Recursos de colección

IOE EPrints (18.097 recursos)

IOE EPrints is a repository that collects together the work of researchers and allows them to make their research outputs freely available over the web via a searchable "open access" database.

Mostrando recursos 61 - 80 de 81

  1. Opioid-Induced Constipation and Bowel Dysfunction: A Clinical Guideline

    Müller-Lissner, S; Bassotti, G; Coffin, B; Drewes, AM; Breivik, H; Eisenberg, E; Emmanuel, A; Laroche, F; Meissner, W; Morlion, B
    OBJECTIVE:  To formulate timely evidence-based guidelines for the management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. SETTING:  Constipation is a major untoward effect of opioids. Increasing prescription of opioids has correlated to increased incidence of opioid-induced constipation. However, the inhibitory effects of opioids are not confined to the colon, but also affect higher segments of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to the coining of the term "opioid-induced bowel dysfunction." METHODS:  A literature search was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, and EMBASE Classic, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Predefined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria were used to identify and categorize relevant papers. A...

  2. Constipation in older people: A consensus statement.

    Emmanuel, A; Mattace-Raso, F; Neri, MC; Petersen, KU; Rey, E; Rogers, J
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic constipation is a serious medical condition that affects 30%-40% of people over 60 years old. Although not normally life threatening, constipation reduces quality of life by the same extent as diabetes and osteoarthritis. There are currently no Europe-wide guidelines for treating constipation in older people, although there is some country-level guidance for the general population. We have evaluated the existing guidance and best clinical practice to improve the care of older people with constipation. METHOD: European healthcare professionals working in gastroenterology, geriatrics, nursing and pharmacology discussed the treatment of constipation in older people and reviewed existing guidance...

  3. A Review of Dominique Brancher, Quand l’esprit vient aux plantes. Botanique sensible et subversion libertine (XVIe-XVIIe siècles), Genève, Droz, « Les seuils de la modernité », n° 19, 2015.

    Moreau, IMM

  4. Internal anal sphincter: Clinical perspective

    Kumar, L; Emmanuel, A
    OBJECTIVE: To summarise current knowledge of Internal anal sphincter. BACKGROUND: The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is the involuntary ring of smooth muscle in the anal canal and is the major contributor to the resting pressure in the anus. Structural injury or functional weakness of the muscle results in passive incontinence of faeces and flatus. With advent of new assessment and treatment modalities IAS has become an important topic for surgeons. This review was undertaken to summarise our current knowledge of internal anal sphincter and highlight the areas that need further research. METHOD: The PubMed database was used to identify relevant...

  5. Path-Based Epidemic Spreading in Networks

    Chai, WK; Pavlou, G
    Conventional epidemic models assume omni-directional contact-based infection. This strongly associates the epidemic spreading process with node degrees. The role of the infection transmission medium is often neglected. In real-world networks, however, the infectious agent as the physical contagion medium usually flows from one node to another via specific directed routes (path-based infection). Here, we use continuous-time Markov chain analysis to model the influence of the infectious agent and routing paths on the spreading behavior by taking into account the state transitions of each node individually, rather than the mean aggregated behavior of all nodes. By applying a mean field approximation,...

  6. The northwick park examination of cognition: A brief cognitive assessment tool for use in acute stroke services

    Williams, PM; Johnson, C; Swan, S; Barber, C; Murphy, P; Devine, J; Bathula, R; Cohen, D; Crutch, SJ
    Background/Aims: Assessment of cognitive impairment following stroke forms an important part of diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation planning. However, none of the available and widely used tools were developed specifically for use in stroke services. Most screening tools were developed for dementia, and consequently are biased toward an evaluation of memory function, provide inadequate assessment of executive function and are mainly verbally administered, limiting their utility in aphasic patients. Methods: One hundred and sixty-six stroke patients admitted to a hyper acute stroke unit and a control sample of 100 healthy participants completed the Northwick Park Examination of Cognition (NPEC). The NPEC...

