Recursos de colección

Universidad Nacional de La Plata (75.269 recursos)

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vol. 28, no. 02

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 23

  1. The studies on hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB): sixty years after William C. Griffin's pioneer work (1949-2009)

    Pasquali, Ricardo C.; Sacco, Natalia; Bregni, Carlos
    The Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB)was formally presented by William C. Griffin sixty years ago at a meeting in Chicago for the first time and later on in an article published in the first volume of the Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists. In later publications, Griffin proposed formulas for the HLB value calculation that are satisfactory for non-ionic surfactants of various types. Several experimental methods developed then in order to obtain the HLB values of surfactants and required HLB of oils in a way simpler than with Griffin's original experimental method. Also there were proposed mathematical equations that HLB values of...

  2. Excipientes co-processados para compressão direta de comprimidos

    Sá Barreto, Lívia C.L.; Cunha Filho, Marcílio
    A presente revisão bibliográfica tem como objetivo delinear o panorama dos adjuvantes para compressão direta existentes no mercado denominados de excipientes co-processados. Estes materiais são elaborados a partir da combinação de dois ou mais excipientes através de um processamento farmacotécnico originando um produto com propriedades funcionais diferenciadas sem provocar, contudo modificações químicas nas suas estruturas originais. O desenvolvimento de excipientes co-processados responde a recente tendência da fabricação de comprimidos por compressão direta devido as suas vantagens materiais e econômicas. Atualmente existe disponíveis no mercado inúmeras variedades de diluentes co-processados, como Cellactose®, Starlac®, Ludipress®, MicroceLac® e Prosolv® capazes de melhorar as propriedades mecânicas dos princípios ativos viabilizando a compressão...

  3. Present and future of the radio-molecules used in detection of sentinel lymphatic nodes

    Fernández, Eutimio G.; Faintuch, Bluma L.; Oliveira, Relma T.; Wiecek, Danielle P.; Teodoro, Rodrigo; De Oliveira Filho, Renato S.
    Detection of the sentinel lymph node has become a mainstay of certain surgical interventions for cancer. In this sense, physiological and biochemical properties of the molecules employed for early detection of such metastasis have become relevant in many specialties. Traditionally the main characteristics considered for such radiopharmaceuticals are particle size and surface features. In addition, design of radiolabeled molecules has to take in account anatomy of the vascular lymphatic epithelium and its interaction with such agents. The aim is to create more specific and effective drugs, thus precisely shaping and eventually remodelling the surgical strategy for a given patient. Advances...

  4. Antibacterial activity of the crude ethanol extract from jacaranda decurrens leaves

    Zatta, Daniel T.; Bara, María Teresa. F.; Garrote, Clévia F.D.; Pimenta, Fabiana C.; Tresvenzol, Leonice M.F.; Fiuza, Tatiana S.; Paula, José R.
    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the leaves crude ethanol extract of Jacaranda decurrens Cham. (Bignoniaceae). The crude ethanol extract was obtained from the material collected in Senador Canedo and Mossâmedes, Goiás, Brazil, pulverized and submitted to phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the well diffusion test and the agar dilution method for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoid heterosides and coumarins. The crude ethanol extract demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. The MIC of J. decurrens for the Gram-positive bacteria varied from 2.18 mg/mL...

  5. Simple high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of benzalkonium chloride homologues in nasal preparations

    Barbosa, Nádia R.; Cid, Yara P.; Carvalho, Fernanda L.H.; Ferreira, Aline S.; Silva, Jane A.
    A High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method was developed for quantification of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and separation of three major homologues, in nasal preparations. Chromatography separation was carried out on a CLC-cyano column, using 0.075M acetate buffer with acetonitrile (45:55, v/v) pH = 5.0, as mobile phase, in an isocratic elution. The total run time was 20 min at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The retention times were of 10.0, 12.8 and 16.1 min, respectively, for homologs C12 , C14 and C16 of benzalkonium chloride. About precision, the method presented excellent repeatability and satisfactory precision intermediate, and the coefficients of variation...

