Recursos de colección

Caltech Authors (167.915 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = Space Radiation Laboratory

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.003

  1. Optical communication on CubeSats — Enabling the next era in space science

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Biswas, Abhijit; Fields, Renny; Grefenstette, Brian; Harrison, Fiona; Sburlan, Suzana; Toyoshima, Morio
    CubeSats are excellent platforms to rapidly perform simple space experiments. Several hundreds of CubeSats have already been successfully launched in the past few years and the number of announced launches grows every year. These platforms provide an easy access to space for universities and organizations which otherwise could not afford it. However, these spacecraft still rely on RF communications, where the spectrum is already crowded and cannot support the growing demand for data transmission to the ground. Lasercom holds the promise to be the solution to this problem, with a potential improvement of several orders of magnitude in the transmission...

  2. A tale of two periods: determination of the orbital ephemeris of the super-Eddington pulsar NGC 7793 P13

    Fürst, F.; Walton, D. J.; Heida, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Middleton, M. J.; Pinto, C.; Rana, V.; Tramper, F.; Webb, N.; Kretschmar, P.
    We present a timing analysis of multiple XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the ultra-luminous pulsar NGC 7793 P13 spread over its 65d variability period. We use the measured pulse periods to determine the orbital ephemeris, confirm a long orbital period with P_orb = 63.9 (+0.5,-0.6) d, and find an eccentricity of e <= 0.15. The orbital signature is imprinted on top of a secular spin-up, which seems to get faster as the source becomes brighter. We also analyse data from dense monitoring of the source with Swift and find an optical photometric period of 63.9 +/- 0.5 d and an X-ray flux period of 66.8 +/- 0.4 d....

  3. A Potential Cyclotron Resonant Scattering Feature in the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Pulsar NGC 300 ULX1 Seen by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.; Fürst, F.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Heida, M.; Kennea, J.; Kosec, P.; Lau, R. M.; Madsen, K. K.; Middleton, M. J.; Pinto, C.; Steiner, J. F.; Webb, N.
    Based on phase-resolved broadband spectroscopy using XMM-Newton and NuSTAR, we report on a potential cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) at E ~ 13 keV in the pulsed spectrum of the recently discovered ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 300 ULX1. If this interpretation is correct, the implied magnetic field of the central neutron star is B ~ 1012 G (assuming scattering by electrons), similar to that estimated from the observed spin-up of the star, and also similar to known Galactic X-ray pulsars. We discuss the implications of this result for the connection between NGC 300 ULX1 and the other known...

  4. NuSTAR Detection of X-Ray Heating Events in the Quiet Sun

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm; Glesener, Lindsay; Hannah, Iain G.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Smith, David M.; Hudson, Hugh S.; White, Stephen M.
    The explanation of the coronal heating problem potentially lies in the existence of nanoflares, numerous small-scale heating events occurring across the whole solar disk. In this Letter, we present the first imaging spectroscopy X-ray observations of three quiet Sun flares during the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) solar campaigns on 2016 July 26 and 2017 March 21, concurrent with the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) observations. Two of the three events showed time lags of a few minutes between peak X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emissions. Isothermal fits with rather low temperatures in the range 3.2–4.1 MK and emission measures...

  5. A Potential Cyclotron Resonant Scattering Feature in the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Pulsar NGC 300 ULX1 Seen by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.; Fürst, F.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Heida, M.; Kennea, J.; Kosec, P.; Lau, R. M.; Madsen, K. K.; Middleton, M. J.; Pinto, C.; Steiner, J. F.; Webb, N.
    Based on phase-resolved broadband spectroscopy using XMM-Newton and NuSTAR, we report on a potential cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) at E ~ 13 keV in the pulsed spectrum of the recently discovered ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 300 ULX1. If this interpretation is correct, the implied magnetic field of the central neutron star is B ~ 1012 G (assuming scattering by electrons), similar to that estimated from the observed spin-up of the star, and also similar to known Galactic X-ray pulsars. We discuss the implications of this result for the connection between NGC 300 ULX1 and the other known...

