Torres, Daniel R.; Blanco, Luis H.; Vargas, Edgar F.; Martínez, Fleming
Osmotic and activity coefficients were measured for aqueous solutions of Lidocaine-HCl and Procaine-HCl using the isopiestic method at 298.15 K. The results were fitted to the Pitzer equation and the parameters were calculated. A good correlation with the Pitzer model was found. The osmotic coefficients thus obtained were analyzed by comparing them with the Debye-Hückel limiting law. The results are discussed in terms of ion-solvent and ion-ion interactions.
Duarte, Márcia do Rocio; Wolf, Samantha
Species of Brunfelsia, whose flowers change colour progressively from violet to white, are popularly known as yesterday-today-tomorrow and used in folk medicine, mainly as anesthetic and diuretic. Based on ethnobotanical surveys, they have been investigated chemically and pharmacologically for expanding the knowledge on the native medicinal flora and for searching bioactive compounds. In order to contribute to pharmacognostic analyses, especially in distinguishing the species B. pilosa Plowman from the allied B. uniflora (Pohl) D. Don, this work has aimed to study the microscopic characters of the leaf and stem of the former. Mature leaves and young stem fragments were fixed...
Külkamp, Irene C.; Silvério, Lívia V.; Soares, Alessandra S.; Peters, Rodrigo R.; Galato, Dayani
O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar problemas relacionados aos medicamentos (PRM) e avaliar a aceitabilidade das intervenções farmacêuticas pelos médicos. Este estudo foi realizado em um hospital geral do Sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Todos os pacientes (27) investigados tomaram mais de 5 medicamentos (média 8,3 ± 2,8). 27,5 % dos medicamentos utilizados foram agentes do sistema nervoso central, 25,7 % foram agentes cardiovasculares, 17,1 % dos medicamentos foram usados para afetar a coagulação do sangue e tratamento de anemias e 14,9 % medicamentos que atuam sobre o trato gastrointestinal. Foram realizadas 31 intervenções farmacêuticas relacionadas com PRM (87,1 %)...
Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.; Shinde, Devanand B.
The saponified petroleum ether extract (SPE) of the Annona reticulata L. bark were studied
for fatty acid composition by GC-MS analysis. Six fatty acids amounting 86.68% of the total contents were
identified. The composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid was 22.10 % and 64.58 %, respectively.
SPE at the doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight showed significant central as well as peripheral
analgesic, along with anti-inflammatory activity.
Farago, Paulo V.; Paula Josiane de F.P. de; Nakashima, Tomoe; Döll, Patricia M.; Manfron Budel Jane; Maia, Beatriz H.L.N.S.
Ocotea puberula (Rich.) Nees, known as canela-guaicá and canela-sebo, is a native woody
species from Brazil. O. puberula has been used by indigenous communities to treat skin diseases and tumours.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential
oil obtained by hydrodistillation from barks of O. puberula. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
analysis showed spathulenol, β-pinene, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene D and α-pinene as the major
volatile components. In the antibacterial activity, a very low response was demonstrated
Sayed, Gamal O. el-; Amin, Alaa S.
The electrochemical oxidation of melatonin is studied in Britton-Robinson buffer in the pH range 2.2-11.8 by cyclic voltammetry at glassy carbon electrode. Three irreversible, diffusion-controlled oxidation peaks were obtained. The utility of using differential pulse and square wave techniques for determination of melatonin was examined. Different parameters affecting the peak current were analylzed and at optimum conditions, linear calibration plots from 0.02-0.5 mM and 0.04 to 0.5 mM of melatonin were obtained applying the two techniques, respectively. The differential pulse mode was successfully applied to the determination of melatonin in commercial tablets containing about three-folds of vitamin B6 without previous...
Chowdhury, Akhtaruzzaman; Alam, Ashraful; Rahman, Mohammad S.; Hassan, Abul; Rashid, Mohammad A.
The methanol extract of Corypha taliera fruits as well as its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride,
dichloromethane and aqueous soluble fractions were subjected to screening for antioxidant, antimicrobial
and cytotoxic activities. The methanolic crude extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 19.33
μg/ml as compared to 9.5 μg/ml for the standard agent, BHT). The crude methanol extract and its carbon
tetrachloride, dichloromethane and aqueous soluble fractions showed mild to moderate inhibition of microbial
growth against some of the tested organisms. All the extractives exhibited strong cytotoxic properties,
among which the methanol extract revealed the strongest cytotixicity (LC50 = 0.43 μg/ml).
Joshi, Rupali S.; Pawar, Nilima S.; Sawant, Ramesh L.