  7. Preparation, Structure, and Surface Chemistry of Ni-Au Single Atom Alloys

    Wang, ZT; Darby, MT; Therrien, AJ; El-Soda, M; Michaelides, A; Stamatakis, M; Sykes, ECH
    Ni/Au is an alloy combination that while, immiscible in the bulk, exhibits a rich array of surface geometries that may offer improved catalytic properties. It has been demonstrated that the addition of small amounts of Au to Ni tempers its reactivity and reduces coking during the steam reforming of methane. Herein, we report the first successful preparation of dilute Ni-Au alloys (up to 0.04 ML) in which small amounts of Ni are deposited on, and alloyed into, Au(111) using physical vapor deposition. We find that the surface structure can be tuned during deposition via control of the substrate temperature. By...

  8. The datafication of early years education and its impact upon pedagogy

    Roberts-Holmes, G; Bradbury, A
    This article raises important questions about whether the increasing control of early years education through performance data is genuinely a means for school improvement. This composite article, examines the pervasiveness of attainment data in early years education professional activity, its impact on early years teachers’ consciousness and identity and the narrowing and instrumentalisation of early years pedagogy. The authors argue that, rather than improving quality, the current obsession with performance data and its stretch down the age range has the potential to undermine the foundations for children’s personal development and learning. The article also points to the ways in which...

  9. Hybrid multi-tenant cache management for virtualized ISP networks

    Claeys, M; Tuncer, D; Famaey, J; Charalambides, M; Latre, S; Pavlou, G; De Turck, F
    In recent years, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have started to deploy Telco Content Delivery Networks (Telco CDNs) to reduce the pressure on their network resources. The deployment of Telco CDNs results in reduced ISP bandwidth utilization and improved service quality by bringing the content closer to the end-users. Furthermore, virtualization of storage and networking resources can open up new business models by enabling the ISP to simultaneously lease its Telco CDN infrastructure to multiple third parties. Previous work has shown that multi-tenant proactive resource allocation and content placement can significantly reduce the load on the ISP network. However, the performance...

  10. Current management of the gastrointestinal complications of systemic sclerosis.

    Emmanuel, A
    Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem autoimmune disorder that involves the gastrointestinal tract in more than 90% of patients. This involvement can extend from the mouth to the anus, with the oesophagus and anorectum most frequently affected. Gut complications result in a plethora of presentations that impair oral intake and faecal continence and, consequently, have an adverse effect on patient quality of life, resulting in referral to gastroenterologists. The cornerstones of gastrointestinal symptom management are to optimize symptom relief and monitor for complications, in particular anaemia and malabsorption. Early intervention in patients who develop these complications is critical to minimize disease...

  11. Age, Gender, and Women's Health and the Patient

    Houghton, LA; Heitkemper, M; Crowell, MD; Emmanuel, A; Halpert, A; McRoberts, JA; Toner, B
    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) often experience distress, reduced quality of life, a perceived lack of validation, and an unsatisfactory experience with health care providers. A health care provider can provide the patient with a framework in which to understand and legitimize their symptoms, remove self-doubt or blame, and identify factors that contribute to symptoms that the patient can influence or control. This framework is implemented with the consideration of important factors that impact FGIDs, such as gender, age, society, and the patient’s perspective. Although the majority of FGIDs, including globus, rumination syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, bloating, constipation, functional...

  12. Systematic review with meta-analysis: diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography for staging of fibrosis in people with alcoholic liver disease

    Pavlov, CS; Casazza, G; Nikolova, D; Tsochatzis, E; Gluud, C
    BACKGROUND: The progression of hepatic fibrosis into cirrhosis is a main prognostic factor for survival in people with alcoholic liver disease. The range of cut-off values characterising the stage of hepatic fibrosis seems to be dependent on the aetiology of the liver disease. AIMS: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography (the index test) for diagnosis of fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease when compared with liver biopsy (the reference standard), using the METAVIR scoring system. To establish the optimal cut-off values for the hepatic fibrosis stages. METHODS: We followed Cochrane Methodology for diagnostic test accuracy reviews. We identified 14...

  13. Tuberculosis-diagnosis, management, prevention, and control: summary of updated NICE guidance

    Hoppe, LE; Kettle, R; Eisenhut, M; Abubakar, I; Guideline Development Group,
    Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the UK remains high compared with other Western European countries. It disproportionately affects underserved groups, including homeless people, people in poor housing or affected by poverty, people with problem drug use, and people born in countries with a high incidence of TB. However, many cases are preventable with public health measures, and, when disease does occur, most people can be cured. This article summarises the updated recommendations on diagnosing, managing, and preventing TB from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). This guidance updates the 2011 clinical guideline3 and incorporates the public health guidance...