  6. Evidence for Pulsar-like Emission Components in the Broadband ULX Sample

    Walton, D. J.; Fürst, F.; Heida, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Barret, D.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Middleton, M. J.
    We present broadband X-ray analyses of a sample of bright ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULX) with the goal of investigating the spectral similarity of this population to the known ULX pulsars, M82 X-2, NGC 7793 P13, and NGC 5907 ULX. We perform a phase-resolved analysis of the broadband XMM-Newton+NuSTAR data set of NGC 5907 ULX, finding that the pulsed emission from the accretion column in this source exhibits a similar spectral shape to that seen in both M82 X-2 and NGC 7793 P13, and that this is responsible for the excess emission observed at the highest energies when the spectra are...

  7. Kilohertz Quasi-periodic Oscillation Peak Separation Is Not Constant in the Atoll Source 4U 1608_52

    Méndez, M.; van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R.; Ford, E. C.; van Paradijs, J.; Vaughan, B. A.
    We present new Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1608-52 during the decay of its 1998 outburst. We detect, by a direct fast Fourier transform method, the existence of a second kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillation (kHz QPO) in its power density spectrum, which was previously only seen by means of the sensitivity-enhancing "shift and add" technique. This result confirms that 4U 1608-52 is a twin kHz QPO source. The frequency separation between these two QPOs decreased significantly, from 325.5±3.4 to 225.3±12.0 Hz, as the frequency of the lower kHz QPO increased from 470 to 865 Hz,...

  8. Chandra LETGS and XMM-Newton observations of NGC 4593

    Steenbrugge, K. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Blustin, A. J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sako, M.; Behar, E.; Kahn, S. M.; Paerels, F. B. S.; Walters, R.
    In this paper, we analyze spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 obtained with the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS), the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) and the European Photon Imaging Camera's (EPIC) onboard of XMM-Newton. The two observations were separated by ~7 months. In the LETGS spectrum we detect a highly ionized warm absorber corresponding to an ionization state of 400 x 10^(-9) W m, visible as a depression at 10-18 Å. This depression is formed by multiple weak Fe and Ne lines. A much smaller column density was found for the lowly ionized warm absorber, corresponding to...

  9. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Source Catalog and the Compton-thick Fraction in the UDS Field

    Masini, A.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Fornasini, F.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Lansbury, G. B.; Treister, E.; Alexander, D. M.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Kocevski, D. D.; Lanz, L.; Marchesi, S.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Saez, C.; Stern, D.; Zappacosta, L.
    We present the results and the source catalog of the NuSTAR survey in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) field, bridging the gap in depth and area between NuSTAR's ECDFS and COSMOS surveys. The survey covers a ~0.6 deg^2 area of the field for a total observing time of ~1.75 Ms, to a half-area depth of ~155 ks corrected for vignetting at 3–24 keV, and reaching sensitivity limits at half-area in the full (3–24 keV), soft (3–8 keV), and hard (8–24 keV) bands of 2.2 × 10^(−14) erg cm^(−2) s^(−1), 1.0 × 10^(−14) erg cm^(−2) s^(−1), and 2.7 × 10^(−14)...

  10. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Source Catalog and the Compton-thick Fraction in the UDS Field

    Masini, A.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Fornasini, F.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Lansbury, G. B.; Treister, E.; Alexander, D. M.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Kocevski, D. D.; Lanz, L.; Marchesi, S.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Saez, C.; Stern, D.; Zappacosta, L.
    We present the results and the source catalog of the NuSTAR survey in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) field, bridging the gap in depth and area between NuSTAR's ECDFS and COSMOS surveys. The survey covers a ~0.6 deg2 area of the field for a total observing time of ~1.75 Ms, to a half-area depth of ~155 ks corrected for vignetting at 3–24 keV, and reaching sensitivity limits at half-area in the full (3–24 keV), soft (3–8 keV), and hard (8–24 keV) bands of 2.2 × 10−14 erg cm−2 s−1, 1.0 × 10−14 erg cm−2 s−1, and 2.7 × 10−14...

