Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 133

  1. Adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes complicated by psychosis among pregnant women in the United States

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Avillach, Paul; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Williams, Michelle A.
    Background: Adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes among women with psychosis, particularly affective psychosis, has rarely been studied at the population level. We aimed to assess the risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes among women with psychosis (schizophrenia, affective psychosis, and other psychoses). Methods: From the 2007 – 2012 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, 23,507,597 delivery hospitalizations were identified. From the same hospitalization, International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes were used to identify maternal psychosis and outcomes. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of psychosis at delivery was 698.76 per...

  2. Screening pregnant women for suicidal behavior in electronic medical records: diagnostic codes vs. clinical notes processed by natural language processing

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Gelaye, Bizu; Finan, Sean; Avillach, Paul; Smoller, Jordan W.; Cai, Tianxi; Williams, Michelle A.
    Background: We examined the comparative performance of structured, diagnostic codes vs. natural language processing (NLP) of unstructured text for screening suicidal behavior among pregnant women in electronic medical records (EMRs). Methods: Women aged 10–64 years with at least one diagnostic code related to pregnancy or delivery (N = 275,843) from Partners HealthCare were included as our “datamart.” Diagnostic codes related to suicidal behavior were applied to the datamart to screen women for suicidal behavior. Among women without any diagnostic codes related to suicidal behavior (n = 273,410), 5880 women were randomly sampled, of whom 1120 had at least one mention...

  3. Implementando Politicas de Desarrollo Productivo En Chiapas: Marco Institucional

    Sole, Albert; Campante, Filipe Robin
    Este documento propone un nuevo marco institucional para la implementación de políticas de desarrollo productivo (PDP) en Chiapas, con el objetivo de impulsar un cambio estructural de la economía chiapaneca en búsqueda de mayor diversidad y complejidad productiva. La primera sección contiene un diagnóstico del contexto actual de PDP en el Estado. Se observa un bajo grado de implementación y ejecución, pese a la abundancia de análisis, prescripciones e iniciativas de apoyo a la empresa privada. Esta situación no se puede atribuir a la escasez de recursos. Aunque a nivel estatal no se dispone de muchos recursos para PDP, sí los...

  4. Feelings and Consumer Decision Making: Extending the Appraisal-Tendency Framework

    Lerner, Jennifer; Han, Seunghee; Keltner, Dacher
    This article presents the Appraisal Tendency Framework (ATF) (Lerner & Keltner, 2000, 2001; Lerner & Tiedens, 2006) as a basis for predicting the influence of specific emotions on consumer decision making. In particular, the ATF addresses how and why specific emotions carry over from past situations to color future judgments and choices. After reviewing the main assumptions and the five main principles of the framework, two streams of research are presented. One stream addresses emotional carry-over effects on the assessment of risk; the other addresses carry-over effects on the assessment of monetary value. Because risk assessment and value assessment are...

  5. Electoral Competition for Outsiders, Conservative Power, and Restrictive Social Policy in Mexico

    Garay, Candelaria Candelaria
    Throughout the twentieth century, much of the population in Latin America lacked access to social protection. Since the 1990s, however, social policy for millions of outsiders - rural, informal, and unemployed workers and dependents - has been expanded dramatically. Social Policy Expansion in Latin America shows that the critical factors driving expansion are electoral competition for the vote of outsiders and social mobilization for policy change. The balance of partisan power and the involvement of social movements in policy design explain cross-national variation in policy models, in terms of benefit levels, coverage, and civil society participation in implementation. The book...

  6. Political Institutions and Economic Growth in Africa

    Bates, Robert H.
    The purposes of this paper include (a) a review of the literature on the so-called “African dummy;” (b) an explication of the system GMM method of estimation, by which Hoeffler (2002) shows the “Africa dummy” to be an artifact of the application of inappropriate estimation techniques; and (c) an effort to employ this technique to measure the impact of political variables – measures of stability, regime type, and violence – on economic growth in Africa.

  7. Institutions and Development

    Bates, Robert H.
    In late-century Africa, domestic reformers and the international community prescribed political reform as a means for securing policy reform. They sought to put an end to single party and military government and introduced multiparty politics. Using a principal agent framework, the author assesses the logical validity of these efforts. And employing a game theoretic approach, he traces the impact of political reform on political stability. He employs a panel of data from both African and global samples to measure the impact of reform on the economics and politics of Africa. The evidence suggests that reform has measurably curtailed the opportunistic...

