Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 103

  1. Can States Take Over and Turn Around School Districts? Evidence from Lawrence, Massachusetts

    Schueler, Beth; Goodman, Joshua Samuel; Deming, David James
    The Federal government has spent billions of dollars to support turnarounds of low-achieving schools, yet most evidence on the impact of such turnarounds comes from high-profile, exceptional settings and not from examples driven by state policy decisions at scale. In this paper, we study the impact of state takeover and district-level turnaround in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Takeover of the Lawrence Public School (LPS) district was driven by the state’s accountability system, which increases state control in response to chronic underperformance. We find that the first two years of the LPS turnaround produced large achievement gains in math and modest gains in...

  2. Can States Take Over and Turn Around School Districts? Evidence from Lawrence, Massachusetts

    Schueler, Beth; Goodman, Joshua Samuel; Deming, David James
    The Federal government has spent billions of dollars to support turnarounds of low-achieving schools, yet most evidence on the impact of such turnarounds comes from high-profile, exceptional settings and not from examples driven by state policy decisions at scale. In this paper, we study the impact of state takeover and district-level turnaround in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Takeover of the Lawrence Public School (LPS) district was driven by the state’s accountability system, which increases state control in response to chronic underperformance. We find that the first two years of the LPS turnaround produced large achievement gains in math and modest gains in...

  3. Redistribution in a model of voting and campaign contributions

    Campante, Filipe Robin
    I propose a framework in which individual political participation can take two distinct forms, voting and contributing resources to campaigns, in a context in which the negligible impact of any individual’s actions on aggregate outcomes is fully recognized by all agents. I then use the framework to reassess the relationship between inequality and redistribution. The model shows that, even though each contribution has a negligible impact, the interaction between contributions and voting leads to an endogenous wealth bias in the political process, as the advantage of wealthier individuals in providing contributions encourages parties to move their platforms closer to those...

  4. Intensive Math Instruction and Educational Attainment

    Cortes, Kalena E.; Goodman, Joshua Samuel; Nomi, Takako
    We study an intensive math instruction policy that assigned low-skilled 9th graders to an algebra course that doubled instructional time, altered peer composition and emphasized problem solving skills. A regression discontinuity design shows substantial positive impacts of double-dose algebra on credits earned, test scores, high school graduation and college enrollment rates. Test score effects under-predict attainment effects, highlighting the importance of long-run evaluation of such a policy. Perhaps because the intervention focused on verbal exposition of mathematical concepts, the impact was largest for students with below average reading skills, emphasizing the need to target interventions toward appropriately skilled students.

  5. Intensive Math Instruction and Educational Attainment

    Cortes, Kalena E.; Goodman, Joshua Samuel; Nomi, Takako
    We study an intensive math instruction policy that assigned low-skilled 9th graders to an algebra course that doubled instructional time, altered peer composition and emphasized problem solving skills. A regression discontinuity design shows substantial positive impacts of double-dose algebra on credits earned, test scores, high school graduation and college enrollment rates. Test score effects under-predict attainment effects, highlighting the importance of long-run evaluation of such a policy. Perhaps because the intervention focused on verbal exposition of mathematical concepts, the impact was largest for students with below average reading skills, emphasizing the need to target interventions toward appropriately skilled students.

  6. Access to 4-Year Public Colleges and Degree Completion

    Goodman, Joshua Samuel; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan
    Does access to 4-year colleges affect degree completion for students who would otherwise attend 2-year colleges? Admission to Georgia’s 4-year public sector requires minimum SAT scores. Regression discontinuity estimates show that access to this sector increases 4-year college enrollment and college quality, largely by diverting students from 2-year colleges. Access substantially increases bachelor’s degree completion rates for these relatively low-skilled students. SAT retaking behavior suggests students value access to 4-year public colleges, though perhaps less than they should. Our results imply that absolute college quality matters more than match quality, and they suggest potential unintended consequences of free community college...

  7. Access to 4-Year Public Colleges and Degree Completion

    Goodman, Joshua Samuel; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan
    Does access to 4-year colleges affect degree completion for students who would otherwise attend 2-year colleges? Admission to Georgia’s 4-year public sector requires minimum SAT scores. Regression discontinuity estimates show that access to this sector increases 4-year college enrollment and college quality, largely by diverting students from 2-year colleges. Access substantially increases bachelor’s degree completion rates for these relatively low-skilled students. SAT retaking behavior suggests students value access to 4-year public colleges, though perhaps less than they should. Our results imply that absolute college quality matters more than match quality, and they suggest potential unintended consequences of free community college...

