Willcocks, Chris G.; Jackson, Philip T.G.; Nelson, Carl J.; Obara, Boguslaw
Helical objects occur in medicine, biology, cosmetics, nanotechnology, and engineering. Extracting a 3D parametric curve from a 2D image of a helical object has many practical applications, in particular being able to extract metrics such as tortuosity, frequency, and pitch. We present a method that is able to straighten the image object and derive a robust 3D helical curve from peaks in the object boundary. The algorithm has a small number of stable parameters that require little tuning, and the curve is validated against both synthetic and real-world data. The results show that the extracted 3D curve comes within close...
Barnett, Stephen M.
No abstract available.
Nelson, Carl j.; Duckney, Patrick; Hawkins, Timothy J.; Deeks, Michael J.; Laissue, P. Philippe; Hussey, Patrick J.; Boguslaw, Obara
Blobs and curves occur everywhere in plant bioimaging: from signals of fluorescence-labelled proteins, through cytoskeletal structures, nuclei staining and cell extensions such as root hairs. Here we look at the problem of colocalisation of blobs with blobs (protein-protein colocalisation) and blobs with curves (organelle-cytoskeleton colocalisation). This article demonstrates a clear quantitative alternative to pixel-based colocalisation methods and, using object-based methods, can quantify not only the level of colocalisation but also the distance between objects. Included in this report are computational algorithms, biological experiments and guidance for those looking to increase their use of computationally-based and quantified analysis of bioimages.
Hamnett, Hilary J.; McKie, Amanda E.; Morrison, Calum
The ability to work in a group is an important skill for graduates. Although the experiences of undergraduate students with group work have been extensively explored, there is much less information in the literature regarding postgraduate students and no information on those enrolled in science programmes. In this study, participants from a taught applied chemistry postgraduate MSc programme report their attitudes and experiences with group work. The usefulness of this approach and of scientific discourse for learning and teaching several key concepts is also explored. Participants in the study completed attitudinal questionnaires and group/individual multiple choice question (MCQ) tests. They...
Płotka-Wasylka, Justyna; Simeonov, Vasil; Morrison, Calum; Namieśnik, Jacek
The demand for safer foods has promoted more research into biogenic amines (BAs) over the past few years, however, there are still some questions that remain unanswered. Despite the fact that BAs are present in wine and can cause toxic effect to the body, a shared regulation limiting the amounts of BAs in wine is still lacking. A detailed understanding of their presence in wine is also important for the food trade sector. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the level of selected BAs in wine samples origin from Poland. Thereafter, the evaluation of correlation between concentration...
Morgan, Ruth A.; Raftery, Alexandra G.; Cripps, Peter; Senior, Jonathan M.; McGowan, Catherine M.
The prevalence and nature of arrhythmias in horses following general anaesthesia and surgery is poorly documented. It has been proposed that horses undergoing emergency surgery for gastrointestinal disorders may be at particular risk of developing arrhythmias. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence and nature of arrhythmias in horses following anaesthesia in a clinical setting and to establish if there was a difference in the prevalence of arrhythmias between horses with and without gastrointestinal disease undergoing surgery. Our secondary objective was to assess selected available risk factors for association with the development of arrhythmias following anaesthesia and surgery.
Raftery, Alexandra G.; Morgan, Ruth A.; MacFarlane, Paul D.
To compare perioperative trends in plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) between horses undergoing orthopedic and colic surgery.
Prospective clinical study September 2009–January 2011.
Veterinary university teaching hospital.
Thirty‐three healthy, client‐owned horses presenting for orthopedic surgery (non‐GI) and 85 client‐owned horses presenting for emergency exploratory celiotomy (GI, gastrointestinal).
Data relating to the horse's parameters on presentation, surgical lesion, post‐operative management and survival were extracted from computerized clinical records. Heparinized blood samples were taken on presentation (PreOp, pre‐operative), on recovery from anesthesia (T0), at 12 (T12) and 24 (T24) hours post recovery. COP was measured within 4 hours of collection.
Rizwan, A.; Zoha, A.; Ahmad, W.; Arshad, K.; Ali, N.; Alomainy, A.; Imran, M.A.; Abbasi, Q.H.
This paper presents a first-time review of the open literature focused on the significance of big data generated within nano-sensors and nano-communication networks intended for future healthcare and biomedical applications. It is aimed towards the development of modern smart healthcare systems enabled with P4, i.e. predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory capabilities to perform diagnostics, monitoring, and treatment. The analytical capabilities that can be produced from the substantial amount of data gathered in such networks will aid in exploiting the practical intelligence and learning capabilities that could be further integrated with conventional medical and health data leading to more efficient decision...
