Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 216

  1. The downside of downtime: The prevalence and work pacing consequences of idle time at work

    Brodsky, Andrew; Amabile, Teresa M.
    Although both media commentary and academic research have focused much attention on the dilemma of employees being too busy, this paper presents evidence of the opposite phenomenon, in which employees do not have enough work to fill their time and are left with hours of meaningless idle time each week. We conducted six studies that examine the prevalence and work pacing consequences of involuntary idle time. In a nationally representative cross-occupational survey (Study 1), we found that idle time occurs frequently across all occupational categories; we estimate that employers in the United States pay roughly $100 billion in wages for...

  2. The downside of downtime: The prevalence and work pacing consequences of idle time at work

    Brodsky, Andrew; Amabile, Teresa M.
    Although both media commentary and academic research have focused much attention on the dilemma of employees being too busy, this paper presents evidence of the opposite phenomenon, in which employees do not have enough work to fill their time and are left with hours of meaningless idle time each week. We conducted six studies that examine the prevalence and work pacing consequences of involuntary idle time. In a nationally representative cross-occupational survey (Study 1), we found that idle time occurs frequently across all occupational categories; we estimate that employers in the United States pay roughly $100 billion in wages for...

  3. Temporary sharing prompts unrestrained disclosures that leave lasting negative impressions

    Hofstetter, Reto; Rüppell, Roland; John, Leslie K.
    With the advent of social media, the impressions people make on others are based increasingly on their digital disclosures. However, digital disclosures can come back to haunt, making it challenging for people to manage the impressions they make. In field and online experiments in which participants take, share, and evaluate self-photographs (“selfies”), we show that, paradoxically, these challenges can be exacerbated by temporary-sharing media—technologies that prevent content from being stored permanently. Relative to permanent sharing, temporary sharing affects both whether and what people reveal. Specifically, temporary sharing increases compliance with the request to take a selfie (study 1) and induces...

  4. Repairing the Damage: The Effect of Price Knowledge and Gender on Auto Repair Price Quotes

    Busse, Meghan; Zettelmeyer, Florian; Israeli, Ayelet
    The authors investigate whether sellers treat consumers differently on the basis of how well informed consumers appear to be. They implement a large-scale field experiment in which callers request price quotes from automotive repair shops. The authors show that sellers alter their initial price quotes depending on whether consumers appear to be correctly informed, uninformed, or misinformed about market prices. The authors find that repair shops quote higher prices to callers who cite a higher benchmark price and that women are quoted higher prices than men when callers signal that they are uninformed about market prices. However, gender differences disappear...

  5. Repairing the Damage: The Effect of Price Knowledge and Gender on Auto Repair Price Quotes

    Busse, Meghan; Zettelmeyer, Florian; Israeli, Ayelet
    The authors investigate whether sellers treat consumers differently on the basis of how well informed consumers appear to be. They implement a large-scale field experiment in which callers request price quotes from automotive repair shops. The authors show that sellers alter their initial price quotes depending on whether consumers appear to be correctly informed, uninformed, or misinformed about market prices. The authors find that repair shops quote higher prices to callers who cite a higher benchmark price and that women are quoted higher prices than men when callers signal that they are uninformed about market prices. However, gender differences disappear...

  6. The Size of the LGBT Population and the Magnitude of Antigay Sentiment Are Substantially Underestimated

    Coffman, Katherine Baldiga; Coffman, Lucas Clayton; Ericson, Keith M. Marzilli
    We demonstrate that widely used measures of anti-gay sentiment and the size of the LGBT population are misestimated, likely substantially. In a series of online experiments using a large and diverse but non-representative sample, we compare estimates from the standard methodology of asking sensitive questions to measures from a “veiled” methodology that precludes inference about an individual but provides population estimates. The veiled method increased self-reports of anti-gay sentiment, particularly in the workplace: respondents were 67% more likely to disapprove of an openly gay manager when asked with a veil, and 71% more likely to say it should be legal...

  7. Exploring the duality between product and organizational architectures: A test of the “mirroring” hypothesis

    Maccormack, Alan D.; Baldwin, Carliss Young; Rusnak, John
    A variety of academic studies argue that a relationship exists between the structure of an organization and the design of the products that the organization produces. Specifically, products tend to "mirror" the architectures of the organizations in which they are developed. This dynamic occurs because the organization's governance structures, problem solving routines, and communication patterns constrain the space in which it searches for new solutions. Such a relationship is important, given that product architecture has been shown to be an important predictor of product performance, product variety, process flexibility, and even the path of industry evolution. We explore this relationship...

