En este artículo partimos de las definiciones de Bien y de Mal que nos ofrece la filosofía para la interpretación de los dilemas éticos
en la práctica de la Psicología. Subrayamos que, como referencia en el proceso de decisión subyacente a la resolución de los dilemas
éticos, los psicólogos tienen además del Código Deontológico nacional, el Meta-Código de Ética europeo, sus principios morales,
éticos y sus emociones. Se discuten algunos dilemas éticos que tienen lugar en la práctica de la Psicología, adelantando tres
respuestas posibles, siendo la identificada como camino C aquella que consideramos que causa menos daño.
Percy, Elise J.; Sherman, Steven J.; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Mata, André; Garcia-Marques, Teresa
In the present research, we investigated the influence of native-language adjective–noun word order on
category accessibility for nouns and adjectives by comparing Portuguese speakers (in whose language nouns
precede adjectives) with English speakers (in whose language adjectives precede nouns). In two studies, we presented
participants with different numbers of verbal or pictorial stimuli, and subsequently they answered questions
about noun- and adjective-conditioned frequencies. The results demonstrated a primacy effect of nativelanguage
word order. Specifically, although both populations showed a speed advantage for noun-conditioned
questions, this tendency was significantly stronger for Portuguese than for American participants. We discuss the
important role of native-language syntax rules for the categorization...
Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M. J.
We report two new phenomena of deontic reasoning: (1) For conditionals with deontic content such as, "If the nurse cleaned up the blood then she must have worn rubber gloves", reasoners make more modus tollens inferences (from "she did not wear rubber gloves" to "she did not clean up the blood") compared to conditionals with epistemic content. (2) For conditionals in the subjunctive mood with deontic content, such as, "If the nurse had cleaned up the blood then she must have had to wear rubber gloves", reasoners make the same frequency of all inferences as they do for conditionals in...
Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Juhos, Csongor; Senos, Jorge
Mikor egy negatív élményt élünk át életünk során, gyakran
gondolkozunk el azon, mennyire másképp alakulhattak volna a
dolgok, ha akár csak a végeredményt megelőző egyetlen előzmény
más lett volna. Az ilyen jellegű gondolatokat nevezzük tényelleni
(counter-factual) gondolatoknak: ezek olyan mentális alternatívát
nyújtanak számunkra a valósággal szemben, amely jellegénél és
idődimenziójánál fogva kitágítja kognitív és érzelmi
tapasztalatainkat a valós határokon túl.
Housley, Meghan K.; Claypool, Heather M.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa
The notion that language can shape social perception has a long history in psychology. The current work
adds to this literature by investigating the relationship between ingroup-designating pronouns and perceptions
of familiarity. In two experiments, participants were exposed to nonsense syllables that were
primed with ingroup (e.g., we) and control (e.g., it) pronouns before perceptions of the syllables’ familiarity
(Experiments 1 and 2) and positivity (Experiment 2) were assessed. Because previous work has
shown that ingroup pronouns are perceived positively (Perdue, Dovidio, Gurtman, & Tyler, 1990), and
that positivity can trigger familiarity (e.g., Garcia-Marques, Mackie, Claypool, & Garcia-Marques, 2004;
Monin, 2003), we predicted that syllables primed with...
Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Johnson-Laird, Philip N.; Juhos, Csongor
The theory of mental models postulates that conditionals of the sort, if A then C, have a “core”
meaning referring to three possibilities: A and C, not-A and C, and not-A and not-C. The meaning
of a conditional’s clauses and general knowledge can modulate this meaning, blocking certain possibilities
or adding relations between the clauses. Four experiments investigated such interpretations in
factual and deontic domains. In Experiment 1, the participants constructed instances of what was
possible and what was impossible according to various conditionals. The results corroborated the
general predictions of the model theory and also the occurrence of modulation. The resulting
interpretations governed the conclusions that...
Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Power, Michael J.; Juhos, Csongor; Senos, Jorge
The purpose of the studies reported in this paper was to evaluate the
function of counterfactual thinking (CT) in depression. In Experiment
1, depressed and non-depressed participants were asked to
imagine themselves as the protagonist of a hypothetical situation,
and to think counterfactually about three different scenarios. The
results showed that there was a similar CT style (in terms of direction,
structure and focus of mutation) for the depressed and the nondepressed
groups. It was also found that the perceived preparation
for a future similar situation increased after CT and, contrary to our
hypotheses, this effect was observed in both groups. In Experiment
2, a real-life situation was used (a...
Juhos, Csongor; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Johnson-Laird, Philip N.
The mental model theory postulates that the meanings of assertions, and knowledge about
their context can modulate the logical meaning of sentential connectives, such as ‘‘if’’ and
‘‘or’’. One known effect of modulation is to block the representation of possibilities to
which a proposition refers. But, modulation should also add relational information, such
as temporal order, to models of possibilities. Three experiments tested this prediction.
Experiment 1 showed that individuals spontaneously matched the tense of their conclusions
(in Portuguese) to embody implied, but unexpressed, temporal relations in conditional
premises. Experiment 2 demonstrated the same phenomenon in inferences from
disjunctions. Experiment 3 showed that the number of such implicit...