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Datasets of project "International Polar Year (2007-2008)"

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  1. (Table 4) Seasonal variation of sea spray sodium concentrations during 2004-2007 at Concordia Station, Antarctica

    Udisti, Roberto; Dayan, Uri; Becagli, Silvia; Busetto, Maurizio; Frosini, Daniele; Legrand, Michel R; Lucarelli, F; Preunkert, Susanne; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Vitale, Vito
    From November 2004 to December 2007, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected all-year-round at Dome C (East Antarctica) by using PM10 and PM2.5 samplers, and multi-stage impactors. The data set obtained from the chemical analysis provided the longest and the most time-resolved record of sea spray aerosol (sea salt Na+) in inner Antarctica. Sea spray showed a sharp seasonal pattern. The highest values measured in winter (Apr-Nov) were about ten times larger than in summer (Dec-Mar). For the first time, a size-distribution seasonal pattern was also shown: in winter, sea spray particles are mainly submicrometric, while their summer size-mode is around...

  2. (Table 4) Seasonal variation of sea spray sodium concentrations during 2004-2007 at Concordia Station, Antarctica

    Udisti, Roberto; Dayan, Uri; Becagli, Silvia; Busetto, Maurizio; Frosini, Daniele; Legrand, Michel R; Lucarelli, F; Preunkert, Suzanne; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Vitale, Vito
    From November 2004 to December 2007, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected all-year-round at Dome C (East Antarctica) by using PM10 and PM2.5 samplers, and multi-stage impactors. The data set obtained from the chemical analysis provided the longest and the most time-resolved record of sea spray aerosol (sea salt Na+) in inner Antarctica. Sea spray showed a sharp seasonal pattern. The highest values measured in winter (Apr-Nov) were about ten times larger than in summer (Dec-Mar). For the first time, a size-distribution seasonal pattern was also shown: in winter, sea spray particles are mainly submicrometric, while their summer size-mode is around...

  3. (Table 4) Seasonal variation of sea spray sodium concentrations during 2004-2007 at Concordia Station, Antarctica

    Udisti, Roberto; Dayan, Uri; Becagli, Silvia; Busetto, Maurizio; Frosini, Daniele; Legrand, Michel R; Lucarelli, F; Preunkert, Suzanne; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Vitale, Vito
    From November 2004 to December 2007, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected all-year-round at Dome C (East Antarctica) by using PM10 and PM2.5 samplers, and multi-stage impactors. The data set obtained from the chemical analysis provided the longest and the most time-resolved record of sea spray aerosol (sea salt Na+) in inner Antarctica. Sea spray showed a sharp seasonal pattern. The highest values measured in winter (Apr-Nov) were about ten times larger than in summer (Dec-Mar). For the first time, a size-distribution seasonal pattern was also shown: in winter, sea spray particles are mainly submicrometric, while their summer size-mode is around...

  4. (Table 1) Sea ice and snow characteristics and heat fluxes observed during R/V Aurora Australis cruise to East Antarctica in September/October 2007

    Toyota, Takenobu; Massom, Robert A; Tateyama, Kazu; Tamura, T; Fraser, Alexander
    The properties of snow on East Antarctic sea ice off Wilkes Land were examined during the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystem Experiment (SIPEX) in late winter of 2007, focusing on the interaction with sea ice. This observation includes 11 transect lines for the measurement of ice thickness, freeboard, and snow depth, 50 snow pits on 13 ice floes, and diurnal variation of surface heat flux on three ice floes. The detailed profiling of topography along the transects and the d18O, salinity, and density datasets of snow made it possible to examine the snow-sea-ice interaction quantitatively for the first time in...

  5. (Table 1) Sea ice and snow characteristics and heat fluxes observed during R/V Aurora Australis cruise to East Antarctica in September/October 2007

    Toyota, Takenobu; Massom, Robert A; Tateyama, Kazu; Tamura, T; Fraser, Alexander
    The properties of snow on East Antarctic sea ice off Wilkes Land were examined during the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystem Experiment (SIPEX) in late winter of 2007, focusing on the interaction with sea ice. This observation includes 11 transect lines for the measurement of ice thickness, freeboard, and snow depth, 50 snow pits on 13 ice floes, and diurnal variation of surface heat flux on three ice floes. The detailed profiling of topography along the transects and the d18O, salinity, and density datasets of snow made it possible to examine the snow-sea-ice interaction quantitatively for the first time in...

