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Datasets of project "Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre"

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 586

  1. Nutrient availability affects the response of the calcifying chlorophyte Halimeda opuntia (L.) J.V. Lamouroux to low pH

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Heiden, Jasmin; Bischof, Kai; Teichberg, Mirta
    Atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions cause a decrease in the pH and aragonite saturation state of surface ocean water. As a result, calcifying organisms are expected to suffer under future ocean conditions, but their physiological responses may depend on their nutrient status. Because many coral reefs experience high inorganic nutrient loads or seasonal changes in nutrient availability, reef organisms in localized areas will have to cope with elevated carbon dioxide and changes in inorganic nutrients. Halimeda opuntia is a dominant calcifying primary producer on coral reefs that contributes to coral reef accretion. Therefore, we investigated the carbon and nutrient balance of...

  2. Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish

    Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond
    As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in...

  3. Interactions among chronic and acute impacts on coral recruits: the importance of size-escape thresholds

    Doropoulos, Christopher; Ward, Selina; Marshell, Alyssa; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Mumby, Peter J
    Newly settled recruits typically suffer high mortality from disturbances, but rapid growth reduces their mortality once size-escape thresholds are attained. Ocean acidification (OA) reduces the growth of recruiting benthic invertebrates, yet no direct effects on survivorship have been demonstrated. We tested whether the reduced growth of coral recruits caused by OA would increase their mortality by prolonging their vulnerability to an acute disturbance: fish herbivory on surrounding algal turf. After two months' growth in ambient or elevated CO2 levels, the linear extension and calcification of coral (Acropora millepora) recruits decreased as CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) increased. When recruits were subjected...

  4. Grazing under experimental hypercapnia and elevated temperature does not affect the radula of a chiton (Mollusca, Polyplacophora, Lepidopleurida)

    Sigwart, Julia D; Carey, Nicholas
    Chitons (class Polyplacophora) are benthic grazing molluscs with an eight-part aragonitic shell armature. The radula, a serial tooth ribbon that extends internally more than half the length of the body, is mineralised on the active feeding teeth with iron magnetite apparently as an adaptation to constant grazing on rocky substrates. As the anterior feeding teeth are eroded they are shed and replaced with a new row. The efficient mineralisation and function of the radula could hypothetically be affected by changing oceans in two ways: changes in seawater chemistry (pH and pCO2) may impact the biomineralisation pathway, potentially leading to a...

  5. Coral-algae metabolism and diurnal changes in the CO2-carbonate system of bulk sea water

    Jokiel, Paul L; Jury, Christopher P; Rodgers, Kuulei S
    Precise measurements were conducted in continuous flow seawater mesocosms located in full sunlight that compared metabolic response of coral, coral-macroalgae and macroalgae systems over a diurnal cycle. Irradiance controlled net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drove net calcification (Gnet), and altered pH. Pnet exerted the dominant control on [CO3]2- and aragonite saturation state (Omega arag) over the diel cycle. Dark calcification rate decreased after sunset, reaching zero near midnight followed by an increasing rate that peaked at 03:00 h. Changes in Omega arag and pH lagged behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate...

  6. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on tropical fleshy and calcareous algae

    Johnson, Maggie Dorothy; Price, Nichole N; Smith, Jennifer E
    Despite the heightened awareness of ocean acidification (OA) effects on marine organisms, few studies empirically juxtapose biological responses to CO2 manipulations across functionally distinct primary producers, particularly benthic algae. Algal responses to OA may vary because increasing CO2 has the potential to fertilize photosynthesis but impair biomineralization. Using a series of repeated experiments on Palmyra Atoll, simulated OA effects were tested across a suite of ecologically important coral reef algae, including five fleshy and six calcareous species. Growth, calcification and photophysiology were measured for each species independently and metrics were combined from each experiment using a meta-analysis to examine overall...

  7. Offspring sensitivity to ocean acidification changes seasonally in a coastal marine fish

    Murray, Christopher S; Malvezzi, Alex; Gobler, Christopher J; Baumann, Hannes
    Experimental assessments of species vulnerabilities to ocean acidification are rapidly increasing in number, yet the potential for short- and long-term adaptation to high CO2 by contemporary marine organisms remains poorly understood. We used a novel experimental approach that combined bi-weekly sampling of a wild, spawning fish population (Atlantic silverside Menidia menidia) with standardized offspring CO2 exposure experiments and parallel pH monitoring of a coastal ecosystem. We assessed whether offspring produced at different times of the spawning season (April to July) would be similarly susceptible to elevated (1100 µatm, pHNIST = 7.77) and high CO2 levels (2300 µatm, pHNIST = 7.47)....

