Recursos de colección

Caltech Authors (143.226 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = Space Radiation Laboratory

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.268

  1. Coronal properties of the luminous radio-quiet quasar QSO B2202–209

    Kammoun, E. S.; Risaliti, G.; Stern, D.; Jun, H. D.; Graham, M.; Celotti, A.; Behar, E.; Elvis, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Matt, G.; Walton, D. J.
    We present an analysis of the joint XMM–Newton and NuSTAR observations of the radio-quiet quasar QSO B2202–209. Using an optical observation from the Hale Telescope at the Palomar Observatory, we revise the redshift of the source from the previously reported z = 1.77 to z = 0.532, and we estimate the mass of the central black hole, log (M_(BH)/M_⊙) = 9.08 ± 0.18. The X-ray spectrum of this source can be well described by a power law of photon index Γ = 1.82 ± 0.05 with E_(cut) = 152^(+103)_(−54) keV, in the rest frame of the source. Assuming a Comptonization model,...

  2. A powerful flare from Sgr A* confirms the synchrotron nature of the X-ray emission

    Ponti, G.; George, E.; Scaringi, S.; Zhang, S.; Jin, C.; Dexter, J.; Terrier, R.; Clavel, M.; Degenaar, N.; Eisenhauer, F.; Genzel, R.; Gillessen, S.; Goldwurm, A.; Habibi, M.; Haggard, D.; Hailey, C.; Harrison, F. A.; Merloni, A.; Mori, K.; Nandra, K.; Ott, T.; Pfuhl, O.; Plewa, P. M.; Waisberg, I.
    We present the first fully simultaneous fits to the NIR and X-ray spectral slope (and its evolution) during a very bright flare from Sgr A⋆, the supermassive black hole at the Milky Way’s center. Our study arises from ambitious multi-wavelength monitoring campaigns with XMMNewton, NuSTAR and SINFONI. The average multi-wavelength spectrum is well reproduced by a broken power-law with ΓN IR = 1.7 ± 0.1 and ΓX = 2.27 ± 0.12. The difference in spectral slopes (∆Γ = 0.57 ± 0.09) strongly supports synchrotron emission with a cooling break. The flare starts first in the NIR with a flat and bright NIR spectrum, while X-ray radiation is...

  3. The Phoenix galaxy as seen by NuSTAR

    Masini, A.; Comastri, A.; Puccetti, S.; Baloković, M.; Gandhi, P.; Guainazzi, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Boorman, P. G.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M. J.; LaMassa, S. M.; Ricci, C.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.
    Aims. We study the long-term variability of the well-known Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 1210 (also known as UGC 4203, or the Phoenix galaxy). Methods. The source was observed by many X-ray facilities in the last 20 yr. Here we present a NuSTAR observation and put the results in the context of previously published observations. Results. NuSTAR observed Mrk 1210 in 2012 for 15.4 ks. The source showed Compton-thin obscuration similar to that observed by Chandra, Suzaku, BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton over the past two decades, but different from the first observation by ASCA in 1995, in which the active nucleus was caught in a low...

  4. Metrology system for measuring mast motions on the NuSTAR mission

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Burnham, Jill; Cook, Rick; Craig, Bill; Decker, Todd; Harp, D. Isaiah; Kecman, Branislav; Meras, Patrick; Raffanti, Mike; Scholz, Christopher; Smith, Christopher; Waldman, Jeff; Wu, James
    A metrology system designed and built for the NuSTAR mission is described. The NuSTAR mission is an orbiting X-ray telescope with a 10 meter focal length. The system consists of two laser pointers mounted rigidly together with a star tracker and the X-ray optics. The focused laser beams illuminates two metrology detectors mounted rigidly with the X-ray detectors. The detectors and optics/lasers are separated by a ∼10 meter deployable (and somewhat flexible) carbon fiber mast. Details about the implementation of the metrology system is discussed in this paper.

