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Enlighten (146.418 recursos)

Enlighten is the University of Glasgow's institutional repository service for published research material including peer-reviewed journal articles, published conference papers,books and book chapters

Subject = Q Science: QD Chemistry

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 42

  1. Graphical statistics to explore the natural and anthropogenic processes influencing the inorganic quality of drinking water, ground water and surface water

    Flem, Belinda; Reimann, Clemens; Fabian, Karl; Birke, Manfred; Filzmoser, Peter; Banks, David
    Plots of cumulative distribution functions (CDF) are a simple but powerful exploratory data analysis (EDA) tool to evaluate and compare statistical data distributions. Here, empirical CDF plots are used to compare results of four large (476 to 884 samples) national- to continental-scale inorganic water chemistry data sets: (1) European surface water, (2) European tap water, (3) European bottled waters as a proxy for groundwater and (4) Norwegian crystalline bedrock rock groundwater, all analysed at the same laboratory, albeit at different times. For many parameters (e.g., Ba, Cl-, K, SO4 2-) median values and ranges are, given the differing origins and, in...

  2. Graphical statistics to explore the natural and anthropogenic processes influencing the inorganic quality of drinking water, ground water and surface water

    Flem, Belinda; Reimann, Clemens; Fabian, Karl; Birke, Manfred; Filzmoser, Peter; Banks, David
    Plots of cumulative distribution functions (CDF) are a simple but powerful exploratory data analysis (EDA) tool to evaluate and compare statistical data distributions. Here, empirical CDF plots are used to compare results of four large (476 to 884 samples) national- to continental-scale inorganic water chemistry data sets: (1) European surface water, (2) European tap water, (3) European bottled waters as a proxy for groundwater and (4) Norwegian crystalline bedrock rock groundwater, all analysed at the same laboratory, albeit at different times. For many parameters (e.g., Ba, Cl-, K, SO4 2-) median values and ranges are, given the differing origins and, in...

  3. Fingerprinting the Temperature and Fluid Source of Fracture-Filling Calcite in Geothermal Systems Using Clumped Isotopes

    MacDonald, John; Milicich, Sarah; Davies, Amelia; Holdsworth, Chris; Newton, Michael; Williamson, Sam; Faithfull, John; McNamara, David; John, Cedric
    No abstract available.

  4. Formation of Exceptional Secondary Mineralisation in SW Scotland During the Onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation Revealed by (U+Th)/21Ne Dating

    Stuart, Finlay; Faithfull, John
    No abstract available.

  5. A literature review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles - part 2: spectroscopic and chromatographic analytical instrumentation

    Smith, Margaret; Thompson, Karen; Lennard, Frances
    Part Two of this Literature Review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles focusses on the application of vibrational and x-ray spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques used in the analysis of painted textiles to inform understanding of their materials, methods of making and degradation. The principles of detection methods, technique limitations and advantages, and how they complement each other, are explained and advances in techniques applicable in the study of painted textiles are discussed, such as mapping in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman, surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Most informative work relating to painted...

  6. A literature review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles - Part 2: spectroscopic and chromatographic analytical instrumentation

    Smith, Margaret; Thompson, Karen; Lennard, Frances
    Part Two of this Literature Review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles focusses on the application of vibrational and x-ray spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques used in the analysis of painted textiles to inform understanding of their materials, methods of making and degradation. The principles of detection methods, technique limitations and advantages, and how they complement each other, are explained and advances in techniques applicable in the study of painted textiles are discussed, such as mapping in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman, surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Most informative work relating to painted...

  7. A literature review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles - Part 2: spectroscopic and chromatographic analytical instrumentation

    Smith, Margaret; Thompson, Karen; Lennard, Frances
    Part Two of this Literature Review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles focusses on the application of vibrational and x-ray spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques used in the analysis of painted textiles to inform understanding of their materials, methods of making and degradation. The principles of detection methods, technique limitations and advantages, and how they complement each other, are explained and advances in techniques applicable in the study of painted textiles are discussed, such as mapping in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman, surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Most informative work relating to painted...

  8. Scientific Instruments and their Cultures

    Johnston, Sean F.
    No abstract available.

  9. Redox-controlled potassium intercalation into two polyaromatic hydrocarbon solids

    Romero, F. Denis; Pitcher, M.J.; Hiley, C.I.; Whitehead, G.F.S.; Kar, S.; Ganin, A.Y.; Antypov, D.; Collins, C.; Dyer, M.S.; Klupp, G.; Colman, R.H.; Prassides, K.; Rosseinsky, M.J.
    Alkali metal intercalation into polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied intensely after reports of superconductivity in a number of potassium- and rubidium-intercalated materials. There are, however, no reported crystal structures to inform our understanding of the chemistry and physics because of the complex reactivity of PAHs with strong reducing agents at high temperature. Here we present the synthesis of crystalline K2Pentacene and K2Picene by a solid–solid insertion protocol that uses potassium hydride as a redox-controlled reducing agent to access the PAH dianions, and so enables the determination of their crystal structures. In both cases, the inserted cations expand the parent...