  6. Free radical scavenginga activity and flavonoids contents of Polygonum orientale leaf, stem and seed extracts

    Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wei, Yan
    The present study was designed to explore the total flavonoid and taxifolin contents and the radical scavenging activity of 50% ethanol extracts of Polygonum orientale leaf, stem and seed by 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The extract with higher total flavonoid content has higher radical scavenging activity. Taxifolin (IC50 = 2.83 μmol/L) has stronger antioxidant activity than that of rutin (IC50 = 3.08 μmol/L). The free radical scavenging potential of the chloroform, ethyl acetate, water, ethanol and methanol extracts of P. orientale seed were also investigated. The free radical scavenging abilities of various extracts were determined as: methanol > ethanol >...

  7. Diphenylpropanoids from quisqualis indica linn. and their anti-staphylococcal activity

    Jahan, Fatima N.; Rahman, Mohammad S.; Rahman, M. Mukhlesur; Gibbons, Simon; Masud, Mohammad M.; Sadhu, Samir K.; Hossain, Mahboob; Hasan, Choudhury M.; Rashid, Mohammad A.
    Four diphenylpropanoids- 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)propan-1-ol (1), 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)propan-1-ol (2), 1-(3,4- dime thoxyphenyl ) -2- (4-al lyl -2,6-dime thoxyphenoxy)propan-1-ylac e tat e (3) and 1- (4-hydroxy-3,5- dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy) propan-1-ol (4) were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Quisqualis indica. The structures of these compounds were established unambiguously by MS and a series of 1D and 2D-NMR analyses. All compounds were tested for their anti-staphylococcal activity against a total of five multidrug-resistant (MDR) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were in the range of 128-256 μg/ml

  8. Actividad antiinflamatoria local de Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae) en el edema inducido por carragenina en ratas

    Chiclana, Carlos F.; Enrique, Andrea; Consolini, Alicia
    La malva (Malva sylvestris L., Malvaceae) es una planta medicinal ampliamente utilizada en aplicación tópica como demulcente, cicatrizante, anti-hemorroidal, para mucosas o piel. Sin embargo su actividad antiinflamatoria tópica no ha sido reportada en ensayos preclínicos ni clínicos. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto inhibidor del edema inducido por carragenina en ratas de una crema con extracto de malva al 5, 10 y 20%. Se obtuvo una inhibición significativa del edema con la crema de malva al 5% respecto de la crema placebo, y el efecto fue superior al obtenido por la aplicación tópica de crema de indometacina al...

  9. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae)

    Stefanello, Maria É.A.; Salvador, Marcos J.; Ito, Izabel Y.; Montoia, Andréia; Silva, Camila J.F.; Barros, Letícia F.L.
    O estudo fitoquímico de cascas do tronco e folhas de Talauma ovata St. Hil. (Magnoliaceae) levou ao isolamento das lactonas sesquiterpênicas costunolídeo e partenolídeo e dos alcalóides aporfínicos liriodenina, lanuginosina, dicentrinona, O-metilmoschatolina e N-acetilxilopina. Os extratos brutos, frações de extratos obtidas por partição com solventes e substâncias isoladas foram avaliadas pelo método de difusão em ágar, utilizando-se 15 bactérias Gram-positivas, 3 bactérias Gram-negativas e 3 fungos. A maior atividade foi detectada na fração em diclorometano do extrato em etanol das cascas, a qual foi ativa contra bactérias Gram-positivas. Nenhum extrato ou fração inibiu o crescimento de bactérias Gram-negativas ou fungos....

  10. UV-Derivative spectrophotometric and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for determination of Simvastatin in tablets

    Gomes, Fabio P.; García, Pedro L.; Alves, João M. P.; Singh, Anil K.; Kedor-Hackmann, Erika R.M.; Santoro, Maria Ines Rocha Miritello
    A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and a second-order derivative spectrophotometric (UVDS) analytical methods were validated and compared for determination of simvastatin in tablets. The HPLC method was performed with isocratic elution using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed of methanol:acetonitrile:water (60:20:20, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection was made at 239 nm. In UVDS method, methanol and water were used in first dilution and distilled water was used in consecutive dilutions and as background. The second-order derivative signal measurement was taken at 255 nm. Analytical curves showed correlation coefficients > 0.999 for both...

