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Datasets of project "International Polar Year (2007-2008)"

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 421

  1. (Table 4) Seasonal variation of sea spray sodium concentrations during 2004-2007 at Concordia Station, Antarctica

    Udisti, Roberto; Dayan, Uri; Becagli, Silvia; Busetto, Maurizio; Frosini, Daniele; Legrand, Michel R; Lucarelli, F; Preunkert, Susanne; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Vitale, Vito
    From November 2004 to December 2007, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected all-year-round at Dome C (East Antarctica) by using PM10 and PM2.5 samplers, and multi-stage impactors. The data set obtained from the chemical analysis provided the longest and the most time-resolved record of sea spray aerosol (sea salt Na+) in inner Antarctica. Sea spray showed a sharp seasonal pattern. The highest values measured in winter (Apr-Nov) were about ten times larger than in summer (Dec-Mar). For the first time, a size-distribution seasonal pattern was also shown: in winter, sea spray particles are mainly submicrometric, while their summer size-mode is around...

  2. (Table 1) Sea ice and snow characteristics and heat fluxes observed during R/V Aurora Australis cruise to East Antarctica in September/October 2007

    Toyota, Takenobu; Massom, Robert A; Tateyama, Kazu; Tamura, T; Fraser, Alexander
    The properties of snow on East Antarctic sea ice off Wilkes Land were examined during the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystem Experiment (SIPEX) in late winter of 2007, focusing on the interaction with sea ice. This observation includes 11 transect lines for the measurement of ice thickness, freeboard, and snow depth, 50 snow pits on 13 ice floes, and diurnal variation of surface heat flux on three ice floes. The detailed profiling of topography along the transects and the d18O, salinity, and density datasets of snow made it possible to examine the snow-sea-ice interaction quantitatively for the first time in...

  3. (Table 1) Breeding parameters for 60 male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at station Dumont d'Urville (Antarctica) depending on treatment (control vs. CORT)

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Massemin, Sylvie; Handrich, Yves; Raclot, Thierry
    Corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, mediates resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to changes in the environment. Incubation is a time and energy-consuming phase of the avian reproductive cycle. It may be terminated prematurely, when the parents' energy stores are depleted or when environmental conditions are severe. In this study, the effects of experimentally elevated baseline corticosterone levels on the parental investment of incubating male Adelie penguins were investigated. Incubation duration and reproductive success of 60 penguins were recorded. The clutches of some birds were replaced by dummy eggs, which recorded egg temperatures and...

  4. Average fluorescence and dissolved iron and Fe-binding ligand characteristics during POLARSTERN expedition ANT-XXIV/3 in 2008

    Thuróczy, Charles-Edouard; Gerringa, Loes J A; Klunder, Maarten B; Laan, Patrick; de Baar, Hein J W
    Organic complexation of dissolved iron (dFe) was investigated in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in order to understand the distribution of Fe over the whole water column. The total concentration of dissolved organic ligands ([Lt]) measured by voltammetry ranged between 0.54 and 1.84 nEq of M Fe whereas the conditional binding strength (K') ranged between 10**21.4 and 10**22.8. For the first time, trends in Fe-organic complexation were observed in an ocean basin by examining the ratio ([Lt]/[dFe]), defined as the organic ligand concentration divided by the dissolved Fe concentration. The [Lt]/[dFe] ratio indicates the saturation state of the...

  5. Dissolved and dissolvable iron concentrations and ligand characteristics in samples taken during POLARSTERN expedition ARK-XXII/2 to the Arctic Ocean

    Thuróczy, Charles-Edouard; Gerringa, Loes J A; Klunder, Maarten B; Laan, Patrick; Le Guitton, M; de Baar, Hein J W
    The speciation of iron was investigated in three shelf seas and three deep basins of the Arctic Ocean in 2007. The dissolved fraction (<0.2 µm) and a fraction < 1000 kDa were considered here. In addition, unfiltered samples were analyzed. Between 74 and 83% of dissolved iron was present in the fraction < 1000 kDa at all stations and depth, except at the chlorophyll maximum (42-64%). Distinct trends in iron concentrations and ligand characteristics were observed from the shelf seas toward the central deep basins, with a decrease of total dissolvable iron ([TDFe] > 3 nM on the shelves and...

