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Empirical Musicology Review: Volume 7 (2012)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 17 de 17

  1. Response to Richard Widdess: Music, Meaning and Culture

    Lewis, Jerome
    This commentary discusses the anthropological implications of Richard Widess’ paper by summarizing some anthropological approaches to music, especially focusing on the way musical participation inculcates and transmits an aesthetic orientation that guides action across cultural domains such as politics, economics and religion. The paper ends by suggesting that the heart of human culture is more likely to be an aesthetic orientation than a script or set of rules, and traces out some reasons why music does this so well.

  2. Musics, Cultures and Meanings: Music as Communication

    Cross, Ian
    This commentary explores interpretations of concepts that lie at the focus of Richard Widdess's paper—"music", and "culture"—with the aim of specifying frameworks within which issues of musical meaning can fruitfully be addressed.

  3. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Widdess, Richard
    This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the...

  4. A Kaleidoscope of Meanings: A Comment on Philip Barnard “What Do We Mean by the Meanings of Music”

    Reich, Uli
    In this response paper, I argue that types of meanings in linguistic utterances which lie beyond propositional meaning can hardly be subsumed in only one category called implicational meaning. Many of these levels of meaning allow for restricted comparisons of their correspondence to levels of meaning in musical utterances.

  5. A Language for Musical Qualia

    Zentner, Marcel
    In this commentary I build on Phil Barnard’s distinction of implicational and propositional meanings as an incentive to explore possibilities for bridging the two types of meanings. I argue that, contrary to the claim that musical experiences are ineffable, the subtle implicational meanings that make up the experiential richness of musical qualia may be amenable to linguistic description and objectification, provided that a suitable language is being used. Taking music-evoked emotional experiences as an example, I sketch the contours of such a language and also discuss criteria by which the suitability of a language to characterize musical qualia may be...

  6. What Do We Mean by the Meanings of Music?

    Barnard, Philip J.
    Drawing upon a recent review of the topic by Cross and Tolbert (2009), this paper briefly illustrates the diversity of theories concerning the nature of meanings in music and the challenges that need to be resolved to advance the field. A scheme for layered macro- and micro-theories for neural, mental and behavioural systems is outlined to facilitate the development of a systematic and coherent body of theory. The core of the paper charts the evolutionary origins of a specific macro- theory of the organisation all the components of the human mind. This “mental architecture,” known as Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (Barnard,...

  7. Musical Entrainment Subsumes Bodily Gestures – Its Definition Needs a Spatiotemporal Dimension

    Leman, Marc
    In his paper “What is entrainment? Definition and applications in musical research” (this issue), M. Clayton offers a definition of entrainment that is based on a timing dimension (relative phase relationships). However, this definition may be too limited when applied to musical entrainment. Based on the idea that human engagement with music is embodied and that gestures may condition entrainment, I suggest that the definition of entrainment be broadened so as to include a spatiotemporal dimension.

  8. Entraining the Brain: Applications to Language Research and Links to Musical Entrainment

    Goswami, Usha
    Clayton’s paper provides a clear and accessible summary of the significance of entrainment for music making, and for human behaviour in general. He notes the central role of metrical structure in musical entrainment, the possible role of oscillatory neural activity, and the core notion of phase alignment. Here I show how these same factors are central to speech processing by the human brain. I argue that entrainment to metrical structure is core to linguistic as well as musical human behaviour. I illustrate this view using entrainment data from developmental dyslexia. The core role of entrainment in efficient speech processing suggests...

  9. What is Entrainment? Definition and applications in musical research

    Clayton, Martin
    Entrainment theory describes the process of interaction between independent rhythmical processes. This paper defines entrainment in this general sense, then briefly explores its significance for human behaviour, and for music- making in particular. The final section outlines a research method suitable for studies of entrainment in inter-personal coordination, and with reference to published studies suggests that the study of musical entrainment can be a source of rich insight also for the study of human social interactions and their meanings.

  10. Response to Fred Cummins: Looking for Rhythm in Speech

    House, David
    This commentary briefly reviews three aspects of rhythm in speech. The first concerns the issues of what to measure and how measurements should relate to rhythm's communicative functions. The second relates to how tonal and durational features of speech contribute to the percept of rhythm, noting evidence that indicates such features can be tightly language-specific. The third aspect addressed is how bodily gestures integrate with and enhance the communicative functions of speech rhythm.

  11. Finding Rhythm in Speech: A Response to Cummins

    Moore, Roger K.
    This paper attempts to address three critical questions left unanswered by Cummins’ review: are rhythm and entrainment physical, perceptual or social phenomena, what are the underlying mechanisms, and what is their role in behaviour such as speech and music? These issues are addressed from the perspective of an engineer/computer-scientist/ roboticist for whom modelling such behaviours within a computational framework not only provides an empirical methodology for validating theoretical claims, but also facilitates the construction of artificial devices that are capable of exhibiting/exploiting those behaviours in the context of human-machine interaction. The paper draws on insights from a range of different...

  12. Looking for Rhythm in Speech

    Cummins, Fred
    A brief review is provided of the study of rhythm in speech. Much of that activity has focused on looking for empirical measures that would support the categorization of languages into discrete rhythm ‘types’. That activity has had little success, and has used the term ‘rhythm’ in increasingly unmusical and unintuitive ways. Recent approaches to conversation that regard speech as a whole-body activity are found to provide considerations of rhythm that are closer to the central, musical, sense of the term.

  13. Rhythm and Time in Music Epitomize the Temporal Dynamics of Human Communicative Behavior: The Broad Implications of London's Trinity

    Keller, Peter E.
    Three key issues about rhythm and timing in music are drawn to the attention of linguists in a paper by London (2012). In this commentary, I argue that these issues are relevant not only to linguists, but also to those in any field dealing with the temporal dynamics of human communicative behavior. Thus, the distinction between endogenously and exogenously driven mechanisms of perceptual organization, the active nature of perception, and the presence of multiple time scales are topics that also concern experimental psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists. London’s argument that these three issues play a crucial role in the perception of...

  14. Musical Rhythm for Linguists: A Response to Justin London

    Overy, Katie
    Musical timing is a rich, complex phenomenon which changes across cultures, periods and styles and requires highly explicit terminology in order to communicate clearly between music theorists, psychologists, neuroscientists, performers and indeed with linguists. Here I respond to Justin London’s opening paper by outlining and expanding upon his key points and raising additional questions regarding the neural basis and the functional role of musical timing.

  15. Three Things Linguists Need to Know About Rhythm and Time in Music

    London, Justin
    This paper, directed at researchers in linguistics, introduces three key aspects of musical rhythm and time for their consideration: (1) the distinction between groups of durations (i.e., acoustical events in the world) and our endogenous sense of beats and beat cycles, that is, musical meter; (2) the active nature of rhythmic perception and cognition, which involves both innate and enculturated responses to music, and (3) that musical rhythms involve temporal processes on different time scales (from 100ms to 5-7 seconds), though they are integrated into a coherent perceptual framework. In addition, the relationships between musical rhythm and sensorimotor entrainment, as...

  16. Meaning and Entrainment in Language and Music Special Issue: Introduction

    Franco, Fabia; Cross, Ian
    overview of special double issue

  17. Editor's Note

    Keller, Peter E.

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