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Repositório do ISPA Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (10.591 recursos)

No Repositório do ISPA pode encontrar diversos tipos de documentos, em formato digital, resultantes da produção científica do ISPA designadamente: teses de doutoramento, teses de mestrado, artigos em publicações periódicas nacionais e internacionais, relatórios técnicos, artigos em actas de conferências nacionais e internacionais e capítulos de livros.

PCOG - Artigos em revistas internacionais

Mostrando recursos 1 - 8 de 8

  1. Entre los caminos A y B elijo el incierto C: El bien, el mal y los dilemas éticos

    Cláudio, Victor
    En este artículo partimos de las definiciones de Bien y de Mal que nos ofrece la filosofía para la interpretación de los dilemas éticos en la práctica de la Psicología. Subrayamos que, como referencia en el proceso de decisión subyacente a la resolución de los dilemas éticos, los psicólogos tienen además del Código Deontológico nacional, el Meta-Código de Ética europeo, sus principios morales, éticos y sus emociones. Se discuten algunos dilemas éticos que tienen lugar en la práctica de la Psicología, adelantando tres respuestas posibles, siendo la identificada como camino C aquella que consideramos que causa menos daño.

  2. Cognition and native-language grammar: The organizational role of adjective–noun word order in information representation

    Percy, Elise J.; Sherman, Steven J.; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Mata, André; Garcia-Marques, Teresa
    In the present research, we investigated the influence of native-language adjective–noun word order on category accessibility for nouns and adjectives by comparing Portuguese speakers (in whose language nouns precede adjectives) with English speakers (in whose language adjectives precede nouns). In two studies, we presented participants with different numbers of verbal or pictorial stimuli, and subsequently they answered questions about noun- and adjective-conditioned frequencies. The results demonstrated a primacy effect of nativelanguage word order. Specifically, although both populations showed a speed advantage for noun-conditioned questions, this tendency was significantly stronger for Portuguese than for American participants. We discuss the important role of native-language syntax rules for the categorization...

  3. Reasoning with deontic and counterfactual conditionals

    Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M. J.
    We report two new phenomena of deontic reasoning: (1) For conditionals with deontic content such as, "If the nurse cleaned up the blood then she must have worn rubber gloves", reasoners make more modus tollens inferences (from "she did not wear rubber gloves" to "she did not clean up the blood") compared to conditionals with epistemic content. (2) For conditionals in the subjunctive mood with deontic content, such as, "If the nurse had cleaned up the blood then she must have had to wear rubber gloves", reasoners make the same frequency of all inferences as they do for conditionals in...

  4. Tényelleni (counter-factual) gondolkodás egyetemi tanulási kontextusban

    Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Juhos, Csongor; Senos, Jorge
    Mikor egy negatív élményt élünk át életünk során, gyakran gondolkozunk el azon, mennyire másképp alakulhattak volna a dolgok, ha akár csak a végeredményt megelőző egyetlen előzmény más lett volna. Az ilyen jellegű gondolatokat nevezzük tényelleni (counter-factual) gondolatoknak: ezek olyan mentális alternatívát nyújtanak számunkra a valósággal szemben, amely jellegénél és idődimenziójánál fogva kitágítja kognitív és érzelmi tapasztalatainkat a valós határokon túl.

  5. ‘‘We” are familiar but ‘‘It” is not: Ingroup pronouns trigger feelings of familiarity

    Housley, Meghan K.; Claypool, Heather M.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa
    The notion that language can shape social perception has a long history in psychology. The current work adds to this literature by investigating the relationship between ingroup-designating pronouns and perceptions of familiarity. In two experiments, participants were exposed to nonsense syllables that were primed with ingroup (e.g., we) and control (e.g., it) pronouns before perceptions of the syllables’ familiarity (Experiments 1 and 2) and positivity (Experiment 2) were assessed. Because previous work has shown that ingroup pronouns are perceived positively (Perdue, Dovidio, Gurtman, & Tyler, 1990), and that positivity can trigger familiarity (e.g., Garcia-Marques, Mackie, Claypool, & Garcia-Marques, 2004; Monin, 2003), we predicted that syllables primed with...

  6. The modulation of conditional assertions and its effects on reasoning

    Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Johnson-Laird, Philip N.; Juhos, Csongor
    The theory of mental models postulates that conditionals of the sort, if A then C, have a “core” meaning referring to three possibilities: A and C, not-A and C, and not-A and not-C. The meaning of a conditional’s clauses and general knowledge can modulate this meaning, blocking certain possibilities or adding relations between the clauses. Four experiments investigated such interpretations in factual and deontic domains. In Experiment 1, the participants constructed instances of what was possible and what was impossible according to various conditionals. The results corroborated the general predictions of the model theory and also the occurrence of modulation. The resulting interpretations governed the conclusions that...

  7. Counterfactual thinking and functional differences in depression

    Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Power, Michael J.; Juhos, Csongor; Senos, Jorge
    The purpose of the studies reported in this paper was to evaluate the function of counterfactual thinking (CT) in depression. In Experiment 1, depressed and non-depressed participants were asked to imagine themselves as the protagonist of a hypothetical situation, and to think counterfactually about three different scenarios. The results showed that there was a similar CT style (in terms of direction, structure and focus of mutation) for the depressed and the nondepressed groups. It was also found that the perceived preparation for a future similar situation increased after CT and, contrary to our hypotheses, this effect was observed in both groups. In Experiment 2, a real-life situation was used (a...

  8. Temporal and spatial relations in sentential reasoning

    Juhos, Csongor; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Johnson-Laird, Philip N.
    The mental model theory postulates that the meanings of assertions, and knowledge about their context can modulate the logical meaning of sentential connectives, such as ‘‘if’’ and ‘‘or’’. One known effect of modulation is to block the representation of possibilities to which a proposition refers. But, modulation should also add relational information, such as temporal order, to models of possibilities. Three experiments tested this prediction. Experiment 1 showed that individuals spontaneously matched the tense of their conclusions (in Portuguese) to embody implied, but unexpressed, temporal relations in conditional premises. Experiment 2 demonstrated the same phenomenon in inferences from disjunctions. Experiment 3 showed that the number of such implicit...

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