Two methods for simultaneous estimation of acetaminophen, chlorpheniramine maleate and
caffeine in pure and tablet dosage form have been developed. Method I employs formation and solving of
simultaneous equation using 246.4 nm, 264.4 nm, and 272 nm as the λmax of acetaminophen, chlorpheniramine
maleate and caffeine respectively in 0.1N HCl. Method II is a multi-component spectrophotometric
analysis in which the instrument is preprogrammed to collect and compile the spectral data from the scan
of standards and produces the result by matrix calculations. These methods are validated for accuracy,
precision, linearity, specificity and sensitivity as per ICH norms. Validation studies are statistically significant.
Calibration curves are linear over...
Jana, Arun; Basu, Shyamoshree; Ali, Kazi A.; Bandyopadhyay, Amal K.
The aim of the present study is to prepare bilayered floating tablets of diltiazem with different ratios of polymers like HPMC K4M, carbopol 934 P, sodium alginate, Plantago ovata seed husk (psyllium) and to carry out evaluation of the physicochemical parameters of tablets like hardness, friability, content uniformity, weight variation, in vitro buoyancy and in vitro dissolution profiles. In vivo X-ray study was done in human volunteers to determine the floating characteristics of the placebo tablets for a period of 12 h.
Hussain, Khalid; Ismail, Zhari; Sadikun, Amirin
The present study is aimed to describe hepatoprotective activity of extracts of a medicinal plant, Piper sarmentosum, in rats against CCl4-induced toxicity. Seven groups of Sprague Dawley rats each containing six animals were treated as: group I (CCl4), group II (control), group III and IV (fruit extract 500 and 250 mg/kg, respectively), group V and VI (leaf extract 500 and 250 mg/kg, respectively) and group VII (vitamin-E). The extracts and vitamin-E were administered orally for 14 days whilst equivalent amount of sample vehicle was administered to CCl4 and control groups. Four hour following the last dose, a single dose of...
Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Sood, Shailja; Gill, Naresh Singh; Arora, Rashmi
The present study was designed to explore the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of
Emblica officinalis (HAE) on renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury induced acute renal failure (ARF).
Rats were subjected to administration of HAE (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. for 10 days) before one hour of the
ischemia (30 min) reperfusion (24 h) process on the 10th day of experiment. For evaluating the effect of
HAE on acute renal failure, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were estimated in serum sample
whereas, N-acetyl β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) was estimated in urine sample. Further, renal tissue was
used to evaluate the oxidative stress markers and histopathological changes....
Mali, Kailas K.; Dias, Remeth J.; Ghorpade, Vishwajeet S.; Havaldar, Vijay D.
Sodium alginate microspheres of domperidone for intranasal systemic delivery were developed
to eliminate first pass metabolism, improve patient compliance and obtain improved therapeutic efficacy
in treatment of migraine, gastro-esophageal reflux and chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting.
Domperidone was encapsulated as ternary inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin and citric acid to improve
solubility. The phase solubility studies were performed in order to select suitable acid and ternary
inclusion complex was prepared by kneading method. The complex was characterized by differential scanning
calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro dissolution
study was carried out in simulated nasal electrolyte solution, pH 6.4. The microspheres of optimised
ternary inclusion complex...
Man, Shuli; Gao, Wenyuan; Zhang, Yanjun; Ma, Chaoyi; Huang, Lijing; Li, Yiwen; Liu, Changxiao; Huang, Luqi
Oral administration to rats of Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) from Paris polyphylla var.
yunnanensis extracts have been found to show strong anti-tumor activity, but the effective constituents
were not known. To detail the effective components in RPS, we investigated the serum pharmacochemistry
after oral administration of RPS and detected eight kinds of Paridis saponins in the rat serum. Then we
purposefully purified a mixture (PM) from RPS to further research. By comparison of tumor weight,
spleen index, antitumor rate and numbers of metastases, PM showed a considerable activity as RPS. In
conclusion, the serum pharmacochemistry can help us purposefully to separate and purify RPS and to...
Rodriguez, Iván; Molina, Vivian; Más, Rosa; Illnait, José; Oyarzábal, Ambar; Mendoza, Sarahí; Fernández, Lilia; Fernández, Julio; Gámez, Rafael; Mesa, Meylis; Jiménez, Sonia; Borrero, Lisete; Cruz, Yadira; Pérez, Yohani
D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia fruits that prevents testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia in rodents, and saw palmetto (SP) lipid extract, used to treat benign prostate hyperplasia, have been shown antioxidant effects. This randomized, double-blind study compared their antioxidant effects in forty healthy men randomised to D-004 or SP (320 mg/day) capsules for 8 weeks. D-004 significantly (p < 0.001) reduced plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) (32.7 %), sulphydril groups (SH-G) (24.6 %) and (p < 0.01) total hydroxyperoxides (TOH) (26.5 %) values and increased (p < 0.001) total antioxidant status (TAS) (44.1 %) and catalase (CAT) (100.0 %) activity. Treatment with...
