Pechorro, Pedro Fernandes dos Santos; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Poiares, Carlos Alberto
The objective of the present study was to compare incarcerated male and female juvenile offenders regarding psychopathic
traits, behavior problems, psychopathy taxon, conduct disorder, self-reported delinquent behavior, and crime seriousness. Within a total forensic sample of 261 detainee participants, subdivided in a male group (n=217) and a female group (n=44), statistically significant differences were found. Female juvenile offenders
showless callous–unemotional traits,more emotional symptoms,more prosocial behaviors, less self-reported delinquent behavior, and lower crime seriousness. Conduct disorder prevalence was very high, but no statistically significant gender differences were found. The predictive importance of psychopathic traits, behavior problems,
psychopathy taxon, and conduct disorder for the prediction...
Fagundes, Teresa; Simões, Mariana G.; Gonçalves, David; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
Phenotypic change in response to variation in environmental cues has been widely documented in fish. Transitions
in social dominance, in particular, have been shown to induce a rapid switch in reproductive phenotypes
in many species. However, this effect has been mainly studied in adults and focused on behavioural
transitions. The way social cues constraint the phenotypic development of juveniles remains poorly studied
in fish. We tested the importance of social dominance and density in the phenotypic development of juveniles
of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo. This species shows sequential male alternative reproductive tactics.
In the first breeding season males can reproduce as nest-holders or as parasitic...
Saraiva, João Luis Vargas de Almeida; Pignolo, Giulia; Gonçalves, David; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
The ecology and mating system of two populations
of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo that have been
reported to differ in sexual behaviour were studied. In the
Gulf of Trieste, a northern Adriatic Sea population lives in
rocky shores, whilst in the Ria Formosa, an Atlantic
population inhabits a coastal lagoon with sandy barrier
islands. In the Gulf of Trieste, nest availability was found to
be higher and nest aggregation lower than in Ria Formosa.
Nesting males courted females more and in higher
proportion, and inversely, females directed less courtship
displays towards nest holders in the Gulf of Trieste than in
Ria Formosa. The relative frequency of small female-like
males that reproduce...
Jorge, Paulo; Almada, Frederico; Gonçalves, Ana Sofia Ribeiro; Coelho, Pedro Duarte; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
Although navigation is common in many animals,
only a few perform true navigation, meaning that
they have the ability to return to a given place by relying on
indirect cues obtained at the release site (i.e., by relying on
information from a ‘‘map and compass’’ mechanism). The
common intertidal fish, Lipophrys pholis, is thought to have
homing abilities through a mechanism that primarily makes
use of familiar landmarks (i.e., piloting). Anecdotal reports
that individuals return to their home pools after release at
unfamiliar sites suggest that L. pholis might use cues collected
at the release site to find their way back (i.e., they
might use map and compass information). Using a...
Francisco, Sara Martins; Vieira, Maria Natividade; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
Daniel, João Rodrigo; Santos, António José; Cruz, Mónica Guimarães
Postconflict affiliation has been mostly studied in Old World primates, and we still
lack comparative research to understand completely the functional value of reconciliation.
Cebus species display great variability in social characteristics, thereby providing a
great opportunity for comparative studies. We recorded 190 agonistic interactions and
subsequent postconflict behaviour in a captive group of brown capuchin monkeys
( Cebus apella) . Only 26.8% of these conflicts were reconciled. Reconciliation was more
likely to occur between opponents that supported each other more frequently and that
spent more time together. Postconflict anxiety was mostly determined by conflict intensity,
and none of the variables thought to measure relationship quality had a...