Recursos de colección

Hokkaido University Collection of Scholarly and Academic Papers (130.505 recursos)

HUSCAP (Hokkaido University Collection of Scholarly and Academic Papers) contains peer-reviewed journal articles, proceedings, educational resources and any kind of scholarly works of Hokkaido University.

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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 21

  1. Role of Phospho enol pyruvate Carboxylase in the Adaptation of a Tropical Forage Grass to Low-Phosphorus Acid Soils

    Begum, Hasna Hena; Osaki, Mitsuru; Nanamori, Masahito; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Shinano, Takuro; Rao, Idupulapati M.
    As Brachiaria hybrid cv. 'Mulato' has adapted to acid soils with extremely low phosphorus (P) contents, its low-P-tolerance mechanisms were investigated and compared with those of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. 'Kitaake'). Among the three plant species, the highest P-use efficiency (PUE) in low-P soil was recorded in the Brachiaria hybrid, which increased remarkably under P-deficiency and soil acidity, while P-deficiency had less effect on the PUE of wheat and rice. As exudation of organic acid anions from roots is considered to be one of the most important mechanisms of adaptation to low-P soil, the...

  2. Development of an automatic rice-quality inspection system

    Kawamura, Shuso; Natsuga, Motoyasu; Takekura, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Kazuhiko
    The need has arisen in rice-drying facilities in Japan for an automatic method to measure quality aspects of rice when it arrives at the drying facility. A near-infrared (NIR) transmission instrument was used to obtain NIR spectra of damp rough rice and damp brown rice. Calibration models were developed from the original spectra and reference analysis data to determine moisture and protein content of the samples. A visible light (VIS) segregator was used to determine sound whole kernel of brown rice. The precision and accuracy of the NIR instrument and the VIS segregator were found to be sufficiently high to...

  3. Multiple forms of α-glucosidase in rice seeds (Oryza sativa L., var Nipponbare)

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Ito, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Kamiya, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Matsubara, Kazuki; Kim, Young-Min; Jintanart, Wongchawalit; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Chiba, Seiya; Sanoa, Yoshio; Kimura, Atsuo
    Two isoforms of α-glucosidases (ONG2-I and ONG2-II) were purified from dry rice seeds (Oryza sativa L., var Nipponbare). Both ONG2-I and ONG2-II were the gene products of ONG2 mRNA expressed in ripening seeds. Each enzyme consisted of two components of 6 kDa-peptide and 88 kDa-peptide encoded by this order in ONG2 cDNA (ong2), and generated by post-translational proteolysis. The 88 kDa-peptide of ONG2-II had 10 additional N-terminal amino acids compared with the 88 kDa-peptide of ONG2-I. The peptides between 6 kDa and 88 kDa components (26 amino acids for ONG2-I and 16 for ONG2-II) were removed by post-translational proteolysis. Proteolysis...

  4. Increase in soil pH due to Ca-rich organic matter application causes suppression of the clubroot disease of crucifers

    Niwa, Rieko; Kumei, Toshiaki; Nomura, Yoshinobu; Yoshida, Shigekata; Osaki, Mitsuru; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro
    Clubroot disease of cruciferous plants caused by the soil-borne pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae is difficult to control because the pathogen survives for a long time in soil as resting spores. Disease-suppressive and conducive soils were found during the long-term experiment on the impact of organic matter application to arable fields and have been studied to clarify the biotic and abiotic factors involved in the disease suppression. The fact that a large amount of organic matter, 400 t ha−1 yr−1 farmyard manure (FYM) or 100 t ha−1 yr−1 food factory sludge compost (FSC), had been incorporated for more than 15 yr in...

  5. Purification and Characterization of α-Glucosidase I from Japanese Honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) and Molecular Cloning of Its cDNA

    Wongchawalit, Jintanart; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Kim, Young-Min; Sato, Natsuko; Nishimoto, Mamoru; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Saji, Osamu; Chanchao, Chanpen; Wongsiri, Siriwat; Surarits, Rudee; Svasti, Jisnuson; Chiba, Seiya; Kimura, Atsuo
    α-Glucosidase (JHGase I) was purified from a Japanese subspecies of eastern honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) as an electrophoretically homogeneous protein. Enzyme activity of the crude extract was mainly separated into two fractions (component I and II) by salting-out chromatography. JHGase I was isolated from component I by further purification procedure using CM-Toyopearl 650M and Sephacryl S-100. JHGase I was a monomeric glycoprotein (containing 15% carbohydrate), of which the molecular weight was 82,000. Enzyme displayed the highest activity at pH 5.0, and was stable up to 40 °C and in a pH-range of 4.5–10.5. JHGase I showed unusual kinetic features: the...