  10. A literature review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles - Part 1: categorising painted textiles, sampling and the use of optical tools

    Thompson, Karen; Smith, Margaret; Lennard, Frances
    Many types of painted textile are represented in museum collections. Their flexibility, draping qualities, and heterogeneous, layered nature make painted textiles complex objects to conserve. What do we know about their materials and making? There has been limited research into painted textiles and particularly their analysis. Whilst much valuable information can be gleaned from paintings analysis, there are many distinct differences in materials behaviour between stretched paintings and painted textiles that need to be identified and addressed. This paper, together with Part 2, aims to raise the awareness of textile conservators, in particular, of potential analytical techniques to identify and...

  11. The Atomic Cloister: Secrecy and the Shaping of Technical Identity, 1940-60

    Johnston, Sean F.
    During five wartime years and the following post-war decade, atomic energy was a subject shrouded in secrecy. Identified as a crucial element in military strategy, national status and export aspirations, the research and development of atomic piles (nuclear chain-reactors) were nurtured at isolated installations. Like monastic orders, new national laboratories provided occupational environments that were simultaneously cosseted and constrained, defining regional variants of a new State-managed discipline: reactor engineering. This paper discusses the significance of secrecy in defining the new subject in the USA, UK and Canada – the first three countries to dedicate sustained government funding to the field. The...

  12. Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-petromyroxol, enabled by rhodium-catalyzed denitrogenation and rearrangement of a 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazole

    Boyer, Alistair
    Petromyroxol is a non-racemic mixture of enantiomeric oxylipids isolated from water conditioned with larval sea lamprey. The (+)-antipode exhibits interesting biological properties but only 1 mg was isolated from >100000 L of water. Recently, transition metal-catalyzed denitrogenation of 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles has emerged as a powerful strategy for the synthesis of value-added products, including efficient diastereocontrolled construction of tetrahydrofurans. This methodology enabled the rapid development of the first synthesis of (+)-petromyroxol in 9 steps and 20% overall yield from a readily accessible starting material.

  13. Temporal trend in the transfer of Sellafield-derived 14C into different size fractions of the carbonate component of NE Irish Sea sediment

    Muir, Graham K. P.; Cook, Gordon T.; Tripney, Brian G.; MacKenzie, Angus B.; Stewart, Helena; Tierney, Kieran M.
    From 1994 onwards, 14C discharges from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant have been made largely to the Northeast Irish Sea. They represent the largest contributor to UK and European populations of the collective dose commitment derived from the entire nuclear industry discharges. Consequently, it is important to understand the long-term fate of 14C in the marine environment. Research undertaken in 2000 suggested that the carbonate component of Northeast Irish Sea sediments would increase in 14C activity as mollusc shells, which have become enriched in Sellafield-derived 14C, are broken down by physical processes including wave action and incorporated into intertidal...

  14. Rhodium(II)-catalyzed stereocontrolled synthesis of 2-tetrasubstituted saturated heterocycles from 1-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles

    Boyer, Alistair
    Rhodium(II) acetate catalyzes the denitrogenative transformation of 4-substituted 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles with pendent allyl and propargyl ethers and thioethers to onium ylides that undergo [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to give 2-tetrasubstituted heterocycles with high yield and diastereoselectivity.

  15. Scottish Gold: Fruit of the Nation

    Clark, Neil D.L.
    Atoms of gold are found in almost everything on Earth. It is often concentrated by hot fluids percolating through the crust and re-depositing it in veins produced during tectonic collisions or the rifting apart of oceans and continents. It can be further concentrated into rivers and streams by weathering and erosion of ancient landforms where it has been collected for millennia by humans for many purposes.

    Gold rushes of the 19th century in the United States, Australia and South Africa are well known of, but there were two gold rushes in Scotland as well: one in 1852 and the other in...

  16. Rhodium(II)-catalyzed stereocontrolled synthesis of dihydrofuran-3-imines from 1-Tosyl-1,2,3-triazoles

    Boyer, Alistair
    Rhodium(II) acetate catalyzes the denitrogenative transformation of 5-substituted and 4,5-disubstituted 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles with pendent allyl and propargyl ether motifs to oxonium ylides that undergo [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to give substituted dihydrofuran-3-imines in high yield and diastereoselectivity.

  17. Scaling Up: The Institution of Chemical Engineers and the Rise of a New Profession

    Divall, C.; Johnston, S.F.
    Chemical engineering - as an acknowledged profession and an academic discipline - is scarcely a century old. Yet from a contested existence before the First World War, chemical engineering had become one of the 'big four' engineering professions in Britain, and a major contributor to Western economies, by the end of the twentieth century. The subject had distinct national trajectories. In Britain - too long seen as shaped by American experiences - the emergence of recognised chemical engineers was the result of professional aspirations and contingency, and shaped by a shifting ecology of institutions, firms and government. Drawing upon extensive archival research,...

  18. Gerhard Herzberg

    Johnston, S.F.
    A biographical article on Gerhard Herzberg, the Canadian physicist and Nobel Prize winner.

  19. Infrared detectors

    Johnston, S.F.
    This article discusses the history of development of infrared detectors, employed to measure the quantity of energy emitted in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  20. Public and private lighting

    Johnston, S.F.
    The history of lighting in the 19th and 20th centuries is discussed. The transition from flame (gas, oil and candle) to electric lighting was a fraught process involving commercial competition supported by distinct scientific claims.

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