  5. The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole

    Parker, Michael L.; Pinto, Ciro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Buisson, Douglas J. K.; Alston, William N.; Kara, Erin; Cackett, Edward M.; Chiang, Chia-Ying; Dauser, Thomas; De Marco, Barbara; Gallo, Luigi C.; García, Javier A.; Harrison, Fiona A.; King, Ashley L.; Middleton, Matthew J.; Miller, Jon M.; Miniutti, Giovanni; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Uttley, Phil; Vasudevan, Ranjan; Walton, D. J.; Wilkins, Daniel R.; Zoghbi, Abderahmen
    The brightness of an active galactic nucleus is set by the gas falling onto it from the galaxy, and the gas infall rate is regulated by the brightness of the active galactic nucleus; this feedback loop is the process by which supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies may moderate the growth of their hosts1. Gas outflows (in the form of disk winds) release huge quantities of energy into the interstellar medium2, potentially clearing the surrounding gas. The most extreme (in terms of speed and energy) of these—the ultrafast outflows—are the subset of X-ray-detected outflows with velocities higher than...

  6. Evidence for Relativistic Disk Reflection in the Seyfert 1h Galaxy/ULIRG IRAS 05189–2524 Observed by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Xu, Yanjun; Baloković, Mislav; Walton, Dominic J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; García, Javier A.; Koss, Michael J.
    We present a spectral analysis of the NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the Seyfert 1h galaxy/ULIRG IRAS 05189–2524 taken in 2013. We find evidence for relativistic disk reflection in the broadband X-ray spectrum: a highly asymmetric broad Fe Kα emission line extending down to 3 keV and a Compton scattering component above 10 keV. Physical modeling with a self-consistent disk reflection model suggests that the accretion disk is viewed at an intermediate angle with a supersolar iron abundance, and a mild constraint can be put on the high-energy cutoff of the power-law continuum. We test the disk reflection modeling under...

  7. Particle acceleration and reconnection in the solar wind

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Decker, R. B.
    An emerging paradigm for the dissipation of magnetic turbulence in the supersonic solar wind is via localized quasi-2D small-scale magnetic island reconnection processes. An advection-diffusion transport equation for a nearly isotropic particle distribution describes particle transport and energization in a region of interacting magnetic islands [1; 2]. The dominant charged particle energization processes are 1) the electric field induced by quasi-2D magnetic island merging, and 2) magnetic island contraction. The acceleration of charged particles in a “sea of magnetic islands” in a super-Alfvénic flow, and the energization of particles by combined diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and downstream magnetic island reconnection...

  8. A New Compton-thick AGN in Our Cosmic Backyard: Unveiling the Buried Nucleus in NGC 1448 with NuSTAR

    Annuar, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Lansbury, G. B.; Asmus, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Goulding, A. D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M. J.; LaMassa, S. M.; Murray, S. S.; Ricci, C.; Rosario, D. J.; Stanley, F.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W.
    NGC 1448 is one of the nearest luminous galaxies (L_(8–1000μm) > 10^9 L⊙) to ours (z = 0.00390), and yet the active galactic nucleus (AGN) it hosts was only recently discovered, in 2009. In this paper, we present an analysis of the nuclear source across three wavebands: mid-infrared (MIR) continuum, optical, and X-rays. We observed the source with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), and combined these data with archival Chandra data to perform broadband X-ray spectral fitting (≈0.5–40 keV) of the AGN for the first time. Our X-ray spectral analysis reveals that the AGN is buried under a Compton-thick...

  9. Self-consistent Black Hole Accretion Spectral Models and the Forgotten Role of Coronal Comptonization of Reflection Emission

    Steiner, James F.; García, Javier A.; Eikmann, Wiebke; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Brenneman, Laura W.; Dauser, Thomas; Fabian, Andrew C.
    Continuum and reflection spectral models have each been widely employed in measuring the spins of accreting black holes. However, the two approaches have not been implemented together in a photon-conserving, self-consistent framework. We develop such a framework using the black hole X-ray binary GX 339–4 as a touchstone source, and we demonstrate three important ramifications. (1) Compton scattering of reflection emission in the corona is routinely ignored, but is an essential consideration given that reflection is linked to the regimes with strongest Comptonization. Properly accounting for this causes the inferred reflection fraction to increase substantially, especially for the hard state....