  6. (Table 1) Breeding parameters for 60 male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at station Dumont d'Urville (Antarctica) depending on treatment (control vs. CORT)

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Massemin, Sylvie; Handrich, Yves; Raclot, Thierry
    Corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, mediates resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to changes in the environment. Incubation is a time and energy-consuming phase of the avian reproductive cycle. It may be terminated prematurely, when the parents' energy stores are depleted or when environmental conditions are severe. In this study, the effects of experimentally elevated baseline corticosterone levels on the parental investment of incubating male Adelie penguins were investigated. Incubation duration and reproductive success of 60 penguins were recorded. The clutches of some birds were replaced by dummy eggs, which recorded egg temperatures and...

  7. (Table 1) Breeding parameters for 60 male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at station Dumont d'Urville (Antarctica) depending on treatment (control vs. CORT)

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Massemin, Sylvie; Handrich, Yves; Raclot, Thierry
    Corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, mediates resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to changes in the environment. Incubation is a time and energy-consuming phase of the avian reproductive cycle. It may be terminated prematurely, when the parents' energy stores are depleted or when environmental conditions are severe. In this study, the effects of experimentally elevated baseline corticosterone levels on the parental investment of incubating male Adelie penguins were investigated. Incubation duration and reproductive success of 60 penguins were recorded. The clutches of some birds were replaced by dummy eggs, which recorded egg temperatures and...

  8. (Table 1) Breeding parameters for 60 male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at station Dumont d'Urville (Antarctica) depending on treatment (control vs. CORT)

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Massemin, Sylvie; Handrich, Yves; Raclot, Thierry
    Corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, mediates resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to changes in the environment. Incubation is a time and energy-consuming phase of the avian reproductive cycle. It may be terminated prematurely, when the parents' energy stores are depleted or when environmental conditions are severe. In this study, the effects of experimentally elevated baseline corticosterone levels on the parental investment of incubating male Adelie penguins were investigated. Incubation duration and reproductive success of 60 penguins were recorded. The clutches of some birds were replaced by dummy eggs, which recorded egg temperatures and...

  9. Average fluorescence and dissolved iron and Fe-binding ligand characteristics during POLARSTERN expedition ANT-XXIV/3 in 2008

    Thuróczy, Charles-Edouard; Gerringa, Loes J A; Klunder, Maarten B; Laan, Patrick; de Baar, Hein J W
    Organic complexation of dissolved iron (dFe) was investigated in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in order to understand the distribution of Fe over the whole water column. The total concentration of dissolved organic ligands ([Lt]) measured by voltammetry ranged between 0.54 and 1.84 nEq of M Fe whereas the conditional binding strength (K') ranged between 10**21.4 and 10**22.8. For the first time, trends in Fe-organic complexation were observed in an ocean basin by examining the ratio ([Lt]/[dFe]), defined as the organic ligand concentration divided by the dissolved Fe concentration. The [Lt]/[dFe] ratio indicates the saturation state of the...

  10. Average fluorescence and dissolved iron and Fe-binding ligand characteristics during POLARSTERN expedition ANT-XXIV/3 in 2008

    Thuróczy, Charles-Edouard; Gerringa, Loes J A; Klunder, Maarten B; Laan, Patrick; de Baar, Hein J W
    Organic complexation of dissolved iron (dFe) was investigated in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in order to understand the distribution of Fe over the whole water column. The total concentration of dissolved organic ligands ([Lt]) measured by voltammetry ranged between 0.54 and 1.84 nEq of M Fe whereas the conditional binding strength (K') ranged between 10**21.4 and 10**22.8. For the first time, trends in Fe-organic complexation were observed in an ocean basin by examining the ratio ([Lt]/[dFe]), defined as the organic ligand concentration divided by the dissolved Fe concentration. The [Lt]/[dFe] ratio indicates the saturation state of the...