  6. Density and biomass of two copepod size fractions and various species obtained during Almirante Irizar cruises to the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea (2000-2003)

    Thompson, Gustavo A; Dinofrio, Estela O; Alder, Viviana A
    The relative importance of small forms of copepods has been historically underestimated by the traditional use of 200-300-µm mesh nets. This work quantified the distribution and abundance of copepods, considering two size fractions (<300 µm and >300 µm), in superficial waters (9 m deep) of the Drake Passage and contributed to the knowledge of their interannual fluctuations among three summers. Four types of nauplii and eleven species of copepods at copepodite and adult stages were identified, with abundance values of up to 13 ind/L and 28,300 µg C/m**3. The <300-µm fraction, composed of Oithona similis, small cyclopoids and nauplii, dominated...

  7. (Table 1) Movement parameters of nine adult female snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus) tracked during the winter period 07/08 and 08/09 around Hudson Strait, Canada

    Therrien, Jean-François; Gauthier, Gilles; Bêty, Joël
    Top predators of the arctic tundra are facing a long period of very low prey availability during winter and subsidies from other ecosystems such as the marine environment may help to support their populations. Satellite tracking of snowy owls, a top predator of the tundra, revealed that most adult females breeding in the Canadian Arctic overwinter at high latitudes in the eastern Arctic and spend several weeks (up to 101 d) on the sea-ice between December and April. Analysis of high-resolution satellite images of sea-ice indicated that owls were primarily gathering around open water patches in the ice, which are...

  8. Comparisons of observed ice properties and Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data during Nathanial B. Palmer cruise NBP09-01 and Oden cruise OSO08/09

    Tekeli, Ahmet E; Kern, Stefan; Ackley, Stephen F; Ozsoy-Cicek, Burcu; Xie, Hongjie
    Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) Wide Swath Mode (WSM) images are used to derive C-band HH-polarization normalized radar cross sections (NRCS). These are compared with ice-core analysis and visual ship-based observations of snow and ice properties observed according to the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) protocol during two International Polar Year summer cruises (Oden 2008 and Palmer 2009) in West Antarctica. Thick first-year (TFY) and multi-year (MY) ice were the dominant ice types. The NRCS value ranges between -16.3 ± 1.1 and -7.6 ± 1.0 dB for TFY ice, and is -12.6 ± 1.3 dB for MY...

  9. (Table 2) Carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in blood sampled from arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) on Bylot Island between 2003-2008

    Tarroux, Arnaud; Bêty, Joël; Gauthier, Gilles; Berteaux, Dominique
    Inter-individual variation in diet within generalist animal populations is thought to be a widespread phenomenon but its potential causes are poorly known. Inter-individual variation can be amplified by the availability and use of allochthonous resources, i.e., resources coming from spatially distinct ecosystems. Using a wild population of arctic fox as a study model, we tested hypotheses that could explain variation in both population and individual isotopic niches, used here as proxy for the trophic niche. The arctic fox is an opportunistic forager, dwelling in terrestrial and marine environments characterized by strong spatial (arctic-nesting birds) and temporal (cyclic lemmings) fluctuations in...

  10. Morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of cryosolic soils from Arctic Canada

    Tarnocai, Charles; Bockheim, James G
    Cryosols are permafrost-affected soils whose genesis is dominated by cryogenic processes, resulting in unique macromorphologies, micromorphologies, thermal characteristics, and physical and chemical properties. In addition, these soils are carbon sinks, storing high amounts of organic carbon collected for thousands of years. In the Canadian soil classification, the Cryosolic Order includes mineral and organic soils that have both cryogenic properties and permafrost within 1 or 2 m of the soil surface. This soil order is divided into Turbic, Static and Organic great groups on the basis of the soil materials (mineral or organic), cryogenic properties and depth to permafrost. The great...