  6. Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for Determining Physicochemical Properties of Rice

    Natsuga, M.; Kawamura, S.
    To assess rice grain quality, various types of analyses of the physicochemical properties of rice must be conducted. Although several methods exist, different properties require specific instruments and chemicals, and most of them are time-consuming. The authors have therefore developed calibration models for determining multiple physicochemical properties of rice using a single instrument, a visible and near-infrared (VIS/NIR) reflectance spectrometer. These models were used to measure the physicochemical properties of 61 samples of Japanese short-grain, non-waxy rice. The results of partial least squares (PLS) regression modeling with full cross-validation methods indicated that reasonably accurate models (correlation coefficient [r] of the...

  7. Establishment of a model experiment system to elucidate the mechanism by which Zn–protoporphyrin IX is formed in nitrite-free dry-cured ham

    Wakamatsu, J.; Okui, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Hattori, A.
    The aim of this study was to establish a model experiment system to elucidate the mechanism by which Zn–protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) is formed in Parma ham. The established model consisted of myoglobin, meat and antibiotics, and incubation under anaerobic conditions resulted in a greater yield of ZPP. Formation of ZPP was observed even in the presence of various antiseptics. The amount of ZPP formed increased as the period of incubation increased. ZPP formation was inhibited by heating meat homogenate depending on the heating temperature. Our results show that anaerobic conditions are suitable for the formation of ZPP in meat products...

  8. A Zn-porphyrin complex contributes to bright red color in Parma ham

    Wakamatsu, J.; Nishimura, T.; Hattori, A.
    The Italian traditional dry-cured ham (Parma ham) shows a stable bright red color that is achieved without the use of nitrite and/or nitrate. In this study we examined the pigment spectroscopically, fluoroscopically and by using HPLC and ESI-HR-MASS analysis. Porphyrin derivative other than acid hematin were contained in the HCl-containing acetone extract from Parma ham. A strong fluorescence peak at 588 nm and a weak fluorescence peak at 641 nm were observed. By HPLC analysis the acetone extract of Parma ham was observed at the single peak, which eluted at the same time as Zn-protoporphyrin IX and emitted fluorescence. The...

  9. Observation of the distribution of Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) in Parma ham by using purple LED and image analysis

    Wakamatsu, J.; Odagiri, H.; Nishimura, T.; Hattori, A.
    We investigated the distribution of Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) in Parma ham by using purple LED light and image analysis in order to elucidate the mechanism of ZPP formation. Autofluorescence spectra of Parma ham revealed that ZPP was present in both lean meat and fat, while red emission other than that of ZPP was hardly detected. Although ZPP was found to be distributed widely in Parma ham, it was more abundant in intermuscular fat and subcutaneous fat than in lean meat. The intensity of red emission was weak in muscles that were exposed during the processing. ZPP in both lean...

  10. Changes in concentration of sarcoplasmic free calcium during post-mortem ageing of meat

    Takahashi, Koui; Ji, JR
    We studied post-mortem changes in the concentrations of sarcoplasmic free calcium in various meats to clarify the tenderisation mechanism of meat, taking sufficient care to prevent contamination with calcium ions other than those in meat. When minced meats were homogenised and concentrations of soluble calcium ions were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, it was found that the concentration of free calcium increased, the rate of increase varying depending on the species, and reached a narrow range of 210–230 μM regardless of the anatomical class of skeletal muscle, chronological ageing or animal and fowl species. The calcium concentration was 100 nM...



  12. Comparative study of the iron-binding strengths of equine, bovine and human lactoferrins

    Shimazaki, K; Oota, K; Nitta, K; Ke, Y

  13. Hindgut microbes, fermentation and their seasonal variations in Hokkaido native horses compared to light horses

    Kobayashi, Yasuo; Koike, Satoshi; Miyaji, Makoto; Hata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Keiichi
    Fecal bacteria and protozoa of Hokkaido native horses and light horses were enumerated to compare seasonal variation in hindgut microbes and fermentation between the two breeds. Fecal samples were collected in winter and summer from eight horses (four for each breed) that had been reared together under the same conditions after birth (on woodland pasture in winter and on grassland pasture for the rest of the year). Total fecal bacteria counts for both breeds showed temporal variation, with the highest levels occurring in summer (P<0.05). For both breeds, Gram-negative rods were the major constituents (58–69%) and showed higher counts in...

  14. Susceptibility of bovine osteopontin to chymosin

    Kumura, Haruto; Miura, Atsushi; Sato, Eriko; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Shimazaki, Kei-ichi
    Osteopontin (OPN) is an acidic phosphorylated glycoprotein found in many tissues and physiological fluids. Bovine OPN is a mature protein comprising 262 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 29 kDa. However, SDS-PAGE analysis reveals that the protein isolated from milk migrates to a molecular mass of 60 kDa (Sørensen & Petersen, 1993; Bayless et al. 1997). Bovine milk OPN is phosphorylated at 27 serine residues and one threonine residue (Sorensen et al. 1995); three O-glycosylated threonines were also identified, but no asparagine residues were glycosylated in spite of the presence of three putative N-glycosylation sites. In contrast, eight...