  11. The Evolution of GX 339-4 in the Low-hard State as Seen by NuSTAR and Swift

    Wang-Ji, Jingyi; García, Javier A.; Steiner, James F.; Tomsick, John A.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Bambi, Cosimo; Petrucci, Pierre-Olivier; Ferreira, Jonathan; Chakravorty, Susmita; Clavel, Maïca
    We analyze 11 Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and Swift observations of the black hole X-ray binary GX 339–4 in the hard state, 6 of which were taken during the end of the 2015 outburst and 5 during a failed outburst in 2013. These observations cover luminosities from 0.5% to 5% of the Eddington luminosity. Implementing the most recent version of the reflection model relxillCp, we perform simultaneous spectral fits on both data sets to track the evolution of the properties in the accretion disk, including the inner edge radius, the ionization, and the temperature of the thermal emission. We also...

  12. Evidence for a Variable Ultrafast Outflow in the Newly Discovered Ultraluminous Pulsar NGC 300 ULX-1

    Kosec, P.; Pinto, C.; Walton, D. J.; Fabian, A. C.; Bachetti, M.; Fürst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.
    Ultraluminous pulsars are a definite proof that persistent super-Eddington accretion occurs in nature. They support the scenario according to which most Ultraluminous X-ray Sources (ULXs) are super-Eddington accretors of stellar mass rather than sub-Eddington intermediate mass black holes. An important prediction of theories of supercritical accretion is the existence of powerful outflows of moderately ionized gas at mildly relativistic speeds. In practice, the spectral resolution of X-ray gratings such as RGS onboard XMM-Newton is required to resolve their observational signatures in ULXs. Using RGS, outflows have been discovered in the spectra of 3 ULXs (none of which are currently known to be pulsars). Most recently, the fourth ultraluminous pulsar...

  13. The soft X-ray spectrum from NGC 1068 observed with LETGS on Chandra

    Brinkman, A. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; van der Meer, R. L. J.; Kinkhabwala, A.; Behar, E.; Kahn, S. M.; Paerels, F. B. S.; Sako, M.
    Using the combined spectral and spatial resolving power of the Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETGS) on board Chandra, we obtain separate spectra from the bright central source of NGC 1068 (Primary region), and from a fainter bright spot 4” to the NE (Secondary region). Both spectra are dominated by discrete line emission from H- and He-like ions of C through S, and from Fe L-shell ions, but also include narrow radiative recombination continua (RRC), indicating that most of the observed soft X-ray emission arises in low-temperature (kT_e ~ few eV) photoionized plasma. We confirm the conclusions of Kinkhabwala et al. ([CITE]),...

  14. Alternative Explanations for Extreme Supersolar Iron Abundances Inferred from the Energy Spectrum of Cygnus X-1

    Tomsick, John A.; Parker, Michael L.; García, Javier A.; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Barret, Didier; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; Fabian, Andrew; Fürst, Felix; Gandhi, Poshak; Grinberg, Victoria; Miller, Jon M.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Walton, Dominic J.
    Here we study a 1–200 keV energy spectrum of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 taken with NuSTAR and Suzaku. This is the first report of a NuSTAR observation of Cyg X-1 in the intermediate state, and the observation was taken during the part of the binary orbit where absorption due to the companion's stellar wind is minimal. The spectrum includes a multi-temperature thermal disk component, a cutoff power-law component, and relativistic and nonrelativistic reflection components. Our initial fits with publicly available constant density reflection models (relxill and reflionx) lead to extremely high iron abundances (>9.96 and 10.6_(-0.9)^(+1.6) times solar,...

  15. Magnetic field strength of a neutron-star-powered ultraluminous X-ray source

    Brightman, Murray; Harrison, Fiona A.; Fürst, Felix; Middleton, M. J.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Heida, M.; Barret, D.; Bachetti, M.
    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are bright X-ray sources in nearby galaxies not associated with the central supermassive black hole. Their luminosities imply they are powered by either an extreme accretion rate onto a compact stellar remnant, or an intermediate mass (~100–10^5M_⊙) black hole. Recently detected coherent pulsations coming from three bright ULXs demonstrate that some of these sources are powered by accretion onto a neutron star, implying accretion rates significantly in excess of the Eddington limit, a high degree of geometric beaming, or both. The physical challenges associated with the high implied accretion rates can be mitigated if the neutron...