  8. 1H NMR Metabolomics Reveals Contrasting Response by Male and Female Mussels Exposed to Reduced Seawater pH, Increased Temperature, and a Pathogen

    Ellis, Robert P; Spicer, John I; Byrne, Jonathan J; Sommer, Ulf; Viant, Mark R; White, Daniel; Widdicombe, Steve
    Human activities are fundamentally altering the chemistry of the world's oceans. Ocean acidification (OA) is occurring against a background of warming and an increasing occurrence of disease outbreaks, posing a significant threat to marine organisms, communities, and ecosystems. In the current study, 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the response of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, to a 90-day exposure to reduced seawater pH and increased temperature, followed by a subsequent pathogenic challenge. Analysis of the metabolome revealed significant differences between male and female organisms. Furthermore, males and females are shown to respond differently to environmental stress. While males...

  9. Effects of seawater pCO2 and temperature on shell growth, shell stability, condition and cellular stress of Western Baltic Sea Mytilus edulis (L.) and Arctica islandica (L.)

    Hiebenthal, Claas; Philipp, Eva E R; Eisenhauer, Anton; Wahl, Martin
    Acidification of the World's oceans may directly impact reproduction, performance and shell formation of marine calcifying organisms. In addition, since shell production is costly and stress in general draws on an organism's energy budget, shell growth and stability of bivalves should indirectly be affected by environmental stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of warming and acidification leads to increased physiological stress (lipofuscin accumulation and mortality) and affects the performance [shell growth, shell breaking force, condition index (Ci)] of young Mytilus edulis and Arctica islandica from the Baltic Sea. We cultured the bivalves in a...

  10. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala
    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site...

  11. Decline in Coccolithophore Diversity and Impact on Coccolith Morphogenesis Along a Natural CO2 Gradient

    Ziveri, Patrizia; Passaro, Marcello; Incarbona, Alessandro; Milazzo, Marco; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Hall-Spencer, Jason M
    A natural pH gradient caused by marine CO2 seeps off Vulcano Island (Italy) was used to assess the effects of ocean acidification on coccolithophores, which are abundant planktonic unicellular calcifiers. Such seeps are used as natural laboratories to study the effects of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems, since they cause long-term changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and pH, exposing the organisms to elevated CO2 concentrations and therefore mimicking future scenarios. Previous work at CO2 seeps has focused exclusively on benthic organisms. Here we show progressive depletion of 27 coccolithophore species, in terms of cell concentrations and diversity, along a calcite...

  12. Ocean acidification reduces the crystallographic control in juvenile mussel shells

    Fitzer, Susan C; Cusack, Maggie; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, N A
    Global climate change threatens the oceans as anthropogenic carbon dioxide causes ocean acidification and reduced carbonate saturation. Future projections indicate under saturation of aragonite, and potentially calcite, in the oceans by 2100. Calcifying organisms are those most at risk from such ocean acidification, as carbonate is vital in the biomineralisation of their calcium carbonate protective shells. This study highlights the importance of multi-generational studies to investigate how marine organisms can potentially adapt to future projected global climate change. Mytilus edulis is an economically important marine calcifier vulnerable to decreasing carbonate saturation as their shells comprise two calcium carbonate polymorphs: aragonite...

  13. Studying the effect of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity using acute amphipod toxicity test

    Basallote, M Dolores; De Orte, Manoela R; DelValls, T Angel; Riba, Inmaculada
    Carbon capture and storage is increasingly being considered one of the most efficient approaches to mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated with anthropogenic emissions. However, the environmental effects of potential CO2 leaks remain largely unknown. The amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis was exposed to environmental sediments collected in different areas of the Gulf of Cádiz and subjected to several pH treatments to study the effects of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity. After 10 days of exposure, the results obtained indicated that high lethal effects were associated with the lowest pH treatments, except for the Ría of Huelva sediment test....

  14. Size matters: plasticity in metabolic scaling shows body-size may modulate responses to climate change

    Carey, Nicholas; Sigwart, Julia D
    Variability in metabolic scaling in animals, the relationship between metabolic rate ( R) and body mass ( M), has been a source of debate and controversy for decades. R is proportional to Mb, the precise value of b much debated, but historically considered equal in all organisms. Recent metabolic theory, however, predicts b to vary among species with ecology and metabolic level, and may also vary within species under different abiotic conditions. Under climate change, most species will experience increased temperatures, and marine organisms will experience the additional stressor of decreased seawater pH ('ocean acidification'). Responses to these environmental changes...

