Martínez Martínez, Amparo; Gama, Luis L.T.; Cañón, Javier; Ginja, Catarina; Delgado-Bermejo, J.V.; Dunner, Susana; Landi, Vincenzo; Martín-Burriel, I.; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rodellar, Clementina; Vega-Pla, J.L.; Acosta, Atzel; Álvarez, Luz Ángela; Camacho Vallejo, M.E.; Cortés, Oscar; Marques, J.R.; Martínez, Roberto; Martínez, Ruben D.; Melucci, Lilia; Martínez-Velázquez, Guillermo; Muñoz, Jaime E.; Postiglioni, A.; Quiroz, J.; Sponenberg, Philip; Uffo, Odalys; Villalobos, Axel; Zambrano, Delsito; Zaragoza, P.
Background: American Creole cattle presumably descend from animals imported from the Iberian Peninsula during the period of
colonization and settlement, through different migration routes, andmay have also suffered the influence of cattle directly imported
from Africa. The introduction of European cattle, which began in the 18th century, and later of Zebu from India, has threatened the
survival of Creole populations, some of which have nearly disappeared or were admixed with exotic breeds. Assessment of the
genetic status of Creole cattle is essential for the establishment of conservation programs of these historical resources.
Methodology/Principal Findings: We sampled 27 Creole populations, 39 Iberian, 9 European and 6...