Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 223

  1. Highly Viscous States Affect the Browning of Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Bateman, Adam P.; Zhang, Yue; Gong, Zhaoheng; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.
    Initially transparent organic particulate matter (PM) can become shades of light-absorbing brown via atmospheric particle-phase chemical reactions. The production of nitrogen-containing compounds is one important pathway for browning. Semisolid or solid physical states of organic PM might, however, have sufficiently slow diffusion of reactant molecules to inhibit browning reactions. Herein, organic PM of secondary organic material (SOM) derived from toluene, a common SOM precursor in anthropogenically affected environments, was exposed to ammonia at different values of relative humidity (RH). The production of light-absorbing organonitrogen imines from ammonia exposure, detected by mass spectrometry and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, was kinetically inhibited for RH...

  2. It doesn’t hurt to ask: Question-asking increases liking.

    Huang, Karen; Yeomans, Michael H; Brooks, Alison Wood; Minson, Julia A; Gino, Francesca
    Conversation is a fundamental human experience, one that is necessary to pursue intrapersonal and interpersonal goals across myriad contexts, relationships, and modes of communication. In the current research, we isolate the role of an understudied conversational behavior: question-asking. Across three studies of live dyadic conversations, we identify a robust and consistent relationship between question-asking and liking: people who ask more questions are better liked by their conversation partners. When people are instructed to ask more questions, they are perceived as higher in responsiveness, an interpersonal construct that captures listening, understanding, validation, and care. We measure responsiveness with an attitudinal measure...

  3. Who Gets Hired? The Importance of Competition among Applicants

    Lazear, Edward P.; Shaw, Kathryn L.; Stanton, Christopher Thomas
    Despite seeming to be an important requirement for hiring, the concept of a slot is absent from virtually all of economics. Macroeconomic studies of vacancies and search come closest, but the implications of slot-based hiring for individual worker outcomes has not been analyzed in a market context. A model of hiring into slots is presented in which job assignment is based on comparative advantage. Crucially, and consistent with almost all realistic hiring contexts, being hired and assigned to a job depends not only on one’s own skill but also on the skill of other applicants. The model has many implications,...

  4. Financing Risk and Innovation

    Nanda, Ramana; Rhodes-Kropf, Matthew
    We provide a model of investment into new ventures that demonstrates why some places, times, and industries should be associated with a greater degree of experimentation by investors. Investors respond to financing risk―a forecast of limited future funding―by modifying their focus to finance less innovative firms. Potential shocks to the supply of capital create the need for increased upfront financing, but this protection lowers the real option value of the new venture. In equilibrium, financing risk disproportionately impacts innovative ventures with the greatest real option value. We propose that extremely novel technologies may need "hot" financial markets to get through...

  5. Excusing Selfishness in Charitable Giving: The Role of Risk

    Exley, Christine Linman
    Decisions involving charitable giving often occur under the shadow of risk. A common finding is that potential donors give less when there is greater risk that their donation will have less impact. While this behavior could be fully rationalized by standard economic models, this paper shows that an additional mechanism is relevant: the use of risk as an excuse not to give. In a laboratory study, participants evaluate risky payoffs for themselves and risky payoffs for a charity. When their decisions do not involve tradeoffs between money for themselves and the charity, they respond very similarly to self risk and...

  6. Market mechanisms for newborn health in Nepal

    Lunze, Karsten; Dawkins, Rosie; Tapia, Abeezer; Anand, Sidharth; Chu, Michael; Bloom, David E.
    Background: In Nepal, hypothermia is a major risk factor for newborn survival, but the country’s public health care sector has insufficient capacity to improve newborn survival given the burden imposed by distance to health facilities and cost. Low-cost technology to provide newborn thermal care in resource-limited environments exists, but lacks effective distribution channels. This study aims to develop a private sector distribution model for dedicated newborn thermal care technology to ensure equitable access to thermal protection and ultimately improve newborn health in Nepal. Methods: We conducted a document analysis of newborn health policy in Nepal and a scoping literature review...