  16. Super-Eddington accretion on to the neutron star NGC 7793 P13: Broad-band X-ray spectroscopy and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Walton, D. J.; Fürst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Middleton, M. J.; Ptak, A.; Tao, L.
    We present a detailed, broad-band X-ray spectral analysis of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 7793 P13, a known super-Eddington source, utilizing data from the XMM–Newton, NuSTAR and Chandra observatories. The broad-band XMM–Newton+NuSTAR spectrum of P13 is qualitatively similar to the rest of the ULX sample with broad-band coverage, suggesting that additional ULXs in the known population may host neutron star accretors. Through time-averaged, phase-resolved and multi-epoch studies, we find that two non-pulsed thermal blackbody components with temperatures ∼0.5 and 1.5 keV are required to fit the data below 10 keV, in addition to a third continuum component which extends to higher...

  17. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of the Bright Hard-band Selected Sample

    Zappacosta, L.; Harrison, F. A.
    We discuss the spectral analysis of a sample of 63 active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected above a limiting flux of S(8-24 keV) = 7 x 10^(-14) erg s^(-1) cm^(-2 in the multi-tiered NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The sources span a redshift range z = 0-2.1 (median (z) = 0.58). The spectral analysis is performed over the broad 0.5–24 keV energy range, combining NuSTAR with Chandra and/or XMM-Newton data and employing empirical and physically motivated models. This constitutes the largest sample of AGN selected at 〉 10 keV to be homogeneously spectrally analyzed at these flux levels. We study the distribution...

  18. A deep X-ray view of the bare AGN Ark 120. IV. XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra dominated by two temperature (warm, hot) Comptonization processes

    Porquet, D.; Reeves, J. N.; Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Nardini, E.; Braito, V.; Lobban, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Dauser, T.; Farrah, D.; García, J.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Tortosa, A.; Ursini, F.; Zhang, W. W.
    Context. The physical characteristics of the material closest to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are primarily studied through X-ray observations. However, the origins of the main X-ray components such as the soft X-ray excess, the Fe Kα line complex, and the hard X-ray excess are still hotly debated. This is particularly problematic for active galactic nuclei (AGN) showing a significant intrinsic absorption, either warm or neutral, which can severely distort the observed continuum. Therefore, AGN with no (or very weak) intrinsic absorption along the line of sight, so-called “bare AGN”, are the best targets to directly probe matter very close to the...

  19. Reflection Spectra of the Black Hole Binary Candidate MAXI J1535-571 in the Hard State Observed by NuSTAR

    Xu, Yanjun; Harrison, Fiona A.; García, Javier A.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fürst, Felix; Gandhi, Poshak; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Miller, Jon M.; Parker, Michael L.; Tomsick, John A.; Walton, Dominic J.
    We report on a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the recently discovered bright black hole candidate MAXI J1535-571. NuSTAR observed the source on MJD 58003 (five days after the outburst was reported). The spectrum is characteristic of a black hole binary in the hard state. We observe clear disk reflection features, including a broad Fe Kα line and a Compton hump peaking around 30 keV. Detailed spectral modeling reveals a narrow Fe Kα line complex centered around 6.5 keV on top of the strong relativistically broadened Fe Kα line. The narrow component is consistent with distant reflection from...

  20. Development and production of hard X-ray multilayer optics for HEFT

    Koglin, Jason E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Chonko, Jim; Craig, William W.; Decker, Todd R.; Jimenez-Garate, Mario A.; Gunderson, Kurt; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Jensen, Carsten P.; Sileo, Mike; Windt, David L.; Yu, Haitao
    The High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) will observe a wide range of objects including young supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and galaxy clusters at energies between 20 and 70 keV. Large collecting areas are achieved by tightly nesting layers of grazing incidence mirrors in a conic approximation Wolter-I design. The segmented mirrors that form these layers are made of thermally formed glass substrates coated with depth-graded multilayer films for enhanced reflectivity. The mirrors are assembled using an over-constraint method that forces the overall shape of the nominally cylindrical substrates to the appropriate conic form. We will present performance data on...

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