Lee, Jaehyun; Berrada, Salim; Adamu-Lema, Fikru; Carrillo-Nunez, Hamilton; Nagy, Nicole; Georgiev, Vihar; Sadi, Toufik; Liang, Jie; Ramos, Raphael; Carrillo-Nunez, Hamilton; Kalita, Dipankar; Lilienthal, Katharina; Wislicenus, Marcus; Pandey, Reeturaj; Chen, Bingan; Teo, Kenneth B.K.; Goncalves, Goncalo; Okuno, Hanako; Uhlig, Benjamin; Todri-Sanial, Aida; Dijon, Jean; Asenov, Asen
In this paper, we report a hierarchical simulation
study of the electromigration problem in Cu-CNT composite
interconnects. Our work is based on the investigation of the
activation energy and self-heating temperature using a multiscale
electro-thermal simulation framework. We first investigate the
electrical and thermal properties of Cu-CNT composites, including
contact resistances, using the Density Functional Theory and
Reactive Force Field approaches, respectively. The corresponding
results are employed in macroscopic electro-thermal simulations
taking into account the self-heating phenomenon. Our simulations
show that although Cu atoms have similar activation
energies in both bulk Cu and Cu-CNT composites, Cu-CNT
composite interconnects are more resistant to electromigration
thanks to the large Lorenz number of the CNTs. Moreover,
Rajani, Rikesh M.; Quick, Sophie; Ruigrok, Silvie R.; Graham, Delyth; Harris, Sarah E.; Verhaaren, Benjamin F.J.; Fornage, Myriam; Seshadri, Sudha; Atanur, Santosh S.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Smith, Colin; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Williams, Anna
Dementia is a major social and economic problem for our aging population. One of the most common of dementia in the elderly is cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Magnetic resonance scans of SVD patients typically show white matter abnormalities, but we do not understand the mechanistic pathological link between blood vessels and white matter myelin damage. Hypertension is suggested as the cause of sporadic SVD, but a recent alternative hypothesis invokes dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier as the primary cause. In a rat model of SVD, we show that endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is the first change in development of...
Torrance, N.; Mansoor, R.; Wang, H.; Gilbert, S.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Serpell, M.; Baldacchino, A.; Hales, T.G.; Donnan, P.; Wyper, G.; Smith, B.H.; Colvin, L.
Opioid prescribing is increasing worldwide with associated increases in misuse and other harms. We studied variations in national opioid prescription rates, indicators of prescribing quality, co-prescribing of benzodiazepines and relationship with pain severity in Scotland.
Electronic linkages of opioid prescribing in Scotland were determined from: (i) national data from Information Services Division, NHS Scotland (2003–2012); and (ii) individual data from Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study. Descriptive analyses were conducted on national data, multilevel modelling to examine factors associated with variations in prescribing rates. χ2 tests examined associations between individual pain severity and opioid prescriptions.
The number of strong...
Huang, Qi-Fang; Trenson, Sander; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Van Keer, Jan; Van Aelst, Lucas N L; Yang, Wen-Yi; Nkuipou-Kenfack, Esther; Thijs, Lutgarde; Wei, Fang-Fei; Mujaj, Blerim; Ciarka, Agnieszka; Droogné, Walter; Vanhaecke, Johan; Janssens, Stefan; Van Cleemput, Johan; Mischak, Harald; Staessen, Jan A
Background: This proof-of-concept study investigated the feasibility of using biomarkers to monitor right heart pressures (RHP) in heart transplanted (HTx) patients.
Methods: In 298 patients, we measured 7.6 years post-HTx mean pressures in the right atrium (mRAP) and pulmonary artery (mPAP) and capillaries (mPCWP) along with plasma high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), a marker of cardiomyocyte injury, and the multidimensional urinary classifiers HF1 and HF2, mainly consisting of dysregulated collagen fragments.
Results: In multivariable models, mRAP and mPAP increased with hsTnT (per 1-SD, +0.91 and +1.26 mm Hg; P < 0.0001) and with HF2 (+0.42 and +0.62 mm Hg; P ≤ 0.035), but...
Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Ogden, Ray W.
The microstructure of arteries, consisting, in particular, of collagen, elastin and vascular smooth muscle cells, plays a very significant role in their biomechanical response during a cardiac cycle. In this paper we highlight the microstructure and the contributions of each of its components to the overall mechanical behavior. We also describe the changes of the microstructure which occur as a result of abdominal aortic aneurysms and disease such as atherosclerosis. We also focus on how the passive and active constituents are incorporated into a mathematical model without going into detail of the mathematical formulation. We conclude by mentioning open problems...
Russell, Richard J; Chachi, Latifa; FitzGerald, J Mark; Backer, Vibeke; Olivenstein, Ronald; Titlestad, Ingrid L; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Harrison, Timothy; Singh, Dave; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Leaker, Brian; McGarvey, Lorcan; Siddiqui, Salman; Wang, Millie; Braddock, Martin; Nordenmark, Lars H; Cohen, David; Parikh, Himanshu; Colice, Gene; Brightling, Christopher E
The role of interleukin 13 in airway inflammation and remodelling in asthma is unclear. Tralokinumab is a human monoclonal antibody that neutralises interleukin 13. We aimed to evaluate whether tralokinumab would have an effect on airway eosinophilic infiltration, blood and sputum eosinophil concentrations, eosinophil activation, and airway remodelling.