  11. Dissolved and dissolvable iron concentrations and ligand characteristics in samples taken during POLARSTERN expedition ARK-XXII/2 to the Arctic Ocean

    Thuróczy, Charles-Edouard; Gerringa, Loes J A; Klunder, Maarten B; Laan, Patrick; Le Guitton, M; de Baar, Hein J W
    The speciation of iron was investigated in three shelf seas and three deep basins of the Arctic Ocean in 2007. The dissolved fraction (<0.2 µm) and a fraction < 1000 kDa were considered here. In addition, unfiltered samples were analyzed. Between 74 and 83% of dissolved iron was present in the fraction < 1000 kDa at all stations and depth, except at the chlorophyll maximum (42-64%). Distinct trends in iron concentrations and ligand characteristics were observed from the shelf seas toward the central deep basins, with a decrease of total dissolvable iron ([TDFe] > 3 nM on the shelves and...

  12. Dissolved and dissolvable iron concentrations and ligand characteristics in samples taken during POLARSTERN expedition ARK-XXII/2 to the Arctic Ocean

    Thuróczy, Charles-Edouard; Gerringa, Loes J A; Klunder, Maarten B; Laan, Patrick; Le Guitton, M; de Baar, Hein J W
    The speciation of iron was investigated in three shelf seas and three deep basins of the Arctic Ocean in 2007. The dissolved fraction (<0.2 µm) and a fraction < 1000 kDa were considered here. In addition, unfiltered samples were analyzed. Between 74 and 83% of dissolved iron was present in the fraction < 1000 kDa at all stations and depth, except at the chlorophyll maximum (42-64%). Distinct trends in iron concentrations and ligand characteristics were observed from the shelf seas toward the central deep basins, with a decrease of total dissolvable iron ([TDFe] > 3 nM on the shelves and...

  13. Density and biomass of two copepod size fractions and various species obtained during Almirante Irizar cruises to the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea (2000-2003)

    Thompson, Gustavo A; Dinofrio, Estela O; Alder, Viviana A
    The relative importance of small forms of copepods has been historically underestimated by the traditional use of 200-300-µm mesh nets. This work quantified the distribution and abundance of copepods, considering two size fractions (<300 µm and >300 µm), in superficial waters (9 m deep) of the Drake Passage and contributed to the knowledge of their interannual fluctuations among three summers. Four types of nauplii and eleven species of copepods at copepodite and adult stages were identified, with abundance values of up to 13 ind/L and 28,300 µg C/m**3. The <300-µm fraction, composed of Oithona similis, small cyclopoids and nauplii, dominated...

  14. Density and biomass of two copepod size fractions and various species obtained during Almirante Irizar cruises to the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea (2000-2003)

    Thompson, Gustavo A; Dinofrio, Estela O; Alder, Viviana A
    The relative importance of small forms of copepods has been historically underestimated by the traditional use of 200-300-µm mesh nets. This work quantified the distribution and abundance of copepods, considering two size fractions (<300 µm and >300 µm), in superficial waters (9 m deep) of the Drake Passage and contributed to the knowledge of their interannual fluctuations among three summers. Four types of nauplii and eleven species of copepods at copepodite and adult stages were identified, with abundance values of up to 13 ind/L and 28,300 µg C/m**3. The <300-µm fraction, composed of Oithona similis, small cyclopoids and nauplii, dominated...

  15. (Table 1) Movement parameters of nine adult female snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus) tracked during the winter period 07/08 and 08/09 around Hudson Strait, Canada

    Therrien, Jean-François; Gauthier, Gilles; Bêty, Joël
    Top predators of the arctic tundra are facing a long period of very low prey availability during winter and subsidies from other ecosystems such as the marine environment may help to support their populations. Satellite tracking of snowy owls, a top predator of the tundra, revealed that most adult females breeding in the Canadian Arctic overwinter at high latitudes in the eastern Arctic and spend several weeks (up to 101 d) on the sea-ice between December and April. Analysis of high-resolution satellite images of sea-ice indicated that owls were primarily gathering around open water patches in the ice, which are...