  8. Visualizing and Measuring Software Portfolio Architecture: A Power Utility Case

    Lagerström, Robert; Baldwin, Carliss Young; Maccormack, Alan D.
    In this paper, we test a Design Structure Matrix (DSM) based method for visualizing and measuring software portfolio architectures. Our data is drawn from a power utility company, comprising 192 software applications with 614 dependencies between them. We show that the architecture of this system can be classified as a “core-periphery” system, meaning it contains a single large dominant cluster of interconnected components (the “Core”) representing 40% of the system. The system has a propagation cost of 44% and architecture flow through of 93%. This case and these findings add another piece of the puzzle suggesting that the method could...

  9. Effective Leadership of Surgical Teams: A Mixed Methods Study of Surgeon Behaviors and Functions

    Stone, Juliana L.; Aveling, Emma-Louise; Frean, Molly; Shields, Morgan C.; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Singer, Sara J.
    Background: The importance of effective team leadership for achieving surgical excellence is widely accepted, but we understand less about the behaviors that achieve this goal. We studied cardiac surgical teams to identify leadership behaviors that best support surgical teamwork. Methods: We observed, surveyed, and interviewed cardiac surgical teams, including 7 surgeons and 116 team members, from September 2013 to April 2015. We documented 1,926 surgeon/team member interactions during 22 cases, coded them by behavior type and valence (ie, positive/negative/neutral), and characterized them by leadership function (conductor, elucidator, delegator, engagement facilitator, tone setter, being human, and safe space maker) to create...

  10. Should Governments Invest More in Nudging?

    Benartzi, Shlomo; Beshears, John; Milkman, Katherine L.; Sunstein, Cass R.; Thaler, Richard H.; Shankar, Maya; Tucker-Ray, Will; Congdon, William J.; Galing, Steven
    Governments are increasingly adopting behavioral science techniques for changing individual behavior in pursuit of policy objectives. The types of “nudge” interventions that governments are now adopting alter people’s decisions without coercion or significant changes to economic incentives. We calculated ratios of impact to cost for nudge interventions and for traditional policy tools, such as tax incentives and other financial inducements, and we found that nudge interventions often compare favorably with traditional interventions. We conclude that nudging is a valuable approach that should be used more often in conjunction with traditional policies, but more calculations are needed to determine the relative...

  11. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak; Poliquin, Christopher William
    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a “cooling off” period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that...

  12. Deep Help in Complex Project Work: Guiding and Path-Clearing Across Difficult Terrain

    Fisher, Colin M.; Pillemer, Julianna; Amabile, Teresa M.
    How do teams working on complex projects get the help they need? Our qualitative investigation of the help provided to project teams at a prominent design firm revealed two distinct helping processes, both characterized by deep, sustained engagement that far exceeds the brief interactions described in the helping literature. Such deep help consisted of (1) guiding a team through a difficult juncture by working with its members in several prolonged, tightly clustered sessions, or (2) path-clearing by helping a team address a persistent deficit via briefer, intermittent sessions throughout a project’s life. We present a model theorizing these processes, which...

  13. Habit Formation and Rational Addiction: A Field Experiment in Handwashing

    Hussam, Reshmaan Nahar; Rabbani, Atonu; Reggiani, Giovanni; Rigol, Natalia
    Regular handwashing with soap is believed to have substantial impacts on child health in the developing world. Most handwashing campaigns have failed, however, to establish and maintain a regular practice of handwashing. Motivated by scholarship that suggests handwashing is habitual, we design, implement and analyze a randomized field experiment aimed to test the main predictions of the rational addiction model. To reliably measure handwashing, we develop and produce a novel soap dispenser, within which a time-stamped sensor is embedded. We randomize distribution of these soap dispensers as well as provision of monitoring (feedback reports) or monitoring and incentives for daily...

