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Caltech Authors (143.226 recursos)
Repository of works by Caltech published authors.
Group = Koch Laboratory
Repository of works by Caltech published authors.
Group = Koch Laboratory
Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof
The relationship between attention and consciousness is a close one, leading many scholars to conflate the two. However, recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined.
Cerf, Moran; Frady, E. Paxon; Koch, Christof
Under natural viewing conditions, human observers use shifts in gaze to allocate processing resources to subsets of the visual input. There are many computational models that try to predict these shifts in eye movement and attention. Although the important role of high level stimulus properties (e.g., semantic information) stands undisputed, most models are based solely on low-level image properties. We here demonstrate that a combined model of high-level object detection and low-level saliency significantly outperforms a low-level saliency model in predicting locations humans fixate on. The data is based on eye-movement recordings of humans observing photographs of natural scenes, which contained one...
Billeh, Yazan N.; Rodriguez, Alexander V.; Bellesi, Michele; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Funk, Chadd M.; Harris, Julie; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio
Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling...
Gelbard-Sagiv, Hagar; Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Koch, Christof
The scope and limits of unconscious processing are a matter of ongoing debate. Lately, continuous flash suppression (CFS), a technique for suppressing visual stimuli, has been widely used to demonstrate surprisingly high-level processing of invisible stimuli. Yet, recent studies showed that CFS might actually allow low-level features of the stimulus to escape suppression and be consciously perceived. The influence of such low-level awareness on high-level processing might easily go unnoticed, as studies usually only probe the visibility of the feature of interest, and not that of lower-level features. For instance, face identity is held to be processed unconsciously since subjects...
Harel, Jonathan; Koch, Christof; Perona, Pietro
A new bottom-up visual saliency model, Graph-Based Visual Saliency (GBVS), is proposed. It consists of two steps: first forming activation maps on certain feature channels, and then normalizing them in a way which highlights conspicuity and admits combination with other maps. The model is simple, and biologically plausible insofar as it is naturally parallelized. This model powerfully predicts human fixations on 749 variations of 108 natural images, achieving 98% of the ROC area of a human-based control, whereas the classical algorithms of Itti & Koch (, , ) achieve only 84%.
Manwani, Amit; Koch, Christof
Here we derive measures quantifying the information loss of a synaptic signal due to the presence of neuronal noise sources, as it electrotonically propagates along a weakly-active dendrite. We model the dendrite as an infinite linear cable, with noise sources distributed along its length. The noise sources we consider are thermal noise, channel noise arising from the stochastic nature of voltage-dependent ionic channels (K^+ and Na^+) and synaptic noise due to spontaneous background activity. We assess the efficacy of information transfer using a signal detection paradigm where the objective is to detect the presence/absence of a presynaptic spike from the post-synaptic membrane...
Higgins, Charles M.; Koch, Christof
A robust, integrative algorithm is presented for computing the position of the focus of expansion or axis of rotation (the singular point) in optical flow fields such as those generated by self-motion. Measurements are shown of a fully parallel CMOS analog VLSI motion sensor array which computes the direction of local motion (sign of optical flow) at each pixel and can directly implement this algorithm. The flow field singular point is computed in real time with a power consumption of less than 2 mW. Computation of the singular point for more general flow fields requires measures of field expansion and rotation, which...
Itti, Laurent; Braun, Jochen; Lee, Dale K.; Koch, Christof
We previously proposed a quantitative model of early visual processing in primates, based on non-linearly interacting visual filters and statistically efficient decision. We now use this model to interpret the observed modulation of a range of human psychophysical thresholds with and without focal visual attention. Our model - calibrated by an automatic fitting procedure - simultaneously reproduces thresholds for four classical pattern discrimination tasks, performed while attention was engaged by another concurrent task. Our model then predicts that the seemingly complex improvements of certain thresholds, which we observed when attention was fully available for the discrimination tasks, can best be explained by...
Itti, Laurent; Braun, Jochen; Lee, Dale K.; Koch, Christof
We propose a model for early visual processing in primates. The model consists of a population of linear spatial filters which interact through non-linear excitatory and inhibitory pooling. Statistical estimation theory is then used to derive human psychophysical thresholds from the responses of the entire population of units. The model is able to reproduce human thresholds for contrast and orientation discrimination tasks, and to predict contrast thresholds in the presence of masks of varying orientation and spatial frequency.
Harrison, Reid R.; Koch, Christof
Flies are capable of rapidly detecting and integrating visual motion information in behaviorly-relevant ways. The first stage of visual motion processing in flies is a retinotopic array of functional units known as elementary motion detectors (EMDs). Several decades ago, Reichardt and colleagues developed a correlation-based model of motion detection that described the behavior of these neural circuits. We have implemented a variant of this model in a 2.0µm analog CMOS VLSI process. The result is a low-power, continuous-time analog circuit with integrated photoreceptors that responds to motion in real time. The responses of the circuit to drifting sinusoidal gratings qualitatively resemble the...
Kruger, W. Fritz; Hasler, Paul; Minch, Bradley A.; Koch, Christof
We have designed, fabricated, and tested an adaptive Winner-Take-All (WTA) circuit based upon the classic WTA of Lazzaro, et al . We have added a time dimension (adaptation) to this circuit to make the input derivative an important factor in winner selection. To accomplish this, we have modified the classic WTA circuit by adding floating gate transistors which slowly null their inputs over time. We present a simplified analysis and experimental data of this adaptive WTA fabricated in a standard CMOS 2µm process.