  11. (Supplement 3) Radar sounding observations including bedrock and surface elevation and ice thickness in the ASB region, Antarctica

    Young, Duncan A
    The first Cenozoic ice sheets initiated in Antarctica from the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and other highlands as a result of rapid global cooling ~34 million years ago. In the subsequent 20 million years, at a time of declining atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and an evolving Antarctic circumpolar current, sedimentary sequence interpretation and numerical modelling suggest that cyclical periods of ice-sheet expansion to the continental margin, followed by retreat to the subglacial highlands, occurred up to thirty times. These fluctuations were paced by orbital changes and were a major influence on global sea levels. Ice-sheet models show that the nature of...

  12. Growth characteristics and age at first migration of anadromous and resident Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Canadian Arctic (2006-2008)

    Swanson, Heidi K; Kidd, Karen A; Babaluk, John A; Wastle, Rick J; Yang, Panseok P; Halden, Norman M; Reist, James D
    In the family Salmonidae, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) are considered the least tolerant of salt water. There are, however, sporadic reports of lake trout in coastal, brackish habitats in the Canadian Arctic. Otolith microchemistry analyses conducted on lake trout and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from four Arctic lakes in the West Kitikmeot region of Nunavut, Canada, revealed that 37 of 135 (27%) lake trout made annual marine migrations. Anadromous lake trout were in significantly better condition (K = 1.17) and had significantly higher C:N ratios (3.71) than resident lake trout (K = 1.05 and C:N = 3.34). Anadromous lake trout...

  13. Concentrations of natural and anthropogenic organohalogens in water and air samples in the Canadian Arctic during IPY (2007-2008)

    Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M; Pucko, Monika; Papakyriakou, Tim N; Staebler, Ralf M; Stern, Gary A; Bidleman, Terry F
    Shipboard measurements of organohalogen compounds in air and surface seawater were conducted in the Canadian Arctic in 2007-2008. Study areas included the Labrador Sea, Hudson Bay, and the southern Beaufort Sea. High volume air samples were collected at deck level (6 m), while low volume samples were taken at 1 and 15 m above the water or ice surface. Water samples were taken within 7 m. Water concentration ranges (pg/L) were as follows: alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) 465-1013, gamma-HCH 150-254, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 4.0-6.4, 2,4-dibromoanisole (DBA) 8.5-38, and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) 4.7-163. Air concentration ranges (pg/m**3) were as follows: alpha-HCH 7.5-48, gamma-HCH 2.1-7.7, HCB...

  14. Fish biometry and concentration of volatile siloxanes in liver of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and shorthorn sculpin (Myxocephalus scorpius) sampled during RV Lance cruise COPOL in 2009

    Warner, Nicholas A; Evenset, Anita; Christensen, Guttorm; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Borgå, Katrine; Leknes, Henriette
    The purpose of this study was to investigate presence and potential accumulation of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) in the Arctic environment. Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcy-clohexasiloxane (D6) were analyzed in sediment, Zooplankton, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), shorthorn sculpin (Myxocephalus scorpius), and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected from the Svalbard archipelago within the European Arctic in July 2009. Highest levels were found for D5 in fish collected from Adventfjorden, with average concentrations of 176 and 531 ng/g lipid in Atlantic cod and shorthorn sculpin, respectively. Decreasing concentration of D5 in sediment collected away from waste water outlet in Adventfjorden...

  15. Sources and seasonality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons transported to Alert, Canadian Arctic

    Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Bin; Yang, Yu; Lang, Chang; Zhang, Yanxu; Hu, Jing; Ma, Jianmin; Hung, Hayley
    A probabilistic function (integrated source contribution function, ISCF) based on backward air mass trajectory calculation was developed to track sources and atmospheric pathways of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Canadian High Arctic station of Alert. In addition to the movement of air masses, the emission intensities at the sources and the major processes of partition, indirect photolysis, and deposition occurring on the way to the Arctic were incorporated into the ISCF. The predicted temporal trend of PAHs at Alert was validated by measured PAH concentrations throughout 2004. The PAH levels in the summer are orders of magnitude lower than...

