VERBRUGGE, Frederik; GRIETEN, Lars; MULLENS, Wilfried
Background: The management of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) in decompensated heart failure (HF) is challenging, with high-quality evidence lacking. Summary: The pathophysiology of CRS in decompensated HF is complex, with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output representing different aspects of kidney function. GFR depends on structural factors (number of functional nephrons and integrity of the glomerular membrane) versus hemodynamic alterations (volume status, renal perfusion, arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure or intra-abdominal pressure) and neurohumoral activation. In contrast, urine output and volume homeostasis are mainly a function of the renal tubules. Treatment of CRS in decompensated HF patients should...
Duchenne, Jurgen; VERBRUGGE, Frederik; DUPONT, Matthias; Vercammen, Jan; Jacobs, Linda; GRIETEN, Lars; VANDERVOORT, Pieter; MULLENS, Wilfried
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and impact on readmissions of transmural disease management across the borders of the cardiology department in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). Methods and results Consecutive patients, readmitted within one year for advanced HF by a dedicated specialist (n = 55), were followed for 22 10 months after implementation of a hospitalwide transmural disease management strategy. Participants received a tag in their electronic medical record, triggering a HF caregiver contact, with subsequent guideline-recommended, protocol-driven care on each cardiac or non-cardiac hospitalization as well as outpatient evaluation. Upon transition to...
HOUBEN, Albrecht; VAN STEENKISTE, Niels; ARTOIS, Tom
A morphological and taxonomical account of the taxon Phaenocora is provided. An effort was made to locate and study all available material and, where possible, species are briefly re-described. We also describe two new species: Phaenocora gilberti sp. nov. from Cootes Paradise, Ontario, Canada and Phaenocora aglobulata sp. nov. from Prairie Grove, Alabama, USA. Species recognition is based on a combination of both male and female morphology. A comparison of and discussion on all species is given, resulting in a total of 28 valid species, three species inquirendae, five species dubiae, and one nomen nudum. An identification key is provided.
Bai, Yang; Brugha, Rossa E.; Jacobs, Lotte; Grigg, Jonathan; NAWROT, Tim; Nemery, Benoit
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects, including chronic lung diseases, lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. Personal exposure varies depending on the generation of particles locally, background levels, activity patterns and meteorology. Carbon loading in airway macrophages (AM) is a novel marker to assess personal exposure to combustion-derived particles. This review summarizes the published evidence and describes the validity and reliability of this marker with a focus on the technical aspects. Carbon loading in AM is reported in nine published studies assessing personal exposure to particulate air pollution. The carbon content is quantified by image analysis...
Ohtani, Ryota; Yamamoto, Takashi; JANSSENS, Stoffel; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Koizumi, Satoshi
Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is a promising way to generate n-type, e.g., phosphorus-doped, diamond layers for the fabrication of electronic components, which can operate at extreme conditions. However, a deeper understanding of the doping process is lacking and low phosphorus incorporation efficiencies are generally observed. In this work, it is shown that systematically changing the internal design of a non-commercial chemical vapor deposition chamber, used to grow diamond layers, leads to a large increase of the phosphorus doping efficiency in diamond, produced in this device, without compromising its electronic properties. Compared to the initial reactor design, the doping...
De Vijlder, Thomas; VALKENBORG, Dirk; Dewaele, Debbie; Remmerie, Noor; Laukens, Kris; Witters, Erwin
Cell suspension cultures from different plant species act as important model systems for studying cellular processes in plant biology and are often used as "green factories" for the production of valuable secondary metabolites and recombinant proteins. While mass spectrometry based proteome analysis techniques are ideally suited to study plant cell metabolism and other fundamental cellular processes from a birds eye perspective, they remain underused in plant studies. We describe a comprehensive sample preparation and multidimensional 'shotgun' proteomics strategy that can be generically applied to plant cell suspension cultures. This strategy was optimized and tested on an Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Landsberg...
Krysova, Hana; Vlckova-Zivcova, Zuzana; Barton, Jan; Petrak, Vaclav; NESLADEK, Milos; Cigler, Petr; Kavan, Ladislav
A novel simple and versatile synthetic strategy is developed for the surface modification of boron-doped diamond. In a two-step procedure, polyethyleneimine is adsorbed on the hydrogenated diamond surface and subsequently modified with a model light-harvesting donor-pi-bridge-acceptor molecule (coded P1). The sensitized diamond exhibits stable cathodic photocurrents under visible-light illumination in aqueous electrolyte solution with dimethylviologen serving as an electron mediator. In spite of the simplicity of the surface sensitization protocol, the photoelectrochemical performance is similar to or better than that of other sensitized diamond electrodes which were reported in previous studies (2008-2014).