We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial at 15 centres across the UK, Denmark, and Canada. We enrolled participants of either sex aged 18–75 years with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe asthma for 12 months or more, requiring treatment with inhaled corticosteroids at a stable dose. We randomly assigned participants...
Uusi-Kerttula, Hanni; Davies, James A; Thompson, Jill; Wongthida, Phonphimon; Evgin, Laura; Shim, Kevin G; Bradshaw, Angela; Baker, Alexander T; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Jones, Rachel; Hanna, Louise; Hudson, Emma; Vile, Richard; Chester, John D; Parker, Alan L
Purpose: Virotherapies are maturing in the clinical setting. Adenoviruses (Ad) are excellent vectors for the manipulability and tolerance of transgenes. Poor tumor selectivity, off-target sequestration, and immune inactivation hamper clinical efficacy. We sought to completely redesign Ad5 into a refined, tumor-selective virotherapy targeted to αvβ6 integrin, which is expressed in a range of aggressively transformed epithelial cancers but nondetectable in healthy tissues.
Experimental Design: Ad5NULL-A20 harbors mutations in each major capsid protein to preclude uptake via all native pathways. Tumor-tropism via αvβ6 targeting was achieved by genetic insertion of A20 peptide (NAVPNLRGDLQVLAQKVART) within the fiber knob protein. The vector's selectivity in...
Jones, Kelly M; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Blanton, Sarah; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Theadom, Alice; Thrift, Amanda G; Wolf, Steven L; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Parmar, Priya; Maujean, Annick; Ranta, Annemarei; Cadilhac, Dominique; Sanya, Emmanuel O; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Arora, Deepti; Obiako, Reginald O; Saposnik, Gustavo; Balalla, Shivanthi; Bornstein, Natan M; Langhorne, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Brown, Nita; Brainin, Michael; Taylor, Denise; Feigin, Valery L
To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial of an instructional and educational stroke DVD and determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of this intervention in a multinational context.
Non-funded, pilot randomized controlled trial of intervention versus usual care.
International, multicentre, community-based.
Community-living adults up to three years post stroke with moderate to severe disability and their nominated informal caregivers.
Intervention patients viewed and practised rehabilitation techniques demonstrated in the DVD over six weeks.
Trial feasibility by number of active recruitment sites, recruitment efficiency, randomization and follow-up. Intervention feasibility by patient and caregiver impressions. Preliminary efficacy by the quality of life –...
Ginsberg, Henry N.; Farnier, Michel; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Cannon, Christopher P.; Sattar, Naveed; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T.; Letierce, Alexia; Bujas-Bobanovic, Maja; Louie, Michael J.; Colhoun, Helen M.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) carries an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Here, we assessed alirocumab efficacy and safety in people with/without DM from five placebo-controlled phase 3 studies.
Data from up to 78 weeks were analyzed in individuals on maximally tolerated background statin. In three studies, alirocumab 75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) was increased to 150 mg Q2W at week 12 if week 8 low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was ≥ 70 mg/dL; two studies used alirocumab 150 mg Q2W throughout. The primary endpoint was percentage change in LDL-C from baseline to week 24.
In the alirocumab 150 mg pool (n = 2416),...
Schmitz, Lutz; Gupta, Girish; Segert, Marc Hanno; Kost, Ricarda; Sternberg, Julia; Gambichler, Thilo; Stockfleth, Eggert; Dirschka, Thomas
Background/Aims: Actinic keratosis area and severity index
(AKASI) is a new assessment tool to quantify the severity of
actinic damage on the head. Thus far, it has not been evaluated
in monitoring the efficacy of field-directed topical treatments
in actinic keratosis (AK) in routine clinical practice.
Thus, the aim of this study was to determine treatment outcomes
by using AKASI 3 months after the initiation of topical
application of diclofenac sodium 3% in hyaluronic acid 2.5%
gel (DFS) in patients with AKs on the head. Methods: We performed
a retrospective analysis of patients with AKs who had
AKASI scores prior to and after treatment with DFS. Results:
Of the 24 patients...
Morton, Alec; Bach, Peter B.; Briggs, Andrew
No abstract available.
Handayani, Wuri; Haniffa, Roszaini; Hudaib, Mohammad
Microfinance institutions (MFIs), including Islamic microfinance institutions (IMFIs) in Muslim countries, have spread across the globe and transformed into a new industry. However, how IMFIs in Indonesia evolved to become an important sector serving society have not been rigorously explored. Therefore, this paper addresses the lacuna on the emergence of an industry by examining the development of Islamic microfinance sector in Indonesia.
The paper adopts the historical research method to narrate the evolution of this specific sector based on data collected through oral history and published academic research documents during various periods of Indonesia’s economic and political milieu.