlated with dominance rank. For both species, most interactions occurred out of shelters. Direct disputes over shelters were always initiated by the dominant fish and the initiator was always the winner. The rate of aggression per fish per unit time decreased with an increase in the...

  5. The courtship behaviour of the pipefish Nerophis lumbriciformis: Reflections of an adaptation to intertidal life

    Monteiro, Nuno Miguel; Vieira, Maria Natividade; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    The courtship behaviour of Nerophis lumbriciformis (Pisces: Syngnathidae) consists of three distinct phases (initial courtship, spawning, and embrace) marked by prominent behavioural changes. The first courtship phase is characterised by female quivering. Courtship activity increases from low to high levels of quivering, causing undulatory head movements in the female. In the second phase, the female transfers her eggs onto the male incubating ventral surface. During the final phase, the male wraps his body around the female (embrace). Females actively initiate courtship indicating that these pipefishes are courtship role reversed. The complete lack of swimming and vertical movements in the courtship behaviour of N. lumbriciformis, unlike in the behaviour of other syngnathid species, suggests an adaptation...

  6. Some features of the behaviour of the marbled newt Triturus marmoratus (Latreille, 1800) in captivity

    Robalo, Joana Isabel; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    The behaviour in groups of both sexes of marbled newts (Triturus marmoratus) from Sintra, Portugal, kept for a few weeks in a large aquarium, is described. Behaviour patterns described for this species and for other species in this genus were recognised. The following behaviours are described for the first time: Walk-over, Land-over, Stand-on, Show, Erect-body, Yawn, Circle, and Dig. Females seem to have a more active role in courtship than is usually considered. The behaviour frequencies for each sex were analysed using simulation statistics. Some elements usually classified as male sexual behaviours occur in both sexes and are likely to play other social roles.

  7. Short-term social modulation of 11-ketotestosterone levels in males of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus during male-female interactions

    Borges, Rita Alexandra; Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Almada, Vítor Carvalho; Canário, Adelino V. M.
    After 48 hours of social isolation male individuals of Oreochromis mossambicus were allowed to interact with a conspecific female in the same aquarium during a period of up to six hours. Colouration exhibited, and frequencie countering and agonistic behaviours performed by the males were recorded before and after social isolation (T0) and six hours after the introduction of the female (T6). Male androgen (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, 11-KT) concentrations measured in the urine, at T0 were not correlated to subsequent levels of agonistic and sexual behaviours. However, behavioural interactions were correlated to 11-KT levels at T6. These results suggest a short-term...

  8. Analysis of conditional contingency using ACTUS2 with examples from studies of animal behavior

    Estabrook, George F.; Almada, Vítor Carvalho; Robalo, Joana Isabel
    In this paper we present ACTUS2, the second version of ACTUS (Analysis of Contingency Tables Using Simulation). ACTUS2 has many new features, including analysis of data in which dependencies that make some combinations of properties impossible are hypothesized. Because ACTUS2 explicitly simulates such hypotheses, it can be used without loss of accuracy to analyze small amounts of data in large tables with many zeros or very low frequencies. We illustrate these features with two studies of animal behavior: interactions of male individuals with other individuals in groups of captive, mature Triturus marmoratus pygmaeus (newts); and agonistic interactions between pairs of male juvenile Diplodus sargus (the sparid fish, white sea-bream). Both significantly frequent, and significantly infrequent,...

  9. A checklist of the blennioid fishes (Teleostei, Blennioidei) occurring in Portuguese waters

    Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Almada, Vítor Carvalho; Almeida, Armando J.; Santos, Ricardo Serrão; Gonçalves, Emanuel João
    Twenty species of blennioide fishes have been cited from Portuguese waters. A survey of the published literature and personal observations by the authors allowed to confirm the presence of eighteen species: Clinitrachus argentatus, Labrisomus nuchipinnis, Tripterygion delaisi, Blennius ocellaris, Coryphoblennius galerita. Lipophrys canevae, L. dalmatinus, L. pholis, L. trigloides, Parablennius gattorugine, P. pilicornis, P. rouxi, P. ruber, P. incognitus, P. sanguinolentus-parvicornis, Salaria fluviatilis, S. pavo and Ophioblennius atlanticus atlanticus. A check-list is provided with information on the geographic distribution of the confirmed occurences of the blennioid species in portuguese waters.

