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Repositório do ISPA Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (12.289 recursos)

No Repositório do ISPA pode encontrar diversos tipos de documentos, em formato digital, resultantes da produção científica do ISPA designadamente: teses de doutoramento, teses de mestrado, artigos em publicações periódicas nacionais e internacionais, relatórios técnicos, artigos em actas de conferências nacionais e internacionais e capítulos de livros.

BMAR - Artigos em revistas internacionais

Mostrando recursos 1 - 14 de 14

  1. Ex situ reproduction of Portuguese endangered cyprinids in the context of their conservation

    Santos, Carla Sousa; Gil, Fátima; Almada, Vítor Carvalho

  2. The role of agonistic sounds in male nest defence in the Painted Goby Pomatoschistus pictus

    Pereira, Ricardo; Rismondo, Stefania; Caiano, Manuel; Pedroso, Silvia S; Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara Pessoa
    Animals often vocalize during territorial challenges as acoustic signals may indicate motivation and fighting ability and contribute to reduce aggressive escalation. Here, we tested the function of agonistic sounds in territorial defence in the painted goby. Pomatoschistus pictus, a small vocal marine fish that defends nests during the breeding season. We first measured the number of times a male approached, avoided, explored, entered and exited two unattended nests associated with either conspecific agonistic sounds or a control: silence or white noise. Acoustic stimuli were played back when the male approached a nest. In a second experimental set, we added visual stimuli, consisting of a conspecific male in a small...

  3. Tactile stimulation lowers stress in fish

    Soares, Marta C.; Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Ros, Albert F. H.; Grutter, Alexandra S.; Bshary, Redouan
    In humans, physical stimulation, such as massage therapy, reduces stress and has demonstrable health benefi ts. Grooming in primates may have similar effects but it remains unclear whether the positive effects are due to physical contact or to its social value. Here we show that physical stimulation reduces stress in a coral reef fi sh, the surgeonfi sh Ctenochaetus striatus . These fi sh regularly visit cleaner wrasses Labroides dimidiatus to have ectoparasites removed. The cleanerfi sh infl uences client decisions by physically touching the surgeonfi sh with its pectoral and pelvic fi ns, a behaviour known as tactile stimulation. We simulated this behaviour by exposing surgeonfi...

  4. Watching fights raises fish hormone levels: Cichlid fish wrestling for dominance induce an androgen surge in male spectators.

    Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Lopes, Marco; Carneiro, Luís Alberto; Canário, Adelino V. M.

  5. Phylogeography and demographic history of Atherina presbyter (Pisces: Atherinidae) in the North-eastern Atlantic based on mitochondrial DNA

    Francisco, Sara Martins; Castilho, Rita; Soares, Miguel; Congiu, Leonardo; Brito, Alberto; Vieira, Maria Natividade; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    A fragment of the mitochondrial control region was used to assess phylogeographic patterns and historical demography of the sand-smelt Atherina presbyter in the North-eastern Atlantic, covering its geographical range. A striking result is the highly marked diVerentiation between the Canary Islands population and western European ones. A genetic structure among European populations of A. presbyter was revealed, with a pattern of isolation-by-distance or a gradient eVect at a scale of hundreds kilometres, an uncommon pattern likely related to the biological and life-history traits of the sand-smelt. The northern European populations present a much lower genetic diversity when compared to southern populations, which is consistent with a recent colonization from southern populations. The results showed...

  6. Phylogeography of the shanny Lipophrys pholis (Pisces: Blenniidae) in the NE Atlantic records signs of major expansion event older than the last glaciation

    Francisco, Sara Martins; Faria, Cláudia Barreiros Macedo de; Lengkeek, W.; Vieira, Maria Natividade; Velasco, Eva Maria; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    The study of the phylogeography of inshore fish from West Europe is revealing diverse geographical and demographical patterns. Some species conform to the phylogeographic patterns typical of terrestrial organisms, with marked signatures of the last glaciation and a decline of genetic diversity to the north of the species range. Other species, however, reveal no decline in diversity with latitude and signatures of expansions older than the last glaciation. The shanny Lipophrys pholis is a common intertidal resident fish in west European rocky shores. It is unable to leave the rocky stretch where it settled as a juvenile, so that dispersal depends entirely on the planktonic larval...

  7. Icelandic lampreys (Petromyzon marinus): Where do they come from?

    Pereira, Ana Martins; Jonsson, Benony; Johannsson, Magnus; Robalo, Joana Isabel; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    The recent discovery of sea lamprey wounds on salmonids in Icelandic rivers prompted an investigation on the origin of sea lampreys in Icelandic waters. Using a mitochondrial DNA fragment, the origin of the lampreys examined was assigned to the European stock and not to the North American one.

  8. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish

    Martins, Catarina I. M.; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgard, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T.; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sonia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore
    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and rewardrelated operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of...