  8. Failure to CAPTCHA Attention: Null Results from an Honesty Priming Experiment in Guatemala

    Kettle, Stewart; Hernandez, Marco; Sanders, Michael; Hauser, Oliver; Ruda, Simon
    We report results from a large online randomised tax experiment in Guatemala. The trial involves short messages and choices presented to taxpayers as part of a CAPTCHA pop-up window immediately before they file a tax return, with the aim of priming honest declarations. In total our sample includes 627,242 taxpayers and 3,232,430 tax declarations made over four months. Treatments include: honesty declaration; information about public goods; information about penalties for dishonesty, questions allowing a taxpayer to choose which public good they think tax money should be spent on; or questions allowing a taxpayer to state a view on the penalty...

  9. Should the WHO withdraw support for mass deworming?

    Croke, Kevin; Hicks, Joan Hamory; Hsu, Eric; Kremer, Michael; Miguel, Edward

  10. More Evidence on the Effects of Deworming: What Lessons Can We Learn?

    Croke, Kevin; Hsu, Eric; Kremer, Michael

  11. Merit Aid, College Quality and College Completion: Massachusetts' Adams Scholarship as an In-Kind Subsidy.

    Cohodes, Sarah; Goodman, Joshua Samuel
    We analyze a Massachusetts merit aid program that gives high-scoring students tuition waivers at in-state public colleges with lower graduation rates than available alternative colleges. A regression discontinuity design comparing students just above and below the eligibility threshold finds that students are remarkably willing to forgo college quality and that scholarship use actually lowered college completion rates. These results suggest that college quality affects college completion rates. The theoretical prediction that in-kind subsidies of public institutions can reduce consumption of the subsidized good is shown to be empirically important.

  12. Information as Influence: How Institutions Mediate the Impact of Scientific Assessments on Global Environmental Affairs

    Clark, William C.; Mitchell, Ronald; Cash, David; Alcock, Frank
    The recognition that information matters in world affairs raises a number of questions as to when, how, and under what conditions it influences the behavior of policy actors. Despite the vast and growing array of institutions involved in collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information potentially relevant to global governance generally, and global environmental change specifically, our understanding of the role that these "information institutions" play in world affairs remains limited. This paper examines how institutions mediate the impact of scientific assessments on global environmental affairs and highlights the pathways through which information has influence on the policy and politics of environmental...

  13. Using inclusive wealth for policy evaluation: Application to electricity infrastructure planning in oil-exporting countries

    Collins, Ross D.; Selin, Noelle E.; de Weck, Olivier L.; Clark, William C.
    Decision-makers often seek to design policies that support sustainable development. Prospective evaluations of how effectively such policies are likely to meet sustainability goals have nonetheless remained relatively challenging. Evaluating policies against sustainability goals can be facilitated through the inclusive wealth framework, which characterizes development in terms of the value to society of its underlying capital assets, and defines development to be potentially sustainable if that value does not decline over time. The inclusive wealth approach has been developed at a theoretical level and previously applied to retrospective evaluations. Here, we apply inclusive wealth theory to prospective policy evaluation coupled with...

  14. Getting an Honest Answer: Clickers in the Classroom

    Levy, Dan; Yardley, Joshua Shawn; Zeckhauser, Richard Jay
    Some preliminary experiments the authors conducted suggested that when instructors asked students to raise their hands to indicate support for a certain answer or position, the results they got were very different than those that would be obtained through the use of polling devices (i.e. clickers). The authors hypothesized that raising hands is an act subject to peer influence, and hence serves as a poor indicator of what students are really thinking. The authors therefore conducted experiments more broadly and systematically across several classrooms, and assessed the types of questions in which the raising of hands were more (or less)...

  15. Night-time lights: A global, long term look at links to socio-economic trends

    Proville, Jeremy; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Wagner, Gernot
    We use a parallelized spatial analytics platform to process the twenty-one year totality of the longest-running time series of night-time lights data—the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) dataset—surpassing the narrower scope of prior studies to assess changes in area lit of countries globally. Doing so allows a retrospective look at the global, long-term relationships between night-time lights and a series of socio-economic indicators. We find the strongest correlations with electricity consumption, CO2 emissions, and GDP, followed by population, CH4 emissions, N2O emissions, poverty (inverse) and F-gas emissions. Relating area lit to electricity consumption shows that while a basic linear model...

  16. Assessment Strategy for Enhancing Sustained HKS Excellence

    Light, Richard J.
    This paper explores the purpose and key challenges of assessing students’ learning, based on lessons learned from several projects undertaken over the last five years at the Harvard Kennedy School. The first part explores purpose: how might engaging in robust assessment of students’ learning bring value to the leadership of an entire School, as well as to leaders of different academic programs within a School? The second part describes several different approaches and formats used for assessing HKS students’ learning. The final section summarizes the challenges that HKS faced when engaging in, and institutionalizing, the process of assessing students’ learning,...

  17. Cold Calling and Web Postings: Do They Improve Students’ Preparation and Learning?

    Levy, Dan; Bookin, Joshua Alan
    Cold calling and pre-class web postings are frequently used to encourage students to read and come better prepared to class. Randomized experiