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Enlighten (150.104 recursos)

Enlighten is the University of Glasgow's institutional repository service for published research material including peer-reviewed journal articles, published conference papers,books and book chapters

Subject = Q Science: QD Chemistry

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 148

  1. The importance of animal baselines: using isotope analysis to compare diet in a British medieval hospital and lay population

    Bownes, Jessica; Clarke, Leon; Buckberry, Jo
    The results of carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis from two medieval populations are presented here, in a study investigating dietary habits within a medieval hospital population in England. We used δ13C and δ15N measurements of bone collagen in order to attempt to identify a distinct group diet within the medieval hospital of St. Giles, Brough, Yorkshire, and examine the reasons why the dietary habits within the institution may have been noticeably different from that of a comparative lay population. Following the results and tentative conclusions of a study conducted by Müldner and Richards (2005), it was hypothesised that religious fasting...

  2. The importance of animal baselines: using isotope analysis to compare diet in a British medieval hospital and lay population

    Bownes, Jessica; Clarke, Leon; Buckberry, Jo
    The results of carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis from two medieval populations are presented here, in a study investigating dietary habits within a medieval hospital population in England. We used δ13C and δ15N measurements of bone collagen in order to attempt to identify a distinct group diet within the medieval hospital of St. Giles, Brough, Yorkshire, and examine the reasons why the dietary habits within the institution may have been noticeably different from that of a comparative lay population. Following the results and tentative conclusions of a study conducted by Müldner and Richards (2005), it was hypothesised that religious fasting...

  3. The importance of animal baselines: using isotope analysis to compare diet in a British medieval hospital and lay population

    Bownes, Jessica; Clarke, Leon; Buckberry, Jo
    The results of carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis from two medieval populations are presented here, in a study investigating dietary habits within a medieval hospital population in England. We used δ13C and δ15N measurements of bone collagen in order to attempt to identify a distinct group diet within the medieval hospital of St. Giles, Brough, Yorkshire, and examine the reasons why the dietary habits within the institution may have been noticeably different from that of a comparative lay population. Following the results and tentative conclusions of a study conducted by Müldner and Richards (2005), it was hypothesised that religious fasting...

  4. High-precision 41K/39K measurements by MC-ICP-MS indicate terrestrial variability of δ41K

    Morgan, Leah; Santiago Ramos, Danielle; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett; Faithfull, John; Lloyd, Nicholas S.; Ellam, Robert; Higgins, John
    Potassium is a major component in continental crust, the fourth-most abundant cation in seawater, and a key element in biological processes. Until recently, difficulties with existing analytical techniques hindered our ability to identify natural isotopic variability of potassium isotopes in terrestrial materials. However, measurement precision has greatly improved, and a range of K isotopic compositions has now been demonstrated in natural samples. In this study, we present a new technique for high-precision measurement of K isotopic ratios using high-resolution, cold plasma multi-collector mass spectrometry. We apply this technique to demonstrate natural variability in the ratio of 41K to 39K in...

  5. High-precision 41K/39K measurements by MC-ICP-MS indicate terrestrial variability of δ41K

    Morgan, Leah; Santiago Ramos, Danielle; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett; Faithfull, John; Lloyd, Nicholas S.; Ellam, Robert; Higgins, John
    Potassium is a major component in continental crust, the fourth-most abundant cation in seawater, and a key element in biological processes. Until recently, difficulties with existing analytical techniques hindered our ability to identify natural isotopic variability of potassium isotopes in terrestrial materials. However, measurement precision has greatly improved, and a range of K isotopic compositions has now been demonstrated in natural samples. In this study, we present a new technique for high-precision measurement of K isotopic ratios using high-resolution, cold plasma multi-collector mass spectrometry. We apply this technique to demonstrate natural variability in the ratio of 41K to 39K in...

  6. Graphical statistics to explore the natural and anthropogenic processes influencing the inorganic quality of drinking water, ground water and surface water

    Flem, Belinda; Reimann, Clemens; Fabian, Karl; Birke, Manfred; Filzmoser, Peter; Banks, David
    Plots of cumulative distribution functions (CDF) are a simple but powerful exploratory data analysis (EDA) tool to evaluate and compare statistical data distributions. Here, empirical CDF plots are used to compare results of four large (476 to 884 samples) national- to continental-scale inorganic water chemistry data sets: (1) European surface water, (2) European tap water, (3) European bottled waters as a proxy for groundwater and (4) Norwegian crystalline bedrock rock groundwater, all analysed at the same laboratory, albeit at different times. For many parameters (e.g., Ba, Cl-, K, SO4 2-) median values and ranges are, given the differing origins and, in...