  10. The ultracompact nature of the black hole candidate X-ray binary 47 Tuc X9

    Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Tudor, Vlad; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Bogdanov, Slavko; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Chomiuk, Laura; Strader, Jay; García, Javier A.; Kallman, Timothy
    47 Tuc X9 is a low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, and was previously thought to be a cataclysmic variable. However, Miller-Jones et al. (2015) recently identified a radio counterpart to X9 (inferring a radio/X-ray luminosity ratio consistent with black hole LMXBs), and suggested that the donor star might be a white dwarf. We report simultaneous observations of X9 performed by Chandra, Nustar and Australia Telescope Compact Array. We find a clear 28.18$\pm$0.02 min periodic modulation in the Chandra data, which we identify as the orbital period, confirming this system as an ultracompact X-ray binary. Our X-ray spectral fitting provides evidence for photoionized gas...

  11. A Long Look at MCG-5-23-16 with NuSTAR. I. Relativistic Reflection and Coronal Properties

    Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Matt, G.; Miller, J. M.; Lohfink, A. M.; Walton, D. J.; Ballantyne, D. R.; García, J. A.; Stern, D.; Koss, M. J.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W.; Hailey, C. J.; Zhang, W. W.
    MCG-5-23-16 was targeted in early 2015 with a half mega-second observing campaign using NuSTAR. Here we present the spectral analysis of these data sets along with an earlier observation and study the relativistic reflection and the primary coronal source. The data show strong reflection features in the form of both narrow and broad iron lines plus a Compton reflection hump. A cutoff energy is significantly detected in all exposures. The shape of the reflection spectrum does not change in the two years spanned by the observations, suggesting a stable geometry. A strong positive correlation is found between the cutoff energy...

  12. Global Energetics of Solar Flares. V. Energy Closure in Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Caspi, Amir; Cohen, Christina M. S.; Holman, Gordon; Jing, Ju; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Kontar, Eduard P.; McTiernan, James M.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; O’Flannagain, Aidan; Richardson, Ian G.; Ryan, Daniel; Warren, Harry P.; Xu, Yan
    In this study we synthesize the results of four previous studies on the global energetics of solar flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which include magnetic, thermal, nonthermal, and CME energies in 399 solar M- and X-class flare events observed during the first 3.5 yr of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. Our findings are as follows. (1) The sum of the mean nonthermal energy of flare-accelerated particles (E_(nt)), the energy of direct heating (E_(dir)), and the energy in CMEs (E_(CME)), which are the primary energy dissipation processes in a flare, is found to have a ratio of E_(nt)...

  13. IACHEC Cross-Calibration of Chandra, NuSTAR, Swift, Suzaku, and XMM-Newton with 3C 273 and PKS 2155-304

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Forster, Karl; Guainazzi, Matteo; Marshall, Herman L.; Miller, Eric D.; Page, Kim L.; Stuhlinger, Martin
    On behalf of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration, we present results from the cross-calibration campaigns in 2012 on 3C 273 and in 2013 on PKS 2155-304 between the then active X-ray observatories Chandra, NuSTAR, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton. We compare measured fluxes between instrument pairs in two energy bands, 1–5 keV and 3–7 keV, and calculate an average cross-normalization constant for each energy range. We review known cross-calibration features and provide a series of tables and figures to be used for evaluating cross-normalization constants obtained from other observations with the above mentioned observatories.

  14. Do some AGN lack X-ray emission?

    Simmonds, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Thuan, T. X.; Izotov, Y. I.; Stern, D.; Harrison, F. A.
    Context. Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) are thought to be the seeds of early supermassive black holes (SMBHs). While ≳100 IMBH and small SMBH candidates have been identified in recent years, few have been robustly confirmed to date, leaving their number density in considerable doubt. Placing firmer constraints both on the methods used to identify and confirm IMBHs/SMBHs, as well as characterizing the range of host environments that IMBHs/SMBHs likely inhabit is therefore of considerable interest and importance. Additionally, finding significant numbers of IMBHs in metal-poor systems would be particularly intriguing, since such systems may represent local analogs of primordial galaxies,...