  15. Effects of increased CO2 on fish gill and plasma proteome

    Bresolin de Souza, Karine; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Kling, Peter; Förlin, Lars; Sturve, Joachim; Hofmann, Gretchen E
    Ocean acidification and warming are both primarily caused by increased levels of atmospheric CO2, and marine organisms are exposed to these two stressors simultaneously. Although the effects of temperature on fish have been investigated over the last century, the long-term effects of moderate CO2 exposure and the combination of both stressors are almost entirely unknown. A proteomics approach was used to assess the adverse physiological and biochemical changes that may occur from the exposure to these two environmental stressors. We analysed gills and blood plasma of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) exposed to temperatures of 12°C (control) and 18°C (impaired growth)...

  16. Seasonality affects macroalgal community response to increases in pCO2

    Baggini, Cecilia; Salomidi, Maria; Voutsinas, Emanuela; Bray, Laura; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Hall-Spencer, Jason M
    Ocean acidification is expected to alter marine systems, but there is uncertainty about its effects due to the logistical difficulties of testing its large-scale and long-term effects. Responses of biological communities to increases in carbon dioxide can be assessed at CO2 seeps that cause chronic exposure to lower seawater pH over localised areas of seabed. Shifts in macroalgal communities have been described at temperate and tropical pCO2 seeps, but temporal and spatial replication of these observations is needed to strengthen confidence our predictions, especially because very few studies have been replicated between seasons. Here we describe the seawater chemistry and...

  17. Adaptation of a globally important coccolithophore to ocean warming and acidification

    Gibbin, Emma M; Putnam, H M; Davy, Simon K; Gates, Ruth D
    Regulating intracellular pH (pHi) is critical for optimising the metabolic activity of corals, yet mechanisms involved in pH regulation and the buffering capacity within coral cells are not well understood. Our study investigated how the presence of symbiotic dinoflagellates affects the response of pHi to pCO2-driven seawater acidification in cells isolated from Pocillopora damicornis. Using the fluorescent dye BCECF-AM, in conjunction with confocal microscopy, we simultaneously characterised the response of pHi in host coral cells and their dinoflagellate symbionts, in symbiotic and non-symbiotic states under saturating light, with and without the photosynthetic inhibitor DCMU. Each treatment was run under control...

  18. Adaptation of a globally important coccolithophore to ocean warming and acidification

    Schlüter, Lothar; Lohbeck, Kai T; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Gröger, Joachim P; Riebesell, Ulf; Reusch, Thorsten B H

  19. Nutrient availability affects the response of juvenile corals and the endosymbionts to ocean acidification

    Tanaka, Yasuaki; Iguchi, Akira; Nishida, Kozue; Inoue, Mayuri; Nakamura, Takashi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko
    The interactive effects of nutrient availability and ocean acidification on coral calcification were investigated using post-settlement juvenile corals of Acropora digitifera cultured in nutrient-sufficient or nutrient-depleted seawater for 4 d and then exposed to seawater with different partial pressure of carbon dioxide () conditions (38.8 or 92.5 Pa) for 10 d. After the nutrient pretreatment, corals in the high nutrient condition (HN corals) had a significantly higher abundance of endosymbiotic algae than did those in the low nutrient condition (LN corals). The high abundance of endosymbionts in HN corals was reduced as a result of subsequent seawater acidification, and the...

  20. Light-modulated responses of growth and photosynthetic performance to ocean acidification in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Li, Yahe; Xu, Juntian; Gao, Kunshan
    Ocean acidification (OA) due to atmospheric CO2 rise is expected to influence marine primary productivity. In order to investigate the interactive effects of OA and light changes on diatoms, we grew Phaeodactylum tricornutum, under ambient (390 ppmv; LC) and elevated CO2 (1000 ppmv; HC) conditions for 80 generations, and measured its physiological performance under different light levels (60 µmol/m**2/s, LL; 200 µmol/m**2/s, ML; 460 µmol/m**2/s, HL) for another 25 generations. The specific growth rate of the HC-grown cells was higher (about 12-18%) than that of the LC-grown ones, with the highest under the ML level. With increasing light levels, the...

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