  7. Graphical statistics to explore the natural and anthropogenic processes influencing the inorganic quality of drinking water, ground water and surface water

    Flem, Belinda; Reimann, Clemens; Fabian, Karl; Birke, Manfred; Filzmoser, Peter; Banks, David
    Plots of cumulative distribution functions (CDF) are a simple but powerful exploratory data analysis (EDA) tool to evaluate and compare statistical data distributions. Here, empirical CDF plots are used to compare results of four large (476 to 884 samples) national- to continental-scale inorganic water chemistry data sets: (1) European surface water, (2) European tap water, (3) European bottled waters as a proxy for groundwater and (4) Norwegian crystalline bedrock rock groundwater, all analysed at the same laboratory, albeit at different times. For many parameters (e.g., Ba, Cl-, K, SO4 2-) median values and ranges are, given the differing origins and, in...

  8. Fingerprinting the Temperature and Fluid Source of Fracture-Filling Calcite in Geothermal Systems Using Clumped Isotopes

    MacDonald, John; Milicich, Sarah; Davies, Amelia; Holdsworth, Chris; Newton, Michael; Williamson, Sam; Faithfull, John; McNamara, David; John, Cedric
    No abstract available.

  9. Formation of Exceptional Secondary Mineralisation in SW Scotland During the Onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation Revealed by (U+Th)/21Ne Dating

    Stuart, Finlay; Faithfull, John
    No abstract available.

  10. A literature review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles - part 2: spectroscopic and chromatographic analytical instrumentation

    Smith, Margaret; Thompson, Karen; Lennard, Frances
    Part Two of this Literature Review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles focusses on the application of vibrational and x-ray spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques used in the analysis of painted textiles to inform understanding of their materials, methods of making and degradation. The principles of detection methods, technique limitations and advantages, and how they complement each other, are explained and advances in techniques applicable in the study of painted textiles are discussed, such as mapping in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman, surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Most informative work relating to painted...

  11. A literature review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles - Part 2: spectroscopic and chromatographic analytical instrumentation

    Smith, Margaret; Thompson, Karen; Lennard, Frances
    Part Two of this Literature Review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles focusses on the application of vibrational and x-ray spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques used in the analysis of painted textiles to inform understanding of their materials, methods of making and degradation. The principles of detection methods, technique limitations and advantages, and how they complement each other, are explained and advances in techniques applicable in the study of painted textiles are discussed, such as mapping in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman, surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Most informative work relating to painted...

  12. A literature review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles - Part 2: spectroscopic and chromatographic analytical instrumentation

    Smith, Margaret; Thompson, Karen; Lennard, Frances
    Part Two of this Literature Review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles focusses on the application of vibrational and x-ray spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques used in the analysis of painted textiles to inform understanding of their materials, methods of making and degradation. The principles of detection methods, technique limitations and advantages, and how they complement each other, are explained and advances in techniques applicable in the study of painted textiles are discussed, such as mapping in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman, surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Most informative work relating to painted...

  13. Scientific Instruments and their Cultures

    Johnston, Sean F.
    No abstract available.

  14. Redox-controlled potassium intercalation into two polyaromatic hydrocarbon solids

    Romero, F. Denis; Pitcher, M.J.; Hiley, C.I.; Whitehead, G.F.S.; Kar, S.; Ganin, A.Y.; Antypov, D.; Collins, C.; Dyer, M.S.; Klupp, G.; Colman, R.H.; Prassides, K.; Rosseinsky, M.J.
    Alkali metal intercalation into polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied intensely after reports of superconductivity in a number of potassium- and rubidium-intercalated materials. There are, however, no reported crystal structures to inform our understanding of the chemistry and physics because of the complex reactivity of PAHs with strong reducing agents at high temperature. Here we present the synthesis of crystalline K2Pentacene and K2Picene by a solid–solid insertion protocol that uses potassium hydride as a redox-controlled reducing agent to access the PAH dianions, and so enables the determination of their crystal structures. In both cases, the inserted cations expand the parent...