Hara, Azusa; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Gu, Yu-Mei; Jacobs, Lotte; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Yan-Ping; NAWROT, Tim; Staessen, Jan A.
In view of the declining environmental lead exposure in the United States, we analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2010) for association of blood pressure and hypertension with blood lead. The 12 725 participants included 21.1% blacks, 20.5% Hispanics, 58.4% whites, and 48.7% women. Blacks compared with non-Blacks had higher systolic and diastolic pressures (126.5 versus 123.9 and 71.9 versus 69.6 mm Hg) and higher hypertension prevalence (44.7 versus 36.8%). Blood lead was lower in whites than in non-whites (1.46 versus 1.57 mu g/dL) and in women than in men (1.25 versus 1.80 mu g/dL). In multivariable analyses...
RAVINDRAN NAIR, Ambily; SMEETS, Karen; KEUNEN, Els; Lee, Wing-Kee; Thévenod, Frank; VAN KERKHOVE, Emmy; CUYPERS, Ann
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal with a long half-life in biological systems. This half-life is partly as a result of metallothioneins (MTs), metal-binding proteins with a high affinity for Cd. The high retention properties of the kidneys reside in proximal tubular cells that possess transport mechanisms for Cd-MT uptake, ultimately leading to more Cd accumulation. Researchers have studied MT–metal interactions using various techniques including quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), an efficient tool for quantifying gene expression. Often a poor choice of reference genes, which is represented by their instability and condition dependency, leads to inefficient normalization of gene expression data...
Ravindran Nair, Ambily; Lee, Wing-Kee; Smeets, Karen; Swennen, Quirine; Sanchez, Amparo; Thévenod, Frank; Cuypers, Ann
Cadmium (Cd2+) induces oxidative stress that ultimately defines cell fate and pathology. Mitochondria are the main energy-producing organelles in mammalian cells, but they also have a central role in formation of reactive oxygen species, cell injury, and death signaling. As the kidney is the major target in Cd2+ toxicity, the roles of oxidative signature and mitochondrial function and biogenesis in Cd2+-related stress outcomes were investigated in vitro in cultured rat kidney proximal tubule cells (PTCs) (WKPT-0293 Cl.2) for acute Cd2+ toxicity (1–30 µM, 24 h) and in vivo in Fischer 344 rats for sub-chronic Cd2+ toxicity (1 mg/kg CdCl2 subcutaneously,...
REMANS, Tony; KEUNEN, Els; BEX, Geert Jan; SMEETS, Karen; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; CUYPERS, Ann
Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely adopted to measure differences in mRNA levels; however,
biological and technical variation strongly affects the accuracy of the reported differences. RT-qPCR specialists have warned
that, unless researchers minimize this variability, they may report inaccurate differences and draw incorrect biological conclusions. The Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines describe procedures for conducting and reporting RT-qPCR experiments. The MIQE guidelines enable others to judge the reliability of reported results; however, a recent literature survey found low adherence to these guidelines. Additionally, even experiments that use appropriate procedures remain subject to individual variation...
Sanchez-Lopez, Ariadna S.; Gonzalez-Chavez, Ma. Del Carmen A.; Carrillo-Gonzalez, Rogelio; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; Diaz-Garduno, Margarita
The aim of this research was to identify wild plant species applicable for remediation of mine tailings in arid soils. Plants growing on two mine tailings were identified and evaluated for their potential use in phytoremediation based on the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in roots and shoots, bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation factors (TF). Total, water-soluble and DTPA-extractable concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Co and Ni in rhizospheric and bulk soil were determined. Twelve species can grow on mine tailings, accumulate PTEs concentrations above the commonly accepted phytotoxicity levels, and are suitable for establishing a vegetation cover on...
He, Jiwei; Van Oystaeyen, Fred; Zhang, Yinhuo
Let B be a generalized Koszul algebra over a finite dimensional algebra S. We construct a bimodule Koszul resolution of B when the projective dimension of SB equals two. Using this we prove a Poincaré–Birkhoff–Witt (PBW) type theorem for a deformation
of a generalized Koszul algebra. When the projective dimension of SB is greater than two, we construct bimodule Koszul resolutions for generalized smash product algebras obtained from braidings between finite dimensional algebras and Koszul algebras, and then prove the PBW type theorem. The results obtained can be applied to standard Koszul Artin–Schelter Gorenstein algebras in the sense of Minamoto and...