  7. The downside of downtime: The prevalence and work pacing consequences of idle time at work

    Brodsky, Andrew; Amabile, Teresa M.
    Although both media commentary and academic research have focused much attention on the dilemma of employees being too busy, this paper presents evidence of the opposite phenomenon, in which employees do not have enough work to fill their time and are left with hours of meaningless idle time each week. We conducted six studies that examine the prevalence and work pacing consequences of involuntary idle time. In a nationally representative cross-occupational survey (Study 1), we found that idle time occurs frequently across all occupational categories; we estimate that employers in the United States pay roughly $100 billion in wages for...

  8. The downside of downtime: The prevalence and work pacing consequences of idle time at work

    Brodsky, Andrew; Amabile, Teresa M.
    Although both media commentary and academic research have focused much attention on the dilemma of employees being too busy, this paper presents evidence of the opposite phenomenon, in which employees do not have enough work to fill their time and are left with hours of meaningless idle time each week. We conducted six studies that examine the prevalence and work pacing consequences of involuntary idle time. In a nationally representative cross-occupational survey (Study 1), we found that idle time occurs frequently across all occupational categories; we estimate that employers in the United States pay roughly $100 billion in wages for...

  9. Temporary sharing prompts unrestrained disclosures that leave lasting negative impressions

    Hofstetter, Reto; Rüppell, Roland; John, Leslie K.
    With the advent of social media, the impressions people make on others are based increasingly on their digital disclosures. However, digital disclosures can come back to haunt, making it challenging for people to manage the impressions they make. In field and online experiments in which participants take, share, and evaluate self-photographs (“selfies”), we show that, paradoxically, these challenges can be exacerbated by temporary-sharing media—technologies that prevent content from being stored permanently. Relative to permanent sharing, temporary sharing affects both whether and what people reveal. Specifically, temporary sharing increases compliance with the request to take a selfie (study 1) and induces...

  10. Repairing the Damage: The Effect of Price Knowledge and Gender on Auto Repair Price Quotes

    Busse, Meghan; Zettelmeyer, Florian; Israeli, Ayelet
    The authors investigate whether sellers treat consumers differently on the basis of how well informed consumers appear to be. They implement a large-scale field experiment in which callers request price quotes from automotive repair shops. The authors show that sellers alter their initial price quotes depending on whether consumers appear to be correctly informed, uninformed, or misinformed about market prices. The authors find that repair shops quote higher prices to callers who cite a higher benchmark price and that women are quoted higher prices than men when callers signal that they are uninformed about market prices. However, gender differences disappear...

  11. Repairing the Damage: The Effect of Price Knowledge and Gender on Auto Repair Price Quotes

    Busse, Meghan; Zettelmeyer, Florian; Israeli, Ayelet
    The authors investigate whether sellers treat consumers differently on the basis of how well informed consumers appear to be. They implement a large-scale field experiment in which callers request price quotes from automotive repair shops. The authors show that sellers alter their initial price quotes depending on whether consumers appear to be correctly informed, uninformed, or misinformed about market prices. The authors find that repair shops quote higher prices to callers who cite a higher benchmark price and that women are quoted higher prices than men when callers signal that they are uninformed about market prices. However, gender differences disappear...

  12. The Size of the LGBT Population and the Magnitude of Antigay Sentiment Are Substantially Underestimated

    Coffman, Katherine Baldiga; Coffman, Lucas Clayton; Ericson, Keith M. Marzilli
    We demonstrate that widely used measures of anti-gay sentiment and the size of the LGBT population are misestimated, likely substantially. In a series of online experiments using a large and diverse but non-representative sample, we compare estimates from the standard methodology of asking sensitive questions to measures from a “veiled” methodology that precludes inference about an individual but provides population estimates. The veiled method increased self-reports of anti-gay sentiment, particularly in the workplace: respondents were 67% more likely to disapprove of an openly gay manager when asked with a veil, and 71% more likely to say it should be legal...

  13. Exploring the duality between product and organizational architectures: A test of the “mirroring” hypothesis

    Maccormack, Alan D.; Baldwin, Carliss Young; Rusnak, John
    A variety of academic studies argue that a relationship exists between the structure of an organization and the design of the products that the organization produces. Specifically, products tend to "mirror" the architectures of the organizations in which they are developed. This dynamic occurs because the organization's governance structures, problem solving routines, and communication patterns constrain the space in which it searches for new solutions. Such a relationship is important, given that product architecture has been shown to be an important predictor of product performance, product variety, process flexibility, and even the path of industry evolution. We explore this relationship...