  11. Preparation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of glipizide mucoadhesive microspheres using factorial design

    Hosmani, Avinash H.; Kasture, Pramod V.
    The purpose of the research was to prepare controlled release glipizide mucoadhesive microspheres with a coat consisting of sodium alginate and a mucoadhesive polymer Carbopol 971P. Orificeionic gelation method by using 32 factorial design were investigated with a view to develop mucoadhesive microspheres of controlled release. The resulting microspheres were discrete, free flowing, spherical and multinucleate monolithic type. Microencapsulation efficiency was in the range of 56-88%. Microspheres exhibit good mucoadhesive property in the falling film test. Glipizide release from the mucoadhesive microspheres was slow and extended over long period of time. Drug release was non-Fickian type. The concentration of carbopol...

  12. Determination of phenytoin in human plasma by a validated liquid chromatography method and its application to a bioequivalence study

    Dalmora, Sérgio Luiz; Nogueira, Daniele R.; Londero, Lidiane F.; Santana, Davi P.; Gonçalves, Talita M.
    A sensitive and specific method based on liquid chromatography was developed and validated for the determination of phenytoin in human plasma using phenobarbital as internal standard. The drugs were extracted from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction and separated isocratically on a Phenomenex Synergi MAX-RP C12 column (150x 4.6 mm i.d.), with water: acetonitrile: methanol(58.8:15.2:26, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out using photodiode array detector set at 205 nm. The chromatographic separation was obtained within 12 min and was linear in the concentration range of 50-2500 ng/mL (r2 = 0.9999). The method was successfully applied for the bioequivalence study of...

  13. Atividade farmacológica e teor de quercetina de Mirabilis jalapa L.

    Walker, Cristiani I. B.; Zanotto, Camila Z.; Ceron, Carla S.; Pozzatti, Patricia; Alves, Sydney H.; Manfron, Melânia Palermo
    Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae), conhecida popularmente em Brasil como "bonina" ou "maravilha", é utilizada popularmente para o tratamento de infecções, inflamações e dores. O extrato bruto etanólico (70%) foi preparado por maceração e fracionado com solventes orgânicos de polaridade crescente (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etila e butanol). As melhores respostas para a atividade antimicrobiana foram obtidas para Staphylococcus aureus com a fração diclorometano e para Saccharomyces cerevisiae com a fração acetato de etila. Os extratos brutos e frações apresentaram atividade antioxidante pelo método do DPPH, sendo que as frações acetato de etila e butanólica das folhas demonstraram excelente atividade com CI50...

  14. Screening of cytotoxic activity in hexanic and ethanolic extracts of Rollinia laurifolia

    Cunha, M. M.; Nascimento, F. C.; Santos Pimento, L. P.; Boaventura, M. A. D.; Salas, C. E.; Lopes, M. T. P.
    The hexanic and ethanolic extracts obtained from Rollinia laurifolia, collected in Minas Gerais State/Brazil, were screened by the brine shrimp lethality and cytotoxic assays on different cell lines, in order to identify potential sources for novel antitumoral compounds. Fifty percent of the ethanolic derived fractions (E) showed significant cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 10–1 μg/mL), not related to tannins or saponins, i. e., IC50 E13 on C6 = 1.54 x 10-2 μg/mL, IC50 E29 on L929 and C6 = 6.43 x 10-1 μg/mL and 3.57 x 10-2 μg/mL, respectively. RP-HPLC analysis led to the purification and identification of two known acetogenins,...

  15. Investigação preliminar avaliando a influência dos processos de compactação e trituração em relação às propriedades cristalinas e polimórficas da talidomida

    Carini, Juliana P.; Pavei, Cabral; Silva, Ana P. C.; Machado, Giovanna; Mexias, André S.; Pereira, Vitor P.; Fialho, Sílvia L.; Mayorga, Paulo
    De acordo com a literatura, sabe-se que a talidomida apresenta formas polimórficas, refletindo em distintos hábitos cristalinos, tamanhos de partícula e velocidades de dissolução intrínseca. Levando-se em consideração esta questão e o fato do medicamento talidomida ser produzido sob a forma farmacêutica comprimidos em alguns países como Brasil, neste trabalho investigou-se a influência dos processos de compactação e trituração em relação à s fases polimórficas de amostras de talidomida. As amostras antes e após serem processadas foram avaliadas por DRX e DSC. A partir dos resultados obtidos por DRX, percebe-se que o efeito da compactação das amostras, adicionado à trituração,...