Asane, Govind S.; Bhatt, Jaykrishna H.; Yamsani, Madhusudan R.; Mukkanti, Khagga
The objective of the present study was to investigate the applicability of matrix type chitosan treated alginate multiple unit systems (MUS) for sustained release of metronidazole prepared by ionotropic gelation method. Spherical MUS with 0.64 ± 0.95 to 0.75 ± 0.38 mm length and 0.63 ± 0.34 to 0.74 ± 0.28 mm breadth and 71.60 ± 0.42 to 82.15 ± 0.35 % entrapment efficiency were produced. The fluoroscopic study reveals that the MUS was retained in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for more than 5 h and found to be distributed throughout the GIT. The in vivo evaluation in healthy human volunteers...
Ma, Chaoyi; Gao, Wenyuan; Man, Shuli; Gao, Ying; Huang, Luqi; Liu, Changxiao
Current quality control patterns are limited to industrial application, for most the natural chemical reference substances are expensive and unavailable. Here in, quantitative analysis of multi-components with single marker (QAMS) method, is established and validated to simultaneously determine five steroidal saponins (Paris-VII, Paris-H, Paris-II, Dioscin , Paris-I) in Rhizoma Paridis. Using Paris-I as the contrast, the relative correction factors (RCF) of the other four steroidal saponins are determined by HPLC-UV. With in the linear ranges, the values of RCF of Paris-I to Paris-VII, Paris-H, Paris-II and Dioscin are 0.877, 1.087, 0.975 and 1.127, respectively. The RCF has a good reproducibility...
Chanawanno, Kullapa; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Anantapong, Theerasak; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit
A new series of silver (I) 4-substitutedbenzenesulfonate derivatives (1-8) have been synthesized in
order to search for new potential antibacterial agents. The antibacterial activity of 1-8 against various strains of
bacteria has been determined. Compounds 2-4 (silver (I) 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (2), silver (I) 4-methoxybenzenesulfonate
(3), and silver (I) 4-aminobenzenesulfonate (4)) showed broad spectrum of antibacterial activities
against both Gram-positive (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis,
Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis) and only one Gram-negative bacterium
(Shigella sonnei). The Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) has also been reported.
Zhai, Dan-Dan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt; Zhong, Jian-Jiang
Drimartol A (DA), a sesquiterpene courmarin ether, was isolated from the cultured hairy roots of A. annua for the first time, and no biological activity of DA has ever been reported. In this work, DA was shown to possess interesting cytotoxic activities against the human tumor cell lines of HO8910 (ovary), 95-D (lung), QGY (liver) and HeLa (cervix) by MTT assay, whose IC50 values were ranged within 17.94-22.3 μM for 24h. Given that treatment of lung cancer is a priority of our interest, induction of apoptosis by DA in the human lung tumor cell line 95-D was focused. The 95-D...
Aamir, Muhammad N.; Ahmad, Mahmood; Murtaza, Ghulam; Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Shujaat A.; Usman, Muhammad
Biodegradable microspheres of Tramadol Hydrochloride (TmH) were developed using simple
phase separation technique. Poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) was employed as a release controlling
polymer. Simple phase separation method was adopted to prepare microspheres; Dichloromethane (DCM)
and Liquid Paraffin (LP) were employed as solvent and non-solvent respectively. Five kinetic models were
applied to assess and describe the mechanism and pattern of TmH release from biodegradable microspheres.
Biodegradable microspheres were subjected to FTIR, DSC and XRD, to evaluate TmH-PLGA interaction.
Retardation in the release of TmH was observed as PLGA concentration was increased. Kinetics
of drug release was following higuchi model. The microspheres exhibited no interaction between TmH and
Bandari, Suresh; Yamsani, Madhusudan R.
A biphasic gastroretentive drug delivery system of acyclovir consisted of loading dose tablet
and floating multiple matrix tablets was prepared by direct compression process. The delivery system was
designed by hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose as retardant polymer with an effervescent component to get
the desired buoyant and sustained release characteristics. All formulations compile within the limits. The
FTIR studies did not show any evidence of an interaction between acyclovir and polymers. Dissolution
studies revealed biphasic drug release pattern, with loading dose released within 30 min and floating multiple
matrix tablets provided zero order sustained release profile for 12 h. It is concluded that floating
multiple matrix tablets...