  14. Trigeminal neuralgia

    Zakrzewska, JM; Linskey, ME
    Trigeminal neuralgia is a rare, episodic facial pain that is unilateral, electric shock-like, and provoked by light touch. At first, it is often mistaken as a tooth problem owing to its presentation in the two lower branches of the trigeminal nerve. Patients may undergo unnecessary—and sometimes irreversible—dental treatment before the condition isrecognised. Initially, a small dose of an antiepileptic drug (such as carbamazepine) rather than any analgesic drug can provide excellent pain relief. However, up to 10% of patients will not respond to antiepileptic drugs,1 and in rare instances trigeminal neuralgia can be secondary to a brain tumour, multiple sclerosis, or vascular anomalies, which will be identified only on neuroimaging.2 If quality of life...

  15. Mechanical and Adhesion Properties of Composites

    Liaqat, S; Bozec, L; Ashley, P; Young, A

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors among people with severe mental illness in Italy: A cross-sectional comparative study

    Clerici, M; Bartoli, F; Carretta, D; Crocamo, C; Bebbington, P; Carra, G

  17. Multifunctional, self-assembling anionic peptide-lipid nanocomplexes for targeted siRNA delivery.

    Tagalakis, AD; Lee, DH; Bienemann, AS; Zhou, H; Munye, MM; Saraiva, L; McCarthy, D; Du, Z; Vink, CA; Maeshima, R; White, EA; Gustafsson, K; Hart, SL
    Formulations of cationic liposomes and polymers readily self-assemble by electrostatic interactions with siRNA to form cationic nanoparticles which achieve efficient transfection and silencing in vitro. However, the utility of cationic formulations in vivo is limited due to rapid clearance from the circulation, due to their association with serum proteins, as well as systemic and cellular toxicity. These problems may be overcome with anionic formulations but they provide challenges of self-assembly and transfection efficiency. We have developed anionic, siRNA nanocomplexes utilizing anionic PEGylated liposomes and cationic targeting peptides that overcome these problems. Biophysical measurements indicated that at optimal ratios of components, anionic PEGylated...

  18. The node of Ranvier in CNS pathology.

    Arancibia-Carcamo, IL; Attwell, D
    Healthy nodes of Ranvier are crucial for action potential propagation along myelinated axons, both in the central and in the peripheral nervous system. Surprisingly, the node of Ranvier has often been neglected when describing CNS disorders, with most pathologies classified simply as being due to neuronal defects in the grey matter or due to oligodendrocyte damage in the white matter. However, recent studies have highlighted changes that occur in pathological conditions at the node of Ranvier, and at the associated paranodal and juxtaparanodal regions where neurons and myelinating glial cells interact. Lengthening of the node of Ranvier, failure of the...

  19. Gender differences in intimate partner violence and psychiatric disorders in England: results from the 2007 adult psychiatric morbidity survey

    Jonas, S; Khalifeh, H; Bebbington, PE; McManus, S; Brugha, T; Meltzer, H; Howard, LM
    To assess the extent to which being a victim of intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with psychiatric disorders in men and women. A stratified multistage random sample was used in the third English psychiatric morbidity survey. Psychiatric disorders were measured by the Clinical Interview Schedule (Revised) and screening questionnaires. IPV was measured using British Crime Survey questions. 18.7% (95% CI 17.1–20.4; n = 595 of 3197) of men had experienced some form of IPV compared with 27.8% of women (95% CI 26.2–29.4; n = 1227 of 4206; p < 0.001). IPV was associated with all disorders measured (except eating disorders in...

  20. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 moderates recruitment of THP-1 cells to the endothelium by limiting histamine-invoked Weibel-Palade body exocytosis.

    Stevenson, NL; Martin-Martin, B; Freeman, J; Kriston-Vizi, J; Ketteler, R; Cutler, DF
    G protein-coupled receptors (GP-CRs) are a major family of signaling molecules, central to the regulation of inflammatory responses. Their activation upon agonist binding is attenuated by GPCR kinases (GRKs), which desensitize the receptors through phosphorylation. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2(GRK2) down-regulation in leukocytes has been closely linked to the progression of chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Because leukocytes must interact with the endothelium to infiltrate inflamed tissues, we hypothesized that GRK2 down-regulation in endothelial cells would also be pro-inflammatory.

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