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Enlighten (154.243 recursos)

Enlighten is the University of Glasgow's institutional repository service for published research material including peer-reviewed journal articles, published conference papers,books and book chapters

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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 19.406

  1. The curious death - and life - of British transport policy

    Docherty, Iain

  2. Self-sorting of heteroanions in the assembly of cross-shaped polyoxometalate clusters

    Zheng, Qi; Vilà-Nadal, Laia; Lang, Zhongling; Chen, Jia-jia; Long, De-Liang; Mathieson, Jennifer S.; Poblet, Josep M.; Cronin, Leroy
    Heteroanion (HA) moieties have a key role in templating of heteropolyoxometalate (HPA) architectures, but clusters templated by two different templates are rarely reported. Herein, we show how a cross-shaped HPA-based architecture can self-sort the HA templates by pairing two different guests into a divacant {XYW15O54} building block, with four of these building block units being linked together to complete the cross-shaped architecture. We exploited this observation to incorporate HA templates into well-defined positions within the clusters, leading to the isolation of a collection of mixed-HA templated cross-shaped polyanions [(XYW15O54)4(WO2)4]32–/36– (X = H–P, Y = Se, Te, As). The template positions...

  3. Modelling electro-active polymers with a dispersion-type anisotropy

    Hossain, Mokarram; Steinmann, Paul
    We propose a novel constitutive framework for electro-active polymers (EAPs) that can take into account anisotropy with a chain dispersion. To enhance actuation behaviour, particle-filled EAPs become promising candidates nowadays. Recent studies suggest that particle-filled EAPs, which can be cured under an electric field during the manufacturing time, do not necessarily form perfect anisotropic composites, rather they create composites with dispersed chains. Hence in this contribution, an electro-mechanically coupled constitutive model is devised that considers the chain dispersion with a probability distribution function in an integral form. To obtain relevant quantities in discrete form, numerical integration over the unit sphere...

  4. Effect of back-pressure forcing on shock train structures in rectangular channels

    Gnani, F.; Zare-Behtash, H.; Kontis, K.
    The deceleration of a supersonic flow to the subsonic regime inside a high-speed engine occurs through a series of shock waves, known as a shock train. The generation of such a flow structure is due to the interaction between the shock waves and the boundary layer inside a long and narrow duct. The understanding of the physics governing the shock train is vital for the improvement of the design of high-speed engines and the development of flow control strategies. The present paper analyses the sensitivity of the shock train configuration to a back-pressure variation. The complex characteristics of the shock...

  5. Big questions, informative data, excellent science

    Bowman, Adrian

  6. Visit-to-visit lipid variability: clinical significance, effects of lipid-lowering treatment, and (pharmaco)genetics

    Smit, Roelof A. J.; Jukema, Johan Wouter; Postmus, Iris; Ford, Ian; Slagboom, Pieternella Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Le Cessie, Saskia; Trompet, Stella
    In recent years, visit-to-visit variability of serum lipids has been linked to both clinical outcomes and surrogate markers for vascular disease. In this article, we present an overview of the current evidence connecting this intraindividual variability to these outcome measures, discuss its interplay with lipid-lowering treatment, and describe the literature regarding genetic factors of possible interest. In addition, we undertook an explorative genome-wide association analysis on visit-to-visit variability of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, examining additive effects in 2530 participants from the placebo arm of the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk trial. While we...

  7. Morphological plasticity in mangrove trees: salinity-related changes in the allometry of Avicennia germinans

    Vovides, Alejandra G.; Vogt, Juliane; Kollert, Armin; Berger, Uta; Grueters, Uwe; Peters, Ronny; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; López-Portillo, Jorge
    Several studies show that mangrove trees possess high species- and site-related trait allometry, suggesting large morphological plasticity that might be related to environmental conditions, but the causes of such variation are not clearly understood and systematic quantification is still missing. Both aspects are essential for a mechanistic understanding of the development and functioning of forests. We analyzed the role of salinity in the allometric relations of the mangrove Avicennia germinans, using: (1) the top height trees (trees with the largest diameters at breast height, which reflect forest properties at the maximum use of resources); (2) the slenderness coefficient (which indicates...

  8. Changes in allometric relations of mangrove trees due to resource availability – a new mechanistic modelling approach

    Peters, Ronny; Vovides, Alejandra G.; Luna, Soledad; Grüters, Uwe; Berger, Uta
    Models based on allometric responses to competing neighbours and environmental conditions in mangrove forests are increasingly available. However, the improvement of these models requires a mechanistic understanding of how individual trees allocate biomass. This study introduces a new tree model (BETTINA) focusing on this issue. It is designed to investigate the response of trees in terms of biomass allocation patterns to environmental conditions. Additionally, it is suitable as a component of an individual-based mangrove stand model. BETTINA describes the plasticity of trees in growth patterns depending on their below-ground resource uptake. In contrast to the existing mangrove stand models, BETTINA...

  9. N2-fixation along a gradient of long-term disturbance in tropical mangroves bordering the gulf of Mexico

    Vovides, Alejandra G.; López-Portillo, Jorge; Bashan, Yoav
    Microbial processes are key elements in determining the productivity of mangroves, and reductions in these processes reflect the loss of microbial biodiversity and function due to fabricated disturbances. Because nitrogen is a major limiting nutrient for the productivity of these ecosystems, the goal of this study was to determine profiles of inorganic nitrogen combined with several environmental parameters, all in relation to the degree of long-term hydraulic impairment of a tropical, monospecific black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forest that showed degradation ranging from total loss of mangrove cover to no disturbance. N2-fixation, oxygen levels, and nitrite contents decreased significantly with the...