  8. Misery Is Not Miserly

    Cryder, Cynthia E.; Lerner, Jennifer; Gross, James J.; Dahl, Ronald E.
    Misery is not miserly: sadness increases the amount of money decision makers give up to acquire a commodity (Lerner, Small, & Loewenstein, 2004). The present research investigated when and why the “misery-is-not-miserly” effect occurs. Drawing on William James’s (1890) concept of the material self, we tested a model specifying relationships among sadness, self-focus, and the amount of money decision makers spend. Consistent with our Jamesian hypothesis, results revealed that self-focus both moderates and mediates the effect of sadness on spending. Results were consistent across males and females. Because the study used real commodities and real money, results hold implications for...

  9. Trust your gut or think carefully? Examining whether an intuitive, versus a systematic, mode of thought produces greater empathic accuracy.

    Ma-Kellams, Christine; Lerner, Jennifer
    Cultivating successful personal and professional relationships requires the ability to accurately infer the feelings of others – i.e., to be empathically accurate. Some are better than others at this, which may be explained by mode of thought, among other factors. Specifically, it may be that empathically-accurate people tend to rely more on intuitive rather than systematic thought when perceiving others. Alternatively, it may be the reverse – that systematic thought increases accuracy. In order to determine which view receives empirical support, we conducted four studies examining relations between mode of thought (intuitive versus systematic) and empathic accuracy. Study 1 revealed...

  10. Review of Machiavelli on Liberty & Conflict, editors, David Johnston, et al.

    Winston, Kenneth I.
    This collection of essays began with a conference at Columbia University celebrating the 500th anniversary of the publication of Machiavelli's The Prince.

  11. The labor of division: returns to compulsory high school math coursework.

    Goodman, Joshua Samuel
    Despite great focus on and public investment in STEM education, little causal evidence connects quantitative coursework to students’ economic outcomes. I show that state changes in minimum high school math requirements substantially increase black students’ completed math coursework and their later earnings. The marginal student’s return to an additional math course is 10 percent, roughly half the return to a year of high school, and is partly explained by a shift toward more cognitively skilled occupations. Whites’ coursework and earnings are unaffected. Rigorous standards for quantitative coursework can close meaningful portions of racial gaps in economic outcomes.

  12. Can Online Delivery Increase Access to Education?

    Goodman, Joshua Samuel; Melkers, Julia; Pallais, Amanda D.
    Though online technology has generated excitement about its potential to increase access to education, most research has focused on comparing student performance across online and inperson formats. We provide the first evidence that online education affects the number of people pursuing formal education. We study Georgia Tech’s Online M.S. in Computer Science, the earliest model to combine the inexpensive nature of online education with a highly-ranked degree program. Regression discontinuity estimates exploiting an admissions threshold unknown to applicants show that access to this online option substantially increases overall enrollment in formal education, expanding the pool of students rather than substituting...

  13. A framework for learning about improvement: embedded implementation and evaluation design to optimize learning

    Barry, Danika; Kimble, Leighann E; Nambiar, Bejoy; Parry, Gareth; Jha, Ashish; Chattu, Vijay Kumar; Massoud, M Rashad; Goldmann, Don
    Abstract Improving health care involves many actors, often working in complex adaptive systems. Interventions tend to be multi-factorial, implementation activities diverse, and contexts dynamic and complicated. This makes improvement initiatives challenging to describe and evaluate as matching evaluation and program designs can be difficult, requiring collaboration, trust and transparency. Collaboration is required to address important epidemiological principles of bias and confounding. If this does not take place, results may lack credibility because the association between interventions implemented and outcomes achieved is obscure and attribution uncertain. Moreover, lack of clarity about what was implemented, how it was implemented, and the context...

  14. How to convene an international health or development commission: ten key steps

    Yamey, Gavin; Summers, Lawrence H; Jamison, Dean T; Brinton, Jessica
    Abstract The Commission on Investing in Health (CIH), an international group of 25 economists and global health experts, published its Global Health 2035 report in The Lancet in December 2013. The report laid out an ambitious investment framework for achieving a “grand convergence” in health—a universal reduction in deaths from infectious diseases and maternal and child health conditions—within a generation. This article captures ten key elements that the CIH found important to its process and successful outcomes. The elements are presented in chronological order, from inception to post-publication activities. The starting point is to identify the gap that a new...