  10. On the phylogenetic affinities of Centrolabrus trutta and Centrolabrus caeruleus (Perciformes: Labridae) to the genus Symphodus: Molecular, meristic and behavioural evidences

    Almada, Vítor Carvalho; Almada, Frederico; Henriques, Miguel; Santos, Ricardo Serrão; Brito, Alberto
    Phylogenetic analysis of partial 12S and 16S mitochondrial rDNA regions, together with meristic and ethological data, has revealed that Centrolabrus trutta (Lowe, 1833), a species occurring in the Canaries and Madeira, and its close relative Centrolabrus caeruleus (Azevedo, 1999) from the Azores, are more closely related to most species of the genus Symphodus than to Centrolabrus exoletus (Linnaeus, 1758). Underwater behavioural observations showed that C. trutta, like C. caeruleus, shares with most Symphodus species sexual dichromatism, male nest building and male parental care of the eggs, traits that are absent in C. exoletus. The low number of base substitutions found...

  11. Reproductive success of nuclear nonhybrid males of Squalius alburnoides hybridogenetic complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae): An example of interplay between female choice and ecological pressures?

    Santos, Carla Sousa; Collares-Pereira, Maria João; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    The hybridogenetic fish complex Squalius alburnoides comprises diploid males with non-hybrid nuclear genomes and several hybrid forms varying in ploidy and relative proportions of the parental genomes. In this paper, we present evidence that in captivity females prefer to mate with non-hybrid males. We suggest that female choice combined with different ecological requirements of hybrid and non-hybrid males may explain the extreme variation in the relative abundance of male types among drainages.

  12. Do Cory’s shearwaters Calonectris diomedea synchronize laying among close neighborhoods? A reappraisal using data from artificial nest sites

    Catry, Paulo; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Oliveira, Paulo
    Previous studies of Cory’s shearwater nesting biology suggest that pairs nesting at very close range to one another lay their eggs more synchronously than the colony as a whole. However, such apparent synchrony could be confounded by the existence of spatial structure in the quality of nesting sites and, hence, quality of the birds occupying the nests. If laying dates differ between sites of different quality, then synchrony is just a by-product of the spatial arrangement of nest sites. In this study, we show that when studying laying dates in artificial nests of uniform quality, no local synchronization of laying could be detected. We point to other shortcomings of previous analyses and...

  13. Considerations on the use of video playbacks as visual stimuli: The Lisbon workshop consensus

    Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Schlupp, Ingo; McGregor, Peter K.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Endler, John A.; Fleishman, Leo J.; Zeil, Jochen; Barata, Eduardo Nuno; Burford, Fiona R. L.; Gonçalves, David; Haley, Michael; Jakobsson, Sven; Jennions, Michael D.; Körner, Kay; Lindström, Leena; Peake, Thomas; Pilastro, Andrea; Pope, Denise S.; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Rowe, Candy; Smith, Jerome; Waas, Joseph R.
    This paper is the consensus of a workshop that critically evaluated the utility and problems of video playbacks as stimuli in studies of visual behavior. We suggest that video playback is probably suitable for studying motion, shape, texture, size, and brightness. Studying color is problematic because video systems are specifically designed for humans. Any difference in color perception must lead to a different color sensation in most animals. Another potentially problematic limitation of video images is that they lack depth cues derived from stereopsis, accommodation, and motion parallax. Nonetheless, when used appropriately, video playback allows an unprecedented range of questions in visual communication to be addressed. It is important to note that most of...