  15. Hard X-Ray-selected AGNs in Low-mass Galaxies from the NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey

    Chen, C.-T. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Reines, A. E.; Lansbury, G.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M. J.; Lanz, L.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Ricci, C.; Trump, J. R.
    We present a sample of 10 low-mass active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the 40-month Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) serendipitous survey. The sample is selected to have robust NuSTAR detections at 3-24 keV, to be at z < 0.3, and to have optical r-band magnitudes at least 0.5 mag fainter than an L_★ galaxy at its redshift. The median values of absolute magnitude, stellar mass, and 2–10 X-ray luminosity of our sample are 〈 M_★〉 = -20.03, M_r〉 = 4.6 x 10^9 M_⊙, and 〈L_(2-10 keV)〉 = 3.1 x 10^(42) erg s^(−1), respectively. Five objects have detectable broad Hα...

  16. NuSTAR Observations of WISE J1036+0449, a Galaxy at z ~ 1 Obscured by Hot Dust

    Ricci, C.; Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J.
    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer's all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z > 1.5, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 hot DOG candidates at z ~ 1, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift z = 1.009 and...

  17. Ejection of the Massive Hydrogen-rich Envelope Time with the Collapse of the Stripped SN 2014C

    Margutti, Raffaella; Kamble, A.; Milisavljevic, D.; Zapartas, E.; de Mink, S. E.; Drout, M.; Chornock, R.; Risaliti, G.; Zauderer, B. A.; Bietenholz, M.; Cantiello, M.; Chakraborti, S.; Chomiuk, L.; Fong, W.; Grefenstette, B.; Guidorzi, C.; Kirshner, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Patnaude, D.; Soderberg, A. M.; Gehrels, N. C.; Harrison, F.
    We present multi-wavelength observations of SN 2014C during the first 500 days. These observations represent the first solid detection of a young extragalactic stripped-envelope SN out to high-energy X-rays ~40 keV. SN 2014C shows ordinary explosion parameters (E_k ~ 1.8 × 10^(51) erg and M_(ej) ~ 1.7 M_⊙). However, over an ~1 year timescale, SN 2014C evolved from an ordinary hydrogen-poor supernova into a strongly interacting, hydrogen-rich supernova, violating the traditional classification scheme of type-I versus type-II SNe. Signatures of the SN shock interaction with a dense medium are observed across the spectrum, from radio to hard X-rays, and revealed...

  18. Time Evolution of Elemental Ratios in Solar Energetic Particles Events

    Zelina, P.; Dalla, S.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.
    Heavy ion ratio abundances in solar energetic particle (SEP) events, e.g., Fe/O, often exhibit decreases over time. Using particle instruments on the Advanced Composition Explorer, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we analyzed heavy ion data from 4 SEP events taking place between 2006 December and 2014 December. We constructed 36 different ionic pairs and studied their time evolution in each event. We quantified the temporal behavior of abundant SEP ratios by fitting the data to derive a decay time constant B. We also considered the ratio of ionic mass-to-charge for each pair, the S value...

  19. Evidence of Significant Energy Input in the Late Phase of a Solar Flare from NuSTAR X-Ray Observations

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm; Hannah, Iain G.; Glesener, Lindsay; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Hudson, Hugh S.; White, Stephen M.; Smith, David M.; Marsh, Andrew J.; Wright, Paul J.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.
    We present observations of the occulted active region AR 12222 during the third Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) solar campaign on 2014 December 11, with concurrent Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA and FOXSI-2 sounding rocket observations. The active region produced a medium-size solar flare 1 day before the observations, at ~18 UT on 2014 December 10, with the post-flare loops still visible at the time of NuSTAR observations. The time evolution of the source emission in the SDO/AIA 335 Å channel reveals the characteristics of an extreme-ultraviolet late-phase event, caused by the continuous formation of new post-flare loops that arch higher...

  20. Deriving the properties of coronal pressure fronts in 3D: application to the 2012 May 17 ground level enhancement

    Rouillard, A. P.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.; Tirole, M.; Lavarra, M.; Zucca, P.; Vainio, R.; Tylka, A. J.; Vourlidas, A.; de Rosa, M. L.; Linker, J.; Warmuth, A.; Manney, G.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.
    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the ground level enhancement of 2012 May 17. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the three-dimensional (3D) expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M FM, of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field...

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