Niebur, Ernst; Koch, Christof
Intermediate and higher vision processes require selection of a subset of the available sensory information before further processing. Usually, this selection is implemented in the form of a spatially circumscribed region of the visual field, the so-called "focus of attention" which scans the visual scene dependent on the input and on the attentional state of the subject. We here present a model for the control of the focus of attention in primates, based on a saliency map. This mechanism is not only expected to model the functionality of biological vision but also to be essential for the understanding of complex scenes in machine...
Indiveri, Giacomo; Kramer, Jörg; Koch, Christof
We describe two parallel analog VLSI architectures that integrate optical flow data obtained from arrays of elementary velocity sensors to estimate heading direction and time-to-contact. For heading direction computation, we performed simulations to evaluate the most important qualitative properties of the optical flow field and determine the best functional operators for the implementation of the architecture. For time-to-contact we exploited the divergence theorem to integrate data from all velocity sensors present in the architecture and average out possible errors.
Sarpeshkar, Rahul; Bair, Wyeth; Koch, Christof
The real time computation of motion from real images using a single chip with integrated sensors is a hard problem. We present two analog VLSI schemes that use pulse domain neuromorphic circuits to compute motion. Pulses of variable width, rather than graded potentials, represent a natural medium for evaluating temporal relationships. Both algorithms measure speed by timing a moving edge in the image. Our first model is inspired by Reichardt's algorithm in the fiy and yields a non-monotonic response vs. velocity curve. We present data from a chip that implements this model. Our second algorithm yields a monotonic response vs. velocity curve and is currently being translated into silicon.
Koch, Christof; Luo, Jin; Mead, Carver; Hutchinson, James
To us, and to other biological organisms, vision seems effortless. We open our eyes and we "see" the world in all its color, brightness, and movement. Yet, we have great difficulties when trying to endow our machines with similar abilities. In this paper we shall describe recent developments in the theory of early vision which lead from the formulation of the motion problem as an ill-posed one to its solution by minimizing certain "cost" functions. These cost or energy functions can be mapped onto simple analog and digital resistive networks. Thus, we shall see how the optical flow can be computed by injecting currents into resistive networks and...
Koch, Christof; Luo, Jin; Hutchinson, James; Mead, Carver
To us, and to other biological organisms, vision seems effortless. We open our eyes and we "see" the world in all its color, brightness, and movement. Flies, frogs, cats, and humans can all equally well perceive a rapidly changing environment and act on it. Yet, we have great difficulties when trying to endow our machines with similar abilities. In this article, we describe recent developments in the theory of early vision that led from the formulation of the motion problem as an ill-posed one to its solution by minimizing certain "cost" functions. These cost or energy functions can be mapped onto...
Li, Yin; Hou, Xiaodi; Koch, Christof; Rehg, James M.; Yuille, Alan L.
In this paper we provide an extensive evaluation of fixation prediction and salient object segmentation algorithms as well as statistics of major datasets. Our analysis identifies serious design flaws of existing salient object benchmarks, called the dataset design bias, by over emphasising the stereotypical concepts of saliency. The dataset design bias does not only create the discomforting disconnection between fixations and salient object segmentation, but also misleads the algorithm designing. Based on our analysis, we propose a new high quality dataset that offers both fixation and salient object segmentation ground-truth. With fixations and salient object being presented simultaneously, we are...
Taxidis, Jiannis; Anastassiou, Costas A.; Diba, Kamran; Koch, Christof
Whether the activation of spiking cell ensembles can be encoded in the local field potential (LFP) remains unclear. We address this question by combining in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the rat hippocampus with realistic biophysical modeling, and explore the LFP of place cell sequence spiking (“replays”) during sharp wave ripples. We show that multi-site perisomatic LFP amplitudes, in the ∼150–200 Hz frequency band, reliably reflect spatial constellations of spiking cells, embedded within non-spiking populations, and encode activation of local place cell ensembles during in vivo replays. We find spatiotemporal patterns in the LFP, which remain consistent between sequence replays, in...
Schaub, Michael T.; Billeh, Yazan N.; Anastassiou, Costas A.; Koch, Christof; Barahona, Mauricio
Unraveling the interplay between connectivity and spatio-temporal dynamics in neuronal networks is a key step to advance our understanding of neuronal information processing. Here we investigate how particular features of network connectivity underpin the propensity of neural networks to generate slow-switching assembly (SSA) dynamics, i.e., sustained epochs of increased firing within assemblies of neurons which transition slowly between different assemblies throughout the network. We show that the emergence of SSA activity is linked to spectral properties of the asymmetric synaptic weight matrix. In particular, the leading eigenvalues that dictate the slow dynamics exhibit a gap with respect to the bulk...
The most famous twentieth-century philosophical treatise ends with the enigmatic invocation "Wovon man nicht sprechen kann, darüber muβ man schweigen" ("Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent"). David Chalmers has obviously considered these words as a challenge and has written a 400-page book (essentially a lengthy version of his PhD thesis) dealing with a topic that the young Ludwig Wittgenstein felt should be left unspoken. As I suspect that Chalmers will be remembered by many as the one who put the so-called 'hard' problem of consciousness on the map (both in the introduction to this book and even more so in his Scientific American article in December 1995), let me start here.