  15. Socioeconomic Background and Commercial Health Plan Spending

    Chien, Alyna; Newhouse, Joseph Paul; Iezzoni, Lisa I.; Petty, Carter R.; Normand, Sharon-Lise Teresa; Schuster, Mark A.
    BACKGROUND: Risk-adjustment algorithms typically incorporate demographic and clinical variables to equalize compensation to insurers for enrollees who vary in expected cost, but including information about enrollees’ socioeconomic background is controversial. METHODS: We studied 1 182 847 continuously insured 0 to 19-year-olds using 2008–2012 Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts and American Community Survey data. We characterized enrollees’ socioeconomic background using the validated area-based socioeconomic measure and calculated annual plan payments using paid claims. We evaluated the relationship between annual plan payments and geocoded socioeconomic background using generalized estimating equations (γ distribution and log link). We expressed outcomes as the percentage difference in spending...

  16. Adverse obstetric outcomes during delivery hospitalizations complicated by suicidal behavior among US pregnant women

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Smoller, Jordan W.; Avillach, Paul; Cai, Tianxi; Williams, Michelle A.
    Objective: The effects of suicidal behavior on obstetric outcomes remain dangerously unquantified. We sought to report on the risk of adverse obstetric outcomes for US women with suicidal behavior at the time of delivery. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of delivery hospitalizations from 2007–2012 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. From the same hospitalization record, International Classification of Diseases codes were used to identify suicidal behavior and adverse obstetric outcomes. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using logistic regression. Results: Of the 23,507,597 delivery hospitalizations, 2,180 were complicated by suicidal behavior. Women with suicidal behavior were...

  17. Personal Care Product Use in Men and Urinary Concentrations of Select Phthalate Metabolites and Parabens: Results from the Environment And Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study

    Nassan, Feiby L.; Coull, Brent A.; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Williams, Michelle A.; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Ford, Jennifer B.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Braun, Joseph M.; Hauser, Russ
    Background: Personal care products (PCPs) are exposure sources to phthalates and parabens; however, their contribution to men’s exposure is understudied. Objectives: We examined the association between PCP use and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and parabens in men. Methods: In a prospective cohort, at multiple study visits, men self-reported their use of 14 PCPs and provided a urine sample (2004–2015, Boston, MA). We measured urinary concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites and methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. We estimated the covariate-adjusted percent change in urinary concentrations associated with PCP use using linear mixed and Tobit mixed regressions. We also estimated weights for...

  18. The Meaning-Enhancing Properties of Psychedelics and Their Mediator Role in Psychedelic Therapy, Spirituality, and Creativity

    Hartogsohn, Ido
    Past research has demonstrated to the ability of psychedelics to enhance suggestibility, and pointed to their ability to amplify perception of meaning. This paper examines the existing evidence for the meaning-enhancing properties of psychedelics, and argues that the tendency of these agents to enhance the perception of significance offers valuable clues to explaining their reported ability to stimulate a variety of therapeutic processes, enhance creativity, and instigate mystical-type experiences. Building upon previous research, which suggested the potential role of psychedelic meaning-enhancement in enhancing placebo response, the paper explores the mechanisms by which the meaning-amplifying properties of psychedelics might also play...

  19. Don’t Good Democracies Need “Good” Citizens? Citizen Dispositions and the Study of Democratic Quality

    Mayne, Quinton; Geißel, Brigitte
    This article advances the argument that quality of democracy depends not only on the performance of democratic institutions but also on the dispositions of citizens. We make three contributions to the study of democratic quality. First, we develop a fine-grained, structured conceptualization of the three core dispositions (democratic commitments, political capacities, and political participation) that make up the citizen component of democratic quality. Second, we provide a more precise account of the notion of inter-component congruence or “fit” between the institutional and citizen components of democratic quality, distinguishing between static and dynamic forms of congruence. Third, drawing on cross-national data,...

  20. Liquidity risk in sequential trading networks

    Kariv, Shachar; Kotowski, Maciej Henryk; Leister, C. Matthew
    This paper studies a model of intermediated exchange with liquidity-constrained traders. Intermediaries are embedded in a trading network and their financial capacities are private information. We characterize our model’s monotone, pure-strategy equilibrium. Agents earn positive intermediation rents in equilibrium. An experimental investigation supports the model’s baseline predictions concerning agents’ strategies, price dynamics, and the division of surplus. While private financial constraints inject uncertainty into the trading environment, our experiment suggests they are also a behavioral speed-bump, preventing traders from experiencing excessive losses due to overbidding.

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