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Enlighten (160.930 recursos)

Enlighten is the University of Glasgow's institutional repository service for published research material including peer-reviewed journal articles, published conference papers,books and book chapters

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Mostrando recursos 141 - 160 de 51.977

  1. Witnessing history: a personal view of half a century in public health

    Bergman, B.P.; Laing, F.; Chandler, A.S.; Calman, K.C.
    Former Chief Medical Officer Sir Kenneth Calman recently celebrated 50 years in medicine. It was a period which saw the evolution of the public health agenda from communicable diseases to diseases of lifestyle, the change from a hospital-orientated health service to one dominated by community-based services, and the increasing recognition of inequalities as a major determinant of health. This paper documents selected highlights from his career including the Aberdeen typhoid outbreak, AIDS, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot and mouth disease, radioactive fallout, the invention of computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and draws parallels between the development of the modern understanding of public health and the theoretical background to the...

  2. The economy

    Tomlinson, Jim
    This chapter falls into two unequal parts. The first charts, broadly chronologically, the shifting understandings, historical and historiographical, of the role of the state in economic life. The final section focuses on debates about the performance of the economy, especially notions of 'decline' which have been central to those debates since the late nineteenth century. Variegated but overlapping senses of ‘decline’, originating in very specific historical circumstances, have overshadowed much writing on the modern British economy with, it will be argued, often detrimental effects on our understanding. Such notions need to be historicized; placed firmly in the intellectual, ideological and...

  3. An Application Creation Environment for Autonomic Computing

    Nomikos, V.; Kolomvatsos, K.; Papadopoulos, V.
    The IPAC Application Creation Environment (ACE) is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) solution, essentially a tool, aiming to provide all the necessary facilities for creating and editing applications deployable on the mobile IPAC nodes. It is based on the Eclipse platform and follows a model-driven architecture approach. A set of easy to use tools are available to the IPAC developer for editing and testing purposes. All such tools are built around a Domain Specific Language (DSL) designed and implemented for the purposes of the project. Applications can be created using either a textual or a visual editor and can be...

  4. Time constraints for sellers in electronic markets

    Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
    Electronic markets provide virtual places for negotiation over the exchange of products. In such places entities representing buyers and sellers can interact and agree upon a product price. Both parties try to maximize their profit. The authors model such an interaction as a finite horizon bargaining game and try to quantify the maximum time of seller participation in the game. The estimated deadline indicates until when the interaction is profitable for the seller. The authors’ model defines the appropriate value for a patience factor which finally results in the seller deadline fully adapted in each product characteristics.

  5. Buyer Agent Decision Process Based on Automatic Fuzzy Rules Generation Methods

    Arapoglou, Roi; Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
    Software Agents can assume the responsibility of finding and negotiating products on behalf of their owners in an electronic marketplace. In such cases, Fuzzy Logic can provide an efficient reasoning mechanism especially for the buyer side. Agents representing buyers can rely on a fuzzy rule base in order to reason for their next action at every round of the interaction process with sellers. In this paper, we describe a model where the buyer builds its fuzzy knowledge base using algorithms for automatic fuzzy rules generation based on data provided by experts and compare a set of such algorithms. Owing to...

  6. Building the Knowledge Base of a Buyer Agent Using Reinforcement Learning Techniques

    Boulougaris, George; Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
    Electronic markets are places where entities not known in advance can negotiate and agree upon the exchange of products. Intelligent agents can be proved very advantageous when representing entities in markets. Mostly, such entities are based on reputation models in order to conclude a transaction. However, reputation is not the only parameter that they could be based on. In this work, we deal with the problem of how and on which entity a buyer should be rely upon in order to conclude a transaction. Reinforcement learning techniques are used for these purposes. More specifically, the Q-learning algorithm is used for...

  7. On the use of fuzzy logic in electronic marketplaces

    Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
    Today, there is a large number of product providers in the Web. Electronic Marketplaces (EMs) enable entities to negotiate and trade products. Usually, intelligent agents assume the responsibility of representing buyers or sellers in EMs. However, uncertainty about the characteristics and intentions of the negotiating entities is present in these scenarios. Fuzzy Logic (FL) theory presents a lot of advantages when used in environments where entities have limited or no knowledge about their peers. Hence, entities can rely on a FL knowledge base that determines the appropriate action on every possible state. FL can be used in offers, trust, or...

  8. Creating, debugging, and testing mobile applications with the IPAC application creation environment

    Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Valkanas, George; Patelis, Petros; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
    An important challenge in software development is to have efficient tools for creating, debugging, and testing software components developed for specific business domains. This is more imperative if it is considered that a large number of users are not familiar with popular programming languages. Hence, Application Creation Environments (ACEs) based on specific Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) can provide an efficient way for creating applications for a specific domain of interest. The provided ACEs should incorporate all the functionality needed by developers to build, debug, and test applications. In this chapter, the authors present their contribution in this domain based on the...

  9. Buyer behavior adaptation based on a fuzzy logic controller and prediction techniques

    Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
    The current form of Web provides numerous product resources available to users. Users can rely on intelligent agents for purchase actions. These actions are taken in specific environments such as Electronic Markets (EMs). In this paper, we study the interaction process between buyers and sellers and focus on the buyer side. Each buyer has the opportunity to interact with a number of sellers trying to buy the most appropriate products. This interaction can be modeled as a finite horizon Bargaining Game (BG). In this game, players have opposite goals concerning the product price. We adopt a number of techniques in...

  10. Debugging applications created by a Domain Specific Language: the IPAC case

    Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Valkanas, George; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
    Nowadays, software developers have created a large number of applications in various research domains of Computer Science. However, not all of them are familiar with the majority of the research domains. Hence, Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) can provide an abstract, concrete description of a domain in terms that can easily be managed by developers. The most important in such cases is the provision of a debugger for debugging the generated software based on a specific DSL. In this paper, we propose and present a simple but efficient debugger created for the needs of the IPAC system. The debugger is able...