  14. Video playback techniques in behavioural research

    Oliveira, Rui Filipe; McGregor, Peter K.; Schlupp, Ingo; Rosenthal, Gil G.

  15. Male display characters, gonadal maturation and androgens in the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus

    Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    The relationships between gonadal maturation and the expression of behavioral and morphological display characters in O. mossambicus was investigated and the possible role of androgens in the coordination of this process was evaluated using genital papilla size as a bioassay for androgen levels. Morphological and behavioral displaying characters were found to be correlated among themselves. The sexually dimorphic characters were correlated with gonad maturation and androgen levels, but not with the gonado-somatic index. Gonad maturation and androgen levels were closely related. Territoriality and other behavioral variables involved in reproduction were also correlated with gonad maturation and androgen levels. These data suggest that in O. mossambicus androgens play a mediating role between gonadal maturation and the...

  16. Chorusing by male european fiddler crabs, Uca tangeri: A study of visual communication netwoks

    Burford, Fiona R. L.; McGregor, Peter K.; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
    Chorusing behaviour, in which males aggregate and advertise to attract females, has been extensively studied in acoustically signalling orthopterans and anurans. Species which agregate and signal visually have comparanble behaviour but chorusing aspects has been studied infrequently. Male fiddler crabs (genus Uca) signal by waving and enlarged claw and form signalling aggregations, therefore, they have a potential to form a visual chorus. This study investigated the chorusing behaviour of male eurpoean fiddler crabs, Uca tangeri. The timing of waving by groups of three males (trios) was studied when each male was alone and when all three males were present. When...

  17. Human exploitation of male fiddler crab claws: Behavioural consequences and implications for conservation

    Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Machado, José Luis Gorjão H. C.; Jordão, Joana; Burford, Fiona R. L.; Latruffe, Claire; McGregor, Peter K.
    Male fiddler crabs have one of their feeding claws greatly enlarged, which may comprise up to 40% of their weight. In southern Portugal (Ria Formosa) the major claw of the fiddler crab Uca tangeri is a local delicacy. Fishermen break off the male major claw and throw the crab back into the mudflat to regenerate a new one. Approximately 38 % of the males sampled had a missing or a regenerating claw. Although individuals are not removed from the population the operational sex ratio is biased towards females since other males and females behave towards clawless males as if they were females. Moreover, removing the major...

  18. A revision of the status of Lepadogaster lepadogaster (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae): Sympatric subspecies or a long misunderstood blend of species?

    Henriques, Miguel; Lourenço, Rita; Almada, Frederico; Calado, Gonçalo; Gonçalves, David; Gillemaud, Thomas; Cancela, Leonor; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    Molecular (partial mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequences), morphological and meristic analysis of Lepadogaster lepadogaster lepadogaster, L. l. purpurea and L. zebrina were performed to investigate the relationships between these taxa. On the western shore of mainland Portugal, where the two subspecies of L. lepadogaster occur sympatrically, they differ in microhabitat preferences and their breeding seasons are largely out of phase. This information, combined with data on distribution patterns, led to the following conclusions: Lepadogaster l. purpurea is considered to be a valid species, L. purpurea (Bonnaterre, 1788), different from L. l. lepadogaster, now designated L. lepadogaster (Bonnaterre, 1788). L. zebrina was found to be a synonym...

  19. Time spent close to a sexual partner as a measure of female mate preference in a sex-role-reversed population of the blenny Salaria pavo (Risso) (Pisces: Blenniidae)

    Gonçalves, David; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
    In most species females do not exhibit conspicuous sexual behaviours and female mate preferences are often measured by means of the time spent close to males. In spite of its widespread use, in only a few studies has this measure been validated as a reliable indicator of female mate preference. Sex-role-reversed species offer a better opportunity to test female preferences, as females usually court males. We tested in a sex-role-reversed population of the blenny Salaria pavo (Risso) if the time spent by females close to males related to the number of courtship displays directed towards males, and whether these measures of female preference reliably predicted matings. Females were simultaneously presented with two males...

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