Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 228

  1. The energizing nature of work engagement: Toward a new need-based theory of work motivation

    Green, Paul Isaac; Finkel, Eli J.; Fitzsimons, Grainne M.; Gino, Francesca
    We present theory suggesting that experiences at work that meet employees’ expectations of need fulfillment drive work engagement. Employees have needs (e.g., a desire to be authentic) and they also have expectations for how their job or their organization will fulfill them. We argue that experiences at work that confirm employees’ need fulfillment expectations yield a positive emotional state that is energizing, and that this energy is manifested in employees’ behaviors at work. Our theorizing draws on a review of the work engagement literature, in which we identify three core characteristics of work engagement: (a) a positive emotional state that...

  2. A Commitment Contract to Achieve Virologic Suppression in Poorly Adherent Patients with HIV/AIDS

    Alsan, Marcella; Beshears, John Leonard; Armstrong, Wendy S.; Choi, James J.; Madrian, Brigitte; Nguyen, Minh Ly T.; Del Rio, Carlos; Laibson, David I.; Marconi, Vincent C.
    Objective: Assess whether a commitment contract informed by behavioral economics leads to persistent virologic suppression among HIV-positive patients with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Design: Single-center pilot randomized clinical trial and a nonrandomized control group. Setting: Publicly funded HIV clinic in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Intervention: The study involved three arms. First, participants in the provider visit incentive (PVI) arm received $30 after attending each scheduled provider visit. Second, participants in the incentive choice arm were given a choice between the above arrangement and a commitment contract that made the $30 payment conditional on both attending the provider visit and meeting...

  3. Observability Increases the Demand for Commitment Devices

    Exley, Christine Linman; Naecker, Jeffrey K.
    Previous research often interprets the choice to restrict one’s future opportunity set as evidence for sophisticated time inconsistency. We propose an additional mechanism that may contribute to the demand for commitment technology: the desire to signal to others. We present a field experiment where participants can choose to give up money if they do not follow through with an action. When commitment choices are made public rather than kept private, we find significantly higher uptake rates.

  4. The Role of (Dis)similarity in (Mis)predicting Others’ Preferences

    Barasz, Kate; Kim, Tami; John, Leslie Kathryn
    Consumers readily indicate liking options that appear dissimilar—for example, enjoying both rustic lake vacations and chic city vacations or liking both scholarly documentary films and action-packed thrillers. However, when predicting other consumers’ tastes for the same items, people believe that a preference for one precludes enjoyment of the dissimilar other. Five studies show that people sensibly expect others to like similar products but erroneously expect others to dislike dissimilar ones (Studies 1 and 2). While people readily select dissimilar items for themselves (particularly if the dissimilar item is of higher quality than a similar one), they fail to predict this...

  5. What Is Privacy Worth?

    Acquisti, Alessandro; John, Leslie Kathryn; Loewenstein, George
    Understanding the value that individuals assign to the protection of their personal data is of great importance for business, law, and public policy. We use a field experiment informed by behavioral economics and decision research to investigate individual privacy valuations and find evidence of endowment and order effects. Individuals assigned markedly different values to the privacy of their data depending on (1) whether they were asked to consider how much money they would accept to disclose otherwise private information or how much they would pay to protect otherwise public information and (2) the order in which they considered different offers...

  6. Highly Viscous States Affect the Browning of Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Bateman, Adam P.; Zhang, Yue; Gong, Zhaoheng; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.
    Initially transparent organic particulate matter (PM) can become shades of light-absorbing brown via atmospheric particle-phase chemical reactions. The production of nitrogen-containing compounds is one important pathway for browning. Semisolid or solid physical states of organic PM might, however, have sufficiently slow diffusion of reactant molecules to inhibit browning reactions. Herein, organic PM of secondary organic material (SOM) derived from toluene, a common SOM precursor in anthropogenically affected environments, was exposed to ammonia at different values of relative humidity (RH). The production of light-absorbing organonitrogen imines from ammonia exposure, detected by mass spectrometry and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, was kinetically inhibited for RH...

  7. It doesn’t hurt to ask: Question-asking increases liking.

    Huang, Karen; Yeomans, Michael H; Brooks, Alison Wood; Minson, Julia A; Gino, Francesca
    Conversation is a fundamental human experience, one that is necessary to pursue intrapersonal and interpersonal goals across myriad contexts, relationships, and modes of communication. In the current research, we isolate the role of an understudied conversational behavior: question-asking. Across three studies of live dyadic conversations, we identify a robust and consistent relationship between question-asking and liking: people who ask more questions are better liked by their conversation partners. When people are instructed to ask more questions, they are perceived as higher in responsiveness, an interpersonal construct that captures listening, understanding, validation, and care. We measure responsiveness with an attitudinal measure...