  14. Visualizing and Measuring Software Portfolio Architecture: A Power Utility Case

    Lagerström, Robert; Baldwin, Carliss Young; Maccormack, Alan D.
    In this paper, we test a Design Structure Matrix (DSM) based method for visualizing and measuring software portfolio architectures. Our data is drawn from a power utility company, comprising 192 software applications with 614 dependencies between them. We show that the architecture of this system can be classified as a “core-periphery” system, meaning it contains a single large dominant cluster of interconnected components (the “Core”) representing 40% of the system. The system has a propagation cost of 44% and architecture flow through of 93%. This case and these findings add another piece of the puzzle suggesting that the method could...

  15. Effective Leadership of Surgical Teams: A Mixed Methods Study of Surgeon Behaviors and Functions

    Stone, Juliana L.; Aveling, Emma-Louise; Frean, Molly; Shields, Morgan C.; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Singer, Sara J.
    Background: The importance of effective team leadership for achieving surgical excellence is widely accepted, but we understand less about the behaviors that achieve this goal. We studied cardiac surgical teams to identify leadership behaviors that best support surgical teamwork. Methods: We observed, surveyed, and interviewed cardiac surgical teams, including 7 surgeons and 116 team members, from September 2013 to April 2015. We documented 1,926 surgeon/team member interactions during 22 cases, coded them by behavior type and valence (ie, positive/negative/neutral), and characterized them by leadership function (conductor, elucidator, delegator, engagement facilitator, tone setter, being human, and safe space maker) to create...

  16. Should Governments Invest More in Nudging?

    Benartzi, Shlomo; Beshears, John; Milkman, Katherine L.; Sunstein, Cass R.; Thaler, Richard H.; Shankar, Maya; Tucker-Ray, Will; Congdon, William J.; Galing, Steven
    Governments are increasingly adopting behavioral science techniques for changing individual behavior in pursuit of policy objectives. The types of “nudge” interventions that governments are now adopting alter people’s decisions without coercion or significant changes to economic incentives. We calculated ratios of impact to cost for nudge interventions and for traditional policy tools, such as tax incentives and other financial inducements, and we found that nudge interventions often compare favorably with traditional interventions. We conclude that nudging is a valuable approach that should be used more often in conjunction with traditional policies, but more calculations are needed to determine the relative...

  17. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak; Poliquin, Christopher William
    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a “cooling off” period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that...

  18. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak; Poliquin, Christopher William
    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a “cooling off” period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that...

  19. Deep Help in Complex Project Work: Guiding and Path-Clearing Across Difficult Terrain

    Fisher, Colin M.; Pillemer, Julianna; Amabile, Teresa M.
    How do teams working on complex projects get the help they need? Our qualitative investigation of the help provided to project teams at a prominent design firm revealed two distinct helping processes, both characterized by deep, sustained engagement that far exceeds the brief interactions described in the helping literature. Such deep help consisted of (1) guiding a team through a difficult juncture by working with its members in several prolonged, tightly clustered sessions, or (2) path-clearing by helping a team address a persistent deficit via briefer, intermittent sessions throughout a project’s life. We present a model theorizing these processes, which...

  20. Habit Formation and Rational Addiction: A Field Experiment in Handwashing

    Hussam, Reshmaan Nahar; Rabbani, Atonu; Reggiani, Giovanni; Rigol, Natalia
    Regular handwashing with soap is believed to have substantial impacts on child health in the developing world. Most handwashing campaigns have failed, however, to establish and maintain a regular practice of handwashing. Motivated by scholarship that suggests handwashing is habitual, we design, implement and analyze a randomized field experiment aimed to test the main predictions of the rational addiction model. To reliably measure handwashing, we develop and produce a novel soap dispenser, within which a time-stamped sensor is embedded. We randomize distribution of these soap dispensers as well as provision of monitoring (feedback reports) or monitoring and incentives for daily...

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