  16. Dissolution rate enhancement of fenofibrate using liquisolid tablet technique

    Karmarkar, Amrit B.; Gonjari, Indrajeet D.; Hosmani, Avinash H.; Dhabale, Pandurang N.; Bhise, Satish B.
    Fenofibrate is more effective drug as compared to other fibrates. But low bioavailability of it is due to its poor aqueous solubility. The purpose of present study was to improve fenofibrate dissolution through its formulation into liquisolid tablets and then to investigate in vitro performance of prepared liquisolid systems. By use of this technique, liquid medications such as solutions or suspensions of water insoluble drugs in suitable non-volatile liquid vehicles can be easily converted into powders with acceptable flow properties and compression behavior by using suitable powder excipients. X-ray powder diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry were used for evaluation of...

  17. Phenobarbital pharmacological findings on the nerve-muscle basis

    Rubem-Mauro, Leandro; Rocha Jr, Dimas S.; Barcelos, Caroline C.; Costa Varca, Gustavo H.; Andréo Filho, Newton; Barberato Fihlo, Silvio; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; Vila, Marta M. D. C.
    Phenobarbital and carbamazepine are antiepileptic drugs that act at the nervous central system by different mechanisms of action. In this work we investigated the pharmacological effects of these drugs on mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations through the myographic technique. Carbamazepine (0.105, 1.05, 2.1 and 4.2 mM, n = 8, 6, 6 and 6, respectively), induced a dose-dependent neuromuscular blockade, under indirect or direct muscle stimulation and the neurotransmission was reestablished after washing. Conversely, phenobarbital caused an unexpected facilitatory effect, under several formulations, such as the acid-extracted commercial tablets (1.05, 2.1 and 4.2 mM, n = 7, 6 and 7, respectively), commercial...

  18. O deficiente visual e a atenção farmacêutica

    Nascimento, Eliana L.; Marques, Luciene A.M.
    As dificuldades enfrentadas pelos deficientes visuais são inúmeras e uma delas é o uso de medicamentos. A grande limitação do acesso à informação sobre produtos farmacêuticos e enfermidades é um fato importante que contribui para o uso inadequado de medicamentos. O objetivo deste estudo foi formar uma base de dados sobre os deficientes visuais que permita a definição de estratégias para a implantação da Atenção Farmacêutica no grupo estudado. O estudo foi realizado entre fevereiro a agosto de 2007 na Associação Aliança dos cegos situada na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O termo de consentimento pós informado foi obtido de todos participantes antes do início...

  19. Potenciais interferências nos resultados de exames laboratoriais causadas pelo uso de plantas medicinais por pacientes HIV+ e/ou com AIDS

    Passos, Ana M.; Alexandre, Rodrigo F.; Sander, Rafaela; Jacques, Amanda; Carloto, Mariane S.; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; Spada, Celso
    As plantas medicinais (PM) podem interferir em exames laboratoriais realizados pelos pacientes com HIV/Aids. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão na literatura das potenciais interferências nos resultados de exames laboratoriais provocadas pelo uso de plantas medicinais por pacientes HIV+ e/ou com Aids, em tratamento com anti-retrovirais em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, entre abril e setembro de 2008. Dos 200 voluntários entrevistados, a maioria era do sexo masculino (60,5%), da raça caucasiana (72,0%), heterossexuais (80,5%), com baixa escolaridade (53,0% não concluíram o ensino médio) e com média de idade de 41,5 anos. Do total, 60,5% utilizavam PM no momento da entrevista. As cinco PM mais utilizadas...

  20. In vivo xylitol primary dermal irritation and phototoxicity evaluation

    Ferreira, Aline S.; Barbosa, Nádia R.; Silva, Silvio S
    Xylitol is a widely studied sugar with therapeutic properties and is effective against microorganisms. Despite a variety of toxicological data being available about this compound, dermal toxicological tests cannot be found. Here, the aim was to carry out in vivo assays to verify xylitol skin application safety. Primary dermal irritation studies were done with rabbits using 5 and 10% (w/w) xylitol, in either cream or gel form. Phototoxicity assays were also performed with guinea pigs, using only 10% (w/w) xylitol, in both forms. Primary dermal irritation studies revealed that xylitol topically used (5 and 10%) did not induce erythema or edema...

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