  14. Habit Formation and Rational Addiction: A Field Experiment in Handwashing

    Hussam, Reshmaan Nahar; Rabbani, Atonu; Reggiani, Giovanni; Rigol, Natalia
    Regular handwashing with soap is believed to have substantial impacts on child health in the developing world. Most handwashing campaigns have failed, however, to establish and maintain a regular practice of handwashing. Motivated by scholarship that suggests handwashing is habitual, we design, implement and analyze a randomized field experiment aimed to test the main predictions of the rational addiction model. To reliably measure handwashing, we develop and produce a novel soap dispenser, within which a time-stamped sensor is embedded. We randomize distribution of these soap dispensers as well as provision of monitoring (feedback reports) or monitoring and incentives for daily...

  15. Marry Rich, Poor Girl: Investigating the Effects of Sex Selection on Intrahousehold Outcomes in India

    Hussam, Reshmaan Nahar
    Sex ratios at birth have risen steadily over the last three decades across much of the developing world. Many attribute this rise to improved access to sex selection technologies such as ultrasound since 1980. This study seeks to understand the effect of access to sex selection technologies such as ultrasound, and consequently skewed sex ratios, on the marriage market and intrahousehold outcomes of females in India. Existing economic theory and literature view male-skewed populations as a boon to the marital prospects of females. However, Edlund (1999) proposes an (as yet untested) theory that, in environments where hypergamy is practiced and...

  16. Marry Rich, Poor Girl: Investigating the Effects of Sex Selection on Intrahousehold Outcomes in India

    Hussam, Reshmaan Nahar
    Sex ratios at birth have risen steadily over the last three decades across much of the developing world. Many attribute this rise to improved access to sex selection technologies such as ultrasound since 1980. This study seeks to understand the effect of access to sex selection technologies such as ultrasound, and consequently skewed sex ratios, on the marriage market and intrahousehold outcomes of females in India. Existing economic theory and literature view male-skewed populations as a boon to the marital prospects of females. However, Edlund (1999) proposes an (as yet untested) theory that, in environments where hypergamy is practiced and...

  17. Landing the First Job: The Value of Intermediaries in Online Hiring

    Stanton, Christopher Thomas; Thomas, Catherine
    Online markets for remote labour services allow workers and firms to contract with each other directly. Despite this, intermediaries—called outsourcing agencies—have emerged in these markets. This article shows that agencies signal to employers that inexperienced workers are high quality. Workers affiliated with an agency have substantially higher job-finding probabilities and wages at the beginning of their careers compared to similar workers without an agency affiliation. This advantage declines after high-quality non-affiliated workers receive good public feedback scores. The results indicate that intermediaries have arisen endogenously to permit a more efficient allocation of workers to jobs.

  18. Landing the First Job: The Value of Intermediaries in Online Hiring

    Stanton, Christopher Thomas; Thomas, Catherine
    Online markets for remote labour services allow workers and firms to contract with each other directly. Despite this, intermediaries—called outsourcing agencies—have emerged in these markets. This article shows that agencies signal to employers that inexperienced workers are high quality. Workers affiliated with an agency have substantially higher job-finding probabilities and wages at the beginning of their careers compared to similar workers without an agency affiliation. This advantage declines after high-quality non-affiliated workers receive good public feedback scores. The results indicate that intermediaries have arisen endogenously to permit a more efficient allocation of workers to jobs.

  19. Governance through Shame and Aspiration: Index Creation and Corporate Behavior in Japan

    Chattopadhyay, Akash; Shaffer, Matthew D.; Wang, Changyi Chang-Yi
    We study how a stock index can affect corporate behavior by serving as a source of prestige. After decades of low corporate profitability in Japan, the JPX-Nikkei400 index was introduced in 2014. The index selected 400 large and liquid firms deemed to be best-performing in terms of profitability annually; membership was considered highly prestigious. We document that index-inclusion incentives led firms to increase return on equity (ROE) proportionally by 35% on average, through higher margins, efficiency, or shareholder payouts, depending on where firms had “slack,” but not through changing investments or accruals. These incentives are driven by the prestige associated...

  20. Private Equity and Financial Fragility during the Crisis

    Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Joshua; Mezzanotti, Filippo
    Do private equity firms contribute to financial fragility during economic crises? We find that during the 2008 financial crisis, PE-backed companies increased investments relative to their peers, while also experiencing greater equity and debt inflows. The effects are stronger among financially constrained companies and those whose private equity investors had more resources at the onset of the crisis. PE-backed companies consequentially experienced higher asset growth and increased market share during the crisis.

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