  10. A simple and cost-effective method for cable root detection and extension measurement in estuary wetland forests

    Vovides, Alejandra G.; Marín-Castro, Beatriz; Barradas, Guadalupe; Berger, Uta; López-Portillo, Jorge
    This work presents the development of a low-cost method to measure the length cable roots of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) trees to define the boundaries of central part of the anchoring root system (CPRS) without the need to fully expose root systems. The method was tested to locate and measure the length shallow woody root systems. An ultrasonic Doppler fetal monitor (UD) and a stock of steel rods (SR) were used to probe root locations without removing sediments from the surface, measure their length and estimate root-soil plate dimensions. The method was validated by comparing measurements with root lengths taken...

  11. Physicians Addicted to Prescribing Aspirin-a Disorder Of Cardiologists (PAPA-DOC) Syndrome: the headache of nonevidence-based medicine for ischemic heart disease?

    Cleland, John G.F.
    No abstract available.

  12. Dance experience sculpts aesthetic perception and related brain circuits

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Dawson, Kelvin; Cross, Emily S.
    Previous research on aesthetic preferences demonstrates that people are more likely to judge a stimulus as pleasing if it is familiar. Although general familiarity and liking are related, it is less clear how motor familiarity, or embodiment, relates to a viewer's aesthetic appraisal. This study directly compared how learning to embody an action impacts the neural response when watching and aesthetically evaluating the same action. Twenty-two participants trained for 4 days on dance sequences. Each day they physically rehearsed one set of sequences, passively watched a second set, listened to the music of a third set, and a fourth set...

  13. Dynamic modulation of the action observation network by movement familiarity

    Gardner, Tom; Goulden, Nia; Cross, Emily S.
    When watching another person's actions, a network of sensorimotor brain regions, collectively termed the action observation network (AON), is engaged. Previous research suggests that the AON is more responsive when watching familiar compared with unfamiliar actions. However, most research into AON function is premised on comparisons of AON engagement during different types of task using univariate, magnitude-based approaches. To better understand the relationship between action familiarity and AON engagement, here we examine how observed movement familiarity modulates AON activity in humans using dynamic causal modeling, a type of effective connectivity analysis. Twenty-one subjects underwent fMRI scanning while viewing whole-body dance...

  14. The timing and precision of action prediction in the aging brain

    Diersch, Nadine; Jones, Alex L.; Cross, Emily S.
    Successful social interactions depend on the ability to anticipate other people's actions. Current conceptualizations of brain function propose that causes of sensory input are inferred through their integration with internal predictions generated in the observer's motor system during action observation. Less is known concerning how action prediction changes with age. Previously we showed that internal action representations are less specific in older compared with younger adults at behavioral and neural levels. Here, we characterize how neural activity varies while healthy older adults aged 56–71 years predict the time-course of an unfolding action as well as the relation to task performance....

  15. Using social media data for operations management research: an example of product development

    Lacka, Ewelina; Chan, Hing Kai
    No abstract available.

  16. There or not there? A multidisciplinary review and research agenda on the impact of transparent barriers on human perception, action, and social behavior

    Marquardt, Gesine; Cross, Emily S.; de Sousa, Alexandra A.; Edelstein, Eve; Farnè, Alessandro; Leszczynski, Marcin; Patterson, Miles; Quadflieg, Susanne
    Through advances in production and treatment technologies, transparent glass has become an increasingly versatile material and a global hallmark of modern architecture. In the shape of invisible barriers, it defines spaces while simultaneously shaping their lighting, noise, and climate conditions. Despite these unique architectural qualities, little is known regarding the human experience with glass barriers. Is a material that has been described as being simultaneously there and not there from an architectural perspective, actually there and/or not there from perceptual, behavioral, and social points of view? In this article, we review systematic observations and experimental studies that explore the impact...

  17. Disentangling neural processes of egocentric and allocentric mental spatial transformations using whole-body photos of self and other

    Ganesh, Shanti; van Schie, Hein T.; Cross, Emily S.; de Lange, Floris P.; Wigboldus, Daniël H.J.
    Mental imagery of one's body moving through space is important for imagining changing visuospatial perspectives, as well as for determining how we might appear to other people. Previous neuroimaging research has implicated the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) in this process. It is unclear, however, how neural activity in the TPJ relates to the rotation perspectives from which mental spatial transformation (MST) of one's own body can take place, i.e. from an egocentric or an allocentric perspective. It is also unclear whether TPJ involvement in MST is self-specific or whether the TPJ may also be involved in MST of other human bodies....

  18. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy

    Cross, Emily S.; Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.
    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have...

  19. The mangrove forest dynamics model mesoFON

    Grueters, U.; Seltmann, T.; Schmidt, H.; Horn, H.; Pranchai, A.; Vovides, A.G.; Peters, R.; Vogt, J.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Berger, U.
    This study presents mesoFON, an individual-based mangrove forest dynamics model that advances beyond current models by describing crown plasticity of mangrove trees. The crown plasticity routines take advantage of the fields-of-neighborhood (FON) approach and account for the trunk bending and the differential side branch growth mechanism. Competition for above-/below-ground resources is dealt with separately in this model. Offspring production depends on tree growth and rises with tree ontogeny. An extensive sensitivity analysis revealed that mesoFON resembles the behavior of known mangrove forest dynamics and is ready for application. In this study we exposed two plant functional types (PFTs) of the red mangrove...

  20. Natural environments and suicide mortality in the Netherlands

    Helbich, Marco; de Beurs, Derek; Kwan, Mei-Po; O'Connor, Rory C.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

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