  8. Who Gets Hired? The Importance of Competition among Applicants

    Lazear, Edward P.; Shaw, Kathryn L.; Stanton, Christopher Thomas
    Despite seeming to be an important requirement for hiring, the concept of a slot is absent from virtually all of economics. Macroeconomic studies of vacancies and search come closest, but the implications of slot-based hiring for individual worker outcomes has not been analyzed in a market context. A model of hiring into slots is presented in which job assignment is based on comparative advantage. Crucially, and consistent with almost all realistic hiring contexts, being hired and assigned to a job depends not only on one’s own skill but also on the skill of other applicants. The model has many implications,...

  9. Financing Risk and Innovation

    Nanda, Ramana; Rhodes-Kropf, Matthew
    We provide a model of investment into new ventures that demonstrates why some places, times, and industries should be associated with a greater degree of experimentation by investors. Investors respond to financing risk―a forecast of limited future funding―by modifying their focus to finance less innovative firms. Potential shocks to the supply of capital create the need for increased upfront financing, but this protection lowers the real option value of the new venture. In equilibrium, financing risk disproportionately impacts innovative ventures with the greatest real option value. We propose that extremely novel technologies may need "hot" financial markets to get through...

  10. Excusing Selfishness in Charitable Giving: The Role of Risk

    Exley, Christine Linman
    Decisions involving charitable giving often occur under the shadow of risk. A common finding is that potential donors give less when there is greater risk that their donation will have less impact. While this behavior could be fully rationalized by standard economic models, this paper shows that an additional mechanism is relevant: the use of risk as an excuse not to give. In a laboratory study, participants evaluate risky payoffs for themselves and risky payoffs for a charity. When their decisions do not involve tradeoffs between money for themselves and the charity, they respond very similarly to self risk and...

  11. Market mechanisms for newborn health in Nepal

    Lunze, Karsten; Dawkins, Rosie; Tapia, Abeezer; Anand, Sidharth; Chu, Michael; Bloom, David E.
    Background: In Nepal, hypothermia is a major risk factor for newborn survival, but the country’s public health care sector has insufficient capacity to improve newborn survival given the burden imposed by distance to health facilities and cost. Low-cost technology to provide newborn thermal care in resource-limited environments exists, but lacks effective distribution channels. This study aims to develop a private sector distribution model for dedicated newborn thermal care technology to ensure equitable access to thermal protection and ultimately improve newborn health in Nepal. Methods: We conducted a document analysis of newborn health policy in Nepal and a scoping literature review...

  12. Market mechanisms for newborn health in Nepal

    Lunze, Karsten; Dawkins, Rosie; Tapia, Abeezer; Anand, Sidharth; Chu, Michael; Bloom, David E.
    Background: In Nepal, hypothermia is a major risk factor for newborn survival, but the country’s public health care sector has insufficient capacity to improve newborn survival given the burden imposed by distance to health facilities and cost. Low-cost technology to provide newborn thermal care in resource-limited environments exists, but lacks effective distribution channels. This study aims to develop a private sector distribution model for dedicated newborn thermal care technology to ensure equitable access to thermal protection and ultimately improve newborn health in Nepal. Methods: We conducted a document analysis of newborn health policy in Nepal and a scoping literature review...

  13. The downside of downtime: The prevalence and work pacing consequences of idle time at work

    Brodsky, Andrew; Amabile, Teresa M.
    Although both media commentary and academic research have focused much attention on the dilemma of employees being too busy, this paper presents evidence of the opposite phenomenon, in which employees do not have enough work to fill their time and are left with hours of meaningless idle time each week. We conducted six studies that examine the prevalence and work pacing consequences of involuntary idle time. In a nationally representative cross-occupational survey (Study 1), we found that idle time occurs frequently across all occupational categories; we estimate that employers in the United States pay roughly $100 billion in wages for...

  14. Temporary sharing prompts unrestrained disclosures that leave lasting negative impressions

    Hofstetter, Reto; Rüppell, Roland; John, Leslie K.
    With the advent of social media, the impressions people make on others are based increasingly on their digital disclosures. However, digital disclosures can come back to haunt, making it challenging for people to manage the impressions they make. In field and online experiments in which participants take, share, and evaluate self-photographs (“selfies”), we show that, paradoxically, these challenges can be exacerbated by temporary-sharing media—technologies that prevent content from being stored permanently. Relative to permanent sharing, temporary sharing affects both whether and what people reveal. Specifically, temporary sharing increases compliance with the request to take a selfie (study 1) and induces...