  16. Characteristics of eggs and female adults of Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus from Disko Bay, western Greenland

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne; Dünweber, Michael; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Møller, Eva Friis; Rysgaard, Søren; Hansen, Benni Winding
    This is the first high temporal-resolution study in Disko Bay covering population dynamics, grazing, reproduction, and biochemical composition of 3 dominating copepod species (Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus) from late winter to midsummer in 2008. C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis ascended to the surface layer at the onset of the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by C. hyperboreus 2 wk later. C. finmarchicus spawning occurred during the bloom and postbloom period, partially fueled by wax esters. C. glacialis commenced spawning before the bloom, yet it was greatly stimulated when food became available. However, feeding and reproduction was terminated after...

  17. (Table 3) Leaf area and leaf nitrogen for deciduous, evergreen, forb and graminoid species at Barrow, Svalbard and Zackenberg

    Street, Lorna E; Shaver, Gauis R; Rastetter, Edward B; van Wijk, Mark T; Kaye, Brooke A; Williams, Mathew
    Arctic vegetation is characterized by high spatial variability in plant functional type (PFT) composition and gross primary productivity (P). Despite this variability, the two main drivers of P in sub-Arctic tundra are leaf area index (LT) and total foliar nitrogen (NT). LT and NT have been shown to be tightly coupled across PFTs in sub-Arctic tundra vegetation, which simplifies up-scaling by allowing quantification of the main drivers of P from remotely sensed LT. Our objective was to test the LT-NT relationship across multiple Arctic latitudes and to assess LT as a predictor of P for the pan-Arctic. Including PFT-specific parameters...

  18. Site characteristics, diversity indices and species abundance of peracarid crustaceans during Walther Herwig III cruise along the southern shelf of Greenland

    Stransky, Bente; Brandt, Angelika
    Abstract The species composition of peracarids (Crustacea: Malacostraca) of the Greenland shelf between 60°N and 65°N was investigated by means of 10 qualitative epibenthic samples in relation to environmental factors. In total, 59,234 specimens were collected belonging to 219 species. The relative abundance was much higher on the western shelf (total of 41,594 specimens) than on the eastern shelf (total of 17,640 specimens with same effort). Three species were new to science, while five records were new for the investigated area. The species composition was dominated by amphipods (58%), while the relative abundances of isopods (25%), cumaceans (11%) and tanaidaceans...

  19. (Table 1) Age, sex, length, girth and blubber thickness and content of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) in Kongsfjorden in 2000

    Strandberg, Ursula; Käkelä, Anne; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit Maureen; Grahl-Nielsen, Otto; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Käkelä, Reijo
    This study of vertical fatty acid profiles, based on analysis of 58 fatty acids sampled at 3-mm intervals throughout the blubber column of a model marine mammal, the ringed seal (Pusa hispida), revealed three chemically distinct layers. The average depths of the outer and inner layers were quite consistent (~1.5 and ~1 cm, respectively). Consequently, the middle layer varied greatly in thickness, from being virtually absent in the thinnest animals to 2.5 cm thick in the fattest. The relative consistencies of the thickness and composition of the layers as well as the nature of the fatty acids making up each...

  20. (Table 2) Survivorship of transplanted seedlings of Picea glauca inside and outside three tree islands in 1994, 1995, 2009 and after 15 years

    Walker, Xanthe; Henry, Gregory HR; McLeod, Katherine; Hofgaard, Annika; Pirotta, Enrico
    The northern boundary of boreal forest and the ranges of tree species are expected to shift northward in response to climate warming, which will result in a decrease in the albedo of areas currently covered by tundra vegetation, an increase in terrestrial carbon sequestration, and an alteration of biodiversity in the current Low Arctic. Central to the prediction of forest expansion is an increase in the reproductive capacity and establishment of individual trees. We assessed cone production, seed viability, and transplanted seedling success of Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss. (white spruce) in the early 1990s and again in the late 2000s...

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