  11. Optimal Spatial Partitioning for Resource Allocation

    Kolomvatsos, K.; Panagidi, K.; Hadjiefthymiades, S.
    No abstract available.

  12. On the Use of PSO with Weights Adaptation in Concurrent Multi-issue Negotiations

    Panagidi, Kakia; Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
    In this paper, we deal with automated multi-issue concurrent negotiations. A buyer utilizes a number of threads for negotiating with a number of sellers. We propose a method based on the known PSO algorithm for threads coordination. The PSO algorithm is used to lead the buyer to the optimal solution (best deal) through threads team work. Moreover, we propose a weights adaptation scheme for optimizing buyer behavior and promoting efficiency. This way, we are able to provide an efficient mechanism for decision making in the buyer’s side. This is proved by our results through a wide range of experiments.

  13. An extended Q-gram algorithm for calculating the relevance factor of products in electronic marketplaces

    Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
    Intelligent agents offer a number of advantages when used in electronic markets. In such environments, intelligent agents can represent users acting as buyers or sellers. On the buyer’s side, an intelligent agent can undertake the responsibility of finding and purchasing products that meet the owner’s needs. In this process, the agent should decide if a product, offered by a seller, is relevant to the owner’s preferences. We propose an algorithm for calculating the relevance factor of a product based on the product description, constraints defined by the buyer and the product’s quality of service characteristics, such as the delivery time...

  14. Facing the cold start problem in recommender systems

    Lika, Blerina; Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
    A recommender system (RS) aims to provide personalized recommendations to users for specific items (e.g., music, books). Popular techniques involve content-based (CB) models and collaborative filtering (CF) approaches. In this paper, we deal with a very important problem in RSs: The cold start problem. This problem is related to recommendations for novel users or new items. In case of new users, the system does not have information about their preferences in order to make recommendations. We propose a model where widely known classification algorithms in combination with similarity techniques and prediction mechanisms provide the necessary means for retrieving recommendations. The...

  15. On the use of particle swarm optimization and Kernel density estimator in concurrent negotiations

    Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Hadjieftymiades, Stathes
    Electronic Marketplaces (EMs) can offer a number of advantages for users searching for products. In EMs, Intelligent Agents (IAs) can undertake the responsibility of representing buyers and sellers and negotiate over the conclusion of purchases. For this purpose, a negotiation is held between IAs. The most important characteristics are the deadline and the pricing strategy. The strategy defines the proposed prices at every round of the negotiation. We focus on the buyer side. We study concurrent negotiations between a buyer and a set of sellers. In this setting, the buyer utilizes a number of threads. Each thread follows a specific...

  16. An intelligent scheme for concurrent multi-issue negotiations

    Panagidi, Kakia; Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Hadjieefthymiades, Stathes
    Automated negotiations are an active research field for many years. In negotiations, participants’ characteristics play a crucial role to the final result. The most important characteristics are the deadline and the strategy of the entities. The deadline defines the time for which each entity will participate in the negotiation while the strategy defines the proposed prices at every round. In this paper, we focus on the buyer side and study multi-issue concurrent negotiations between a buyer and a set of sellers. In this setting, the buyer adopts a number of threads. We propose the use of known optimization techniques for...

  17. An adaptive fuzzy logic system for automated negotiations

    Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Trivizakis, Dimitrios; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
    The rapid growth of the Web means that humans become increasingly incapable of searching among millions of resources to find and purchase items. Autonomous entities such as agents could help in these situations. Electronic markets (EMs) are virtual sites where these autonomous entities can interact to exchange items and obtain specific returns. In this study, we consider the interactions between buyers and sellers in EMs, where we focus specifically on the buyer side. These interactions can be modeled as finite horizon negotiations. However, the buyer cannot be certain of the characteristics of the seller during negotiations (incomplete knowledge). Thus, to...

  18. Incorporating Structural Analysis in a Quantum Dot Monte-Carlo Model

    Butler, I.M.E.; Li, Wei; Sobhani, S.A.; Babazadeh, N.; Ross, I.M.; Nishi, K.; Takemasa, K.; Sugawara, M.; Peyvast, Negin; Childs, D.T.D.; Hogg, Richard A.
    We simulate the shape of the density of states (DoS) of the quantum dot (QD) ensemble based upon size information provided by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM). We discuss how the capability to determined the QD DoS from micro-structural data allows a MonteCarlo model to be developed to accurately describe the QD gain and spontaneous emission spectra. The QD DoS shape is then studied, with recommendations made via the effect of removing, and enhancing this size inhomogeneity on various QD based devices is explored.

  19. Mathematically Modelling the Dissolution of Solid Dispersions

    Meere, Martin; Mcginty, Sean; Pontrelli, Giuseppe
    A solid dispersion is a dosage form in which an active ingredient (a drug) is mixed with at least one inert solid component. The purpose of the inert component is usually to improve the bioavailability of the drug. In particular, the inert component is frequently chosen to improve the dissolution rate of a drug that is poorly soluble in water. The construction of reliable mathematical models that accurately describe the dissolution of solid dispersions would clearly assist with their rational design. However, the development of such models is challenging since a dissolving solid dispersion constitutes a non-ideal mixture, and the selection of appropriate forms for the...

  20. A Personal Testimony: What was going on during the 1968 Prague Spring?

    Čulík, Jan
    A personal account of the momentous events during the 1968 Prague Spring, as experienced by Glasgow University Senior Lecturer Dr. Jan Čulík when he was 15 years old.

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