  9. The science of european marine reserves: Status, efficacy, and future needs

    Fenberg, Phillip B.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Claudet, Joachim; Clemence, Michaela; Gaines, Steven D.; García-Charton, Jose Antonio; Gonçalves, Emanuel João; Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Guidetti, Paolo; Jenkins, Stuart R.; Jones, Peter J. S.; Lester, Sarah E; McAllen, Rob; Moland, Even; Planes, Serge; Sorensen, Thomas K.
    The ecologically and socio-economically important marine ecosystems of Europe are facing severe threats from a variety of human impacts. To mitigate and potentially reverse some of these impacts, the European Union (EU) has mandated the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in order to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in EU waters by 2020. The primary initiative for achieving GES is the implementation of coherent networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). Marine reserves are an important type of MPA in which no extraction is allowed, but their usefulness depends upon a number of ecological, management, and political factors. This paper provides a synthesis of the...

  10. Whistles of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Sado Estuary, Portugal: Characteristics, production rates, and long-term contour stability

    Santos, Manuel Eduardo dos; Louro, Sónia; Couchinho, Miguel Nogueira; Brito, Cristina Maria
    This study focuses on the whistle characteristics and production patterns of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident in the Sado Estuary, Portugal. Recordings and observations were conducted inside the estuary and in adjacent coastal waters using single hydrophones between 1987 and 2000. In the groups sampled, the mean number of whistles emitted per minute per animal was 0.28. The acoustic characteristics of a sample of 735 whistles were measured and compared with data from other Tursiops populations, showing that, in a pattern of overall similarity, the whistles recorded in the Sado are relatively long and the frequency range used is relatively wide. Mean peak frequency was 9.2 kHz. About 30% of the whistles were stereotyped,...

  11. Social structure of the declining resident community of common bottlenose dolphins in the Sado Estuary, Portugal

    Augusto, Joana F.; Lopes, Patrícia Alexandra Rachinas; Santos, Manuel Eduardo dos
    The resident population of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Sado Estuary, Portugal, has been declining at least during the past three decades. A complete photographic census produced a current count of 24 animals—19 adults, three subadults and two calves. It appears to be phylopatric and essentially closed, but given the likely importance that exchanges with neighbouring coastal groups may play, even if rare, the most adequate term to define this dolphin should be community and not population. Large groups with all age-classes are common in the community, possibly as a calf and subadult protection strategy, and this may be related to the fact...

  12. A rapid and inexpensive molecular technique to discriminate the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Atherina species and its potential applications in ecology and larval identification

    Almada, Vítor Carvalho; Francisco, Sara Martins; Rosa, Inês; Domingues, Vera dos Santos; Cabral, Henrique; Almada, Frederico; Henriques, Miguel; Robalo, Joana Isabel
    This note describes a rapid and inexpensive Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique to discriminate all species of Atherina (Pisces: Atherinidae) of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. This technique is based on digestion of a fragment of the 12S ribosomal RNA (12SrRNA) gene region of mitochondrial DNA with restriction enzymes that recognize species-specific nucleotide sites. The three currently recognized species in the area, as well as two additional forms awaiting formal description, can be discriminated using a set of four endonucleases. We argue that this simple and fast technique may be of great help in the identification of young stages and in ecological surveys.

  13. Unexpected high genetic diversity at the extreme northern geographic limit of Taurulus bubalis (Euphrasen, 1786)

    Almada, Vítor Carvalho; Almada, Frederico; Francisco, Sara Martins; Castilho, Rita; Robalo, Joana Isabel
    The longspined bullhead (Taurulus bubalis, Euphrasen 1786) belongs to the family Cottidae and is a rocky shore species that inhabits the intertidal zones of the Eastern Atlantic since Iceland, southward to Portugal and also the North Sea and Baltic, northward to the Gulf of Finland, with some occurrences in the northern Mediterranean coasts eastward to the Gulf of Genoa. We analysed the phylogeographic patterns of this species using mitochondrial and nuclear markers in populations throughout most of its distributional range in west Europe. We found that T. bubalis has a relatively shallow genealogy with some differentiation between Atlantic and North Sea. Genetic diversity was homogeneous...

  14. Effects of a dolphin interaction program on children with autism spectrum disorders – an exploratory research

    Salgueiro, Emílio Eduardo Guerra; Nunes, Laura; Barros, Alexandra; Maroco, João; Salgueiro, Ana Isabel; Santos, Manuel Eduardo dos
    Background: Interaction programs involving dolphins and patients with various pathologies or developmental disorders (e.g., cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment, autism, atopic dermatitis, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression) have stimulated interest in their beneficial effects and therapeutic potential. However, the true effects observed in different clinical and psycho-educational setups are still controversial. Results: An evaluation protocol consisting of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Psychoeducational Profile-Revised (PEP-R), Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), Theory of Mind Tasks (ToM Tasks) and a custom-made Interaction Evaluation Grid (IEG) to evaluate behavioural complexity during in-pool interactions was applied to 10 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The ATEC, ToM Tasks and CARS results show no...

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