  15. Redox-controlled potassium intercalation into two polyaromatic hydrocarbon solids

    Romero, F. Denis; Pitcher, M.J.; Hiley, C.I.; Whitehead, G.F.S.; Kar, S.; Ganin, A.Y.; Antypov, D.; Collins, C.; Dyer, M.S.; Klupp, G.; Colman, R.H.; Prassides, K.; Rosseinsky, M.J.
    Alkali metal intercalation into polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied intensely after reports of superconductivity in a number of potassium- and rubidium-intercalated materials. There are, however, no reported crystal structures to inform our understanding of the chemistry and physics because of the complex reactivity of PAHs with strong reducing agents at high temperature. Here we present the synthesis of crystalline K2Pentacene and K2Picene by a solid–solid insertion protocol that uses potassium hydride as a redox-controlled reducing agent to access the PAH dianions, and so enables the determination of their crystal structures. In both cases, the inserted cations expand the parent...

  16. A literature review of analytical techniques for materials characterisation of painted textiles - Part 1: categorising painted textiles, sampling and the use of optical tools

    Thompson, Karen; Smith, Margaret; Lennard, Frances
    Many types of painted textile are represented in museum collections. Their flexibility, draping qualities, and heterogeneous, layered nature make painted textiles complex objects to conserve. What do we know about their materials and making? There has been limited research into painted textiles and particularly their analysis. Whilst much valuable information can be gleaned from paintings analysis, there are many distinct differences in materials behaviour between stretched paintings and painted textiles that need to be identified and addressed. This paper, together with Part 2, aims to raise the awareness of textile conservators, in particular, of potential analytical techniques to identify and...

  17. The Atomic Cloister: Secrecy and the Shaping of Technical Identity, 1940-60

    Johnston, Sean F.
    During five wartime years and the following post-war decade, atomic energy was a subject shrouded in secrecy. Identified as a crucial element in military strategy, national status and export aspirations, the research and development of atomic piles (nuclear chain-reactors) were nurtured at isolated installations. Like monastic orders, new national laboratories provided occupational environments that were simultaneously cosseted and constrained, defining regional variants of a new State-managed discipline: reactor engineering. This paper discusses the significance of secrecy in defining the new subject in the USA, UK and Canada – the first three countries to dedicate sustained government funding to the field. The...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of a series of [M2(β-SiW8O31)2]n− clusters and mechanistic insight into the reorganization of {β-SiW8O31} into {α-SiW9O34}

    Winter, Ross S.; Long, De-Liang; Cronin, Leroy
    Lacunary polyoxometalates of low nuclearity are difficult to synthesize in isolation. We report the facile synthesis of six {M2(B-β-SiW8O31)2} clusters (M = Co/Mn/Ni/Zn/Cu2+, Fe3+) that can be employed as building blocks for the formation of larger architectures. We show for the first time that such {B-β-SiW8O31} lacunae are capable of reorganizing into larger Keggin lacunary species even in the absence of an external source of tungstate. We hypothesize, based on electrospray ionization mass spectrometry evidence obtained, not only that such a transformation is only possible via an initial decomposition of the {SiW8} precursor into a {SiW6}-based intermediate but also that...

  19. Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-petromyroxol, enabled by rhodium-catalyzed denitrogenation and rearrangement of a 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazole

    Boyer, Alistair
    Petromyroxol is a non-racemic mixture of enantiomeric oxylipids isolated from water conditioned with larval sea lamprey. The (+)-antipode exhibits interesting biological properties but only 1 mg was isolated from >100000 L of water. Recently, transition metal-catalyzed denitrogenation of 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles has emerged as a powerful strategy for the synthesis of value-added products, including efficient diastereocontrolled construction of tetrahydrofurans. This methodology enabled the rapid development of the first synthesis of (+)-petromyroxol in 9 steps and 20% overall yield from a readily accessible starting material.

  20. Temporal trend in the transfer of Sellafield-derived 14C into different size fractions of the carbonate component of NE Irish Sea sediment

    Muir, Graham K. P.; Cook, Gordon T.; Tripney, Brian G.; MacKenzie, Angus B.; Stewart, Helena; Tierney, Kieran M.
    From 1994 onwards, 14C discharges from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant have been made largely to the Northeast Irish Sea. They represent the largest contributor to UK and European populations of the collective dose commitment derived from the entire nuclear industry discharges. Consequently, it is important to understand the long-term fate of 14C in the marine environment. Research undertaken in 2000 suggested that the carbonate component of Northeast Irish Sea sediments would increase in 14C activity as mollusc shells, which have become enriched in Sellafield-derived 14C, are broken down by physical processes including wave action and incorporated into intertidal...

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