  16. (Table 1) Movement parameters of nine adult female snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus) tracked during the winter period 07/08 and 08/09 around Hudson Strait, Canada

    Therrien, Jean-François; Gauthier, Gilles; Bêty, Joël
    Top predators of the arctic tundra are facing a long period of very low prey availability during winter and subsidies from other ecosystems such as the marine environment may help to support their populations. Satellite tracking of snowy owls, a top predator of the tundra, revealed that most adult females breeding in the Canadian Arctic overwinter at high latitudes in the eastern Arctic and spend several weeks (up to 101 d) on the sea-ice between December and April. Analysis of high-resolution satellite images of sea-ice indicated that owls were primarily gathering around open water patches in the ice, which are...

  17. Comparisons of observed ice properties and Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data during Nathanial B. Palmer cruise NBP09-01 and Oden cruise OSO08/09

    Tekeli, Ahmet E; Kern, Stefan; Ackley, Stephen F; Ozsoy-Cicek, Burcu; Xie, Hongjie
    Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) Wide Swath Mode (WSM) images are used to derive C-band HH-polarization normalized radar cross sections (NRCS). These are compared with ice-core analysis and visual ship-based observations of snow and ice properties observed according to the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) protocol during two International Polar Year summer cruises (Oden 2008 and Palmer 2009) in West Antarctica. Thick first-year (TFY) and multi-year (MY) ice were the dominant ice types. The NRCS value ranges between -16.3 ± 1.1 and -7.6 ± 1.0 dB for TFY ice, and is -12.6 ± 1.3 dB for MY...

  18. Comparisons of observed ice properties and Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data during Nathanial B. Palmer cruise NBP09-01 and Oden cruise OSO08/09

    Tekeli, Ahmet E; Kern, Stefan; Ackley, Stephen F; Ozsoy-Cicek, Burcu; Xie, Hongjie
    Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) Wide Swath Mode (WSM) images are used to derive C-band HH-polarization normalized radar cross sections (NRCS). These are compared with ice-core analysis and visual ship-based observations of snow and ice properties observed according to the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) protocol during two International Polar Year summer cruises (Oden 2008 and Palmer 2009) in West Antarctica. Thick first-year (TFY) and multi-year (MY) ice were the dominant ice types. The NRCS value ranges between -16.3 ± 1.1 and -7.6 ± 1.0 dB for TFY ice, and is -12.6 ± 1.3 dB for MY...

  19. (Table 2) Carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in blood sampled from arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) on Bylot Island between 2003-2008

    Tarroux, Arnaud; Bêty, Joël; Gauthier, Gilles; Berteaux, Dominique
    Inter-individual variation in diet within generalist animal populations is thought to be a widespread phenomenon but its potential causes are poorly known. Inter-individual variation can be amplified by the availability and use of allochthonous resources, i.e., resources coming from spatially distinct ecosystems. Using a wild population of arctic fox as a study model, we tested hypotheses that could explain variation in both population and individual isotopic niches, used here as proxy for the trophic niche. The arctic fox is an opportunistic forager, dwelling in terrestrial and marine environments characterized by strong spatial (arctic-nesting birds) and temporal (cyclic lemmings) fluctuations in...

  20. (Table 2) Carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in blood sampled from arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) on Bylot Island between 2003-2008

    Tarroux, Arnaud; Bêty, Joël; Gauthier, Gilles; Berteaux, Dominique
    Inter-individual variation in diet within generalist animal populations is thought to be a widespread phenomenon but its potential causes are poorly known. Inter-individual variation can be amplified by the availability and use of allochthonous resources, i.e., resources coming from spatially distinct ecosystems. Using a wild population of arctic fox as a study model, we tested hypotheses that could explain variation in both population and individual isotopic niches, used here as proxy for the trophic niche. The arctic fox is an opportunistic forager, dwelling in terrestrial and marine environments characterized by strong spatial (arctic-nesting birds) and temporal (cyclic lemmings) fluctuations in...

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