Huang, Hualin; Van Oystaeyen, Fred; ZHANG, Yinhuo
We study division algebras in an arbitrary linear Gr-category, i.e., a category of finite-dimensional vector spaces graded by a groupwith associativity constraint given by a 3-cocycle. When the 3-cocycle is non-coboundary, this provides some interesting classes of nonassociative division algebras. In particular,
when we work on Gr-categories over the field of real numbers, some quasi-associative version of the quaternions and octonions appear.
Desmet, L.; Venet, D.; Doffagne, E.; Timmermans, C.; BURZYKOWSKI, Tomasz; LEGRAND, Catherine; BUYSE, Marc
Multicenter studies are widely used to meet accrual targets in clinical trials. Clinical data monitoring is required to ensure the quality and validity of the data gathered across centers. One approach to this end is central statistical monitoring, which aims at detecting atypical patterns in the data by means of statistical methods. In this context, we consider the simple case of a continuous variable, and we propose a detection procedure based on a linear mixed-effects model to detect location differences between each center and all other centers. We describe the performance of the procedure as a function of contamination rate...
RANIERI, Kayte; Delaittre, Guillaume; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; JUNKERS, Thomas
The beta-scission rate coefficient of tert-butyl radicals fragmenting off the intermediate resulting from their addition to tert-butyl dithiobenzoate-a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent-is estimated via the recently introduced electron spin resonance (ESR)-trapping methodology as a function of temperature. The newly introduced ESR-trapping methodology is critically evaluated and found to be reliable. At 20 degrees C, a fragmentation rate coefficient of close to 0.042 s(-1) is observed, whereas the activation parameters for the fragmentation reaction-determined for the first time-read E-A = 82 +/- 13.3 kJ mol(-1) and A = (1.4 +/- 0.25) x 10(13) s(-1). The ESR spin-trapping methodology thus...
Schusser, S.; Poghossian, A.; Baecker, M.; Krischer, M.; Leinhos, M.; WAGNER, Patrick; Schoening, M. J.
The characterization of the degradation kinetics of biodegradable polymers is mandatory with regard to their proper application. In the present work, polymer-modified electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (PMEIS) field-effect sensors have been applied for in-situ monitoring of the pH-dependent degradation kinetics of the commercially available biopolymer poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) in buffer solutions from pH 3 to pH 13. PDLLA films of 500 nm thickness were deposited on the surface of an Al-p-Si-SiO2-Ta2O5 structure from a polymer solution by means of spin-coating method. The PMEIS sensor is, in principle, capable to detect any changes in bulk, surface and interface properties of the polymer induced by...
BRUYNDONCKX, Robin; HENS, Niel; AERTS, Marc; GOOSSENS, Herman; CORTIÑAS ABRAHANTES, José; COENEN, Samuel
Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the association between resistance and outpatient antibiotic use, expressed as either DDDs per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) or packages per 1000 inhabitants per day (PID).
Methods: IMS Health data on outpatient penicillin and cephalosporin (β-lactam) and tetracycline, macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin (TMLS) use, aggregated at the level of the active substance (WHO version 2011) expressed as DID and PID (2000–07) were linked to European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) data on proportions of penicillin-non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP) and erythromycin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (ENSP) (2000–09). Combined data for 27 European countries were analysed...
Verley, Gatien; WILLAERT, Tim; VAN DEN BROECK, Christian; Esposito, Massimiliano
Using the fluctuation theorem supplemented with geometric arguments, we derive universal features of the (long-time) efficiency fluctuations for thermal and isothermal machines operating under steady or periodic driving, close or far from equilibrium. In particular, the probabilities for observing the reversible efficiency and the least likely efficiency are identical to those of the same machine working under the time-reversed driving. For time-symmetric drivings, this reversible and the least probable efficiency coincide.
Buffiere, M.; Zaghi, A. E.; Lenaers, N.; Batuk, Maria; Khelifi, S.; DRIJKONINGEN, Jeroen; Hamon, J.; Stesmans, A.; Kepa, J.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Hadermann, J.; D'HAEN, J.; MANCA, Jean; Vleugels, J.; MEURIS, Marc; POORTMANS, Jef
Printed chalcopyrite thin films have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to their potential in the high-throughput production of photovoltaic devices. To improve the homogeneity of printed CuInSe2 (CISe) layers, chemical additives such as binder can be added to the precursor ink. In this contribution, we investigate the influence of the dicyandiamide (DCDA) content, used as a binder in the precursor ink, on the physical and electrical properties of printed CISe solar cells. It is shown that the use of the binder leads to a dense absorber, composed of large CISe grains close to the surface, while the bulk...