  15. Sequence analysis of porcine polymeric immunoglobulin receptor from mammary epithelial cells present in colostrum

    The composition of colostrum is quite different from that of mature milk. In particular, colostrum contains relatively high concentrations of proteins responsible for the immunological defence of newborns, such as lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and immunoglobulins (Farkye, 1992; Cals et al. 1994; Telemo & Hanson, 1996; Wang et al. 1997). Whereas lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase are synthesized in mammary epithelial cells (Cals et al. 1994; Molenaar et al. 1996), the immunoglobulins are derived from blood serum (Larson, 1992). Immunoglobulin A (IgA), predominantly found in milk, participates in the development of the gastrointestinal system and the immune system in newborn infants. It is...

  16. Rapid accumulation of polyphosphate in extraradical hyphae of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus as revealed by histochemistry and a polyphosphate kinase/luciferase system

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Cavagnaro, Timothy R.; Smith, Sally E.; Smith, F. Andrew; Ohtomo, Ryo
    The rate of polyphosphate accumulation in extraradical hyphae of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus was investigated by conventional histochemistry and a new enzymatic method using a bacterial enzyme, polyphosphate kinase. Marigold ( Tagetes patula cv. Bonanza Orange) was inoculated with Archaeospora leptoticha and grown under P-deficient conditions. Extraradical hyphae were harvested at 0, 1, 3 and 24 h after 1 m M P-application. PolyP levels were assessed by both metachromasy of Toluidine blue O and polyphosphate kinase which converted polyP to ATP followed by the ATP-luciferase assay. Percentage of hyphae with metachromatic granules was increased from 25 to 44% from 0...

  17. 氷点下で4年間貯蔵した米の発芽勢と発芽率および品質

    川村, 周三; 竹倉, 憲弘; 横江, 未央; 伊藤, 和彦
    Effects of temperature below ice point on vigor and germination rate, and quality characteristics of rice during four-year storage were investigated in this study. Low temperature maintained dormancy of rice and hence preserved vitality of rice. There was very little deterioration in the quality of rice stored at low temperature. Eating quality of rice stored at temperatures less than 5°C for four years was the same as that of newly harvested rice. These results indicate that preservation of rough rice quality in farm scale silos for several years is possible by storing rice at an average temperature below 5°C during...

  18. Quantification of polyphosphate: different sensitivities to short-chain polyphosphate using enzymatic and colorimetric methods as revealed by ion chromatography

    Ohtomo, Ryo; Sekiguchi, Yoko; Mimura, Tetsuro; Saito, Masanori; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro
    Polyphosphate is ubiquitous and has a variety of biochemical functions. Among polyphosphate quantification methods, an enzymatic assay using Escherichia coli polyphosphate kinase (PPK), in which polyphosphate is converted to adenosine 5′-triphosphate and quantified by luciferase assay, is the most specific and most sensitive. However, chain-length specificity of the assay has not been analyzed in detail so far. Ion chromatography equipped with an on-line hydroxide eluent generator enabled us to analyze polyphosphate up to 50 inorganic phosphate (Pi) residues, and we employed this method to investigate the chain-length specificity of PPK in this study. Several fractions of short-chain polyphosphate were prepared...

  19. A New Hypothesis on the Strategy for Acquisition of Phosphorus in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza : Up-Regulation of Secreted Acid Phosphatase Gene in the Host Plant

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Hayatsu, Masahito; Saito, Masanori
    The mycorrhiza-responsive phosphatase of Tagetes patula in symbiosis with Glomus etunicatum was detected by electrophoresis, was purified by column chromatography, and was characterized as acid phosphatase that was secreted into rhizosphere. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined by a gas-phase sequencer, and a cDNA fragment of the phosphatase gene (TpPAP1) was amplified by degenerate primers designed based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. The full-length cDNA was obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The TpPAP1 was of host origin, and the cDNA was 1,843 bp long with a predicted open reading frame of polypeptide of 466...

  20. P metabolism and transport in AM fungi

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Smith, Sally E.; Smith, F. Andrew
    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is mutualistic, based on reciprocal transfer of P from the fungus to the plant and carbon from the plant to the fungus. Thus P is a most important 'currency' in the symbiosis. After absorbing P from the soil solution, the fungi first incorporate it into the cytosolic pool, and the excess P is transferred to the vacuoles. The vacuolar P pool probably plays a central role in P supply to the plant. The main forms of inorganic P in fungal vacuoles are orthophosphate and polyphosphate, but organic P molecules may also be present. Long distance translocation...

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