  15. Repairing the Damage: The Effect of Price Knowledge and Gender on Auto Repair Price Quotes

    Busse, Meghan; Zettelmeyer, Florian; Israeli, Ayelet
    The authors investigate whether sellers treat consumers differently on the basis of how well informed consumers appear to be. They implement a large-scale field experiment in which callers request price quotes from automotive repair shops. The authors show that sellers alter their initial price quotes depending on whether consumers appear to be correctly informed, uninformed, or misinformed about market prices. The authors find that repair shops quote higher prices to callers who cite a higher benchmark price and that women are quoted higher prices than men when callers signal that they are uninformed about market prices. However, gender differences disappear...

  16. The Size of the LGBT Population and the Magnitude of Antigay Sentiment Are Substantially Underestimated

    Coffman, Katherine Baldiga; Coffman, Lucas Clayton; Ericson, Keith M. Marzilli
    We demonstrate that widely used measures of anti-gay sentiment and the size of the LGBT population are misestimated, likely substantially. In a series of online experiments using a large and diverse but non-representative sample, we compare estimates from the standard methodology of asking sensitive questions to measures from a “veiled” methodology that precludes inference about an individual but provides population estimates. The veiled method increased self-reports of anti-gay sentiment, particularly in the workplace: respondents were 67% more likely to disapprove of an openly gay manager when asked with a veil, and 71% more likely to say it should be legal...

  17. Exploring the duality between product and organizational architectures: A test of the “mirroring” hypothesis

    Maccormack, Alan D.; Baldwin, Carliss Young; Rusnak, John
    A variety of academic studies argue that a relationship exists between the structure of an organization and the design of the products that the organization produces. Specifically, products tend to "mirror" the architectures of the organizations in which they are developed. This dynamic occurs because the organization's governance structures, problem solving routines, and communication patterns constrain the space in which it searches for new solutions. Such a relationship is important, given that product architecture has been shown to be an important predictor of product performance, product variety, process flexibility, and even the path of industry evolution. We explore this relationship...

  18. Visualizing and Measuring Software Portfolio Architecture: A Power Utility Case

    Lagerström, Robert; Baldwin, Carliss Young; Maccormack, Alan D.
    In this paper, we test a Design Structure Matrix (DSM) based method for visualizing and measuring software portfolio architectures. Our data is drawn from a power utility company, comprising 192 software applications with 614 dependencies between them. We show that the architecture of this system can be classified as a “core-periphery” system, meaning it contains a single large dominant cluster of interconnected components (the “Core”) representing 40% of the system. The system has a propagation cost of 44% and architecture flow through of 93%. This case and these findings add another piece of the puzzle suggesting that the method could...

  19. Effective Leadership of Surgical Teams: A Mixed Methods Study of Surgeon Behaviors and Functions

    Stone, Juliana L.; Aveling, Emma-Louise; Frean, Molly; Shields, Morgan C.; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Singer, Sara J.
    Background: The importance of effective team leadership for achieving surgical excellence is widely accepted, but we understand less about the behaviors that achieve this goal. We studied cardiac surgical teams to identify leadership behaviors that best support surgical teamwork. Methods: We observed, surveyed, and interviewed cardiac surgical teams, including 7 surgeons and 116 team members, from September 2013 to April 2015. We documented 1,926 surgeon/team member interactions during 22 cases, coded them by behavior type and valence (ie, positive/negative/neutral), and characterized them by leadership function (conductor, elucidator, delegator, engagement facilitator, tone setter, being human, and safe space maker) to create...

  20. Should Governments Invest More in Nudging?

    Benartzi, Shlomo; Beshears, John; Milkman, Katherine L.; Sunstein, Cass R.; Thaler, Richard H.; Shankar, Maya; Tucker-Ray, Will; Congdon, William J.; Galing, Steven
    Governments are increasingly adopting behavioral science techniques for changing individual behavior in pursuit of policy objectives. The types of “nudge” interventions that governments are now adopting alter people’s decisions without coercion or significant changes to economic incentives. We calculated ratios of impact to cost for nudge interventions and for traditional policy tools, such as tax incentives and other financial inducements, and we found that nudge interventions often compare favorably with traditional interventions. We conclude that nudging is a valuable approach that should be used more often in conjunction with traditional policies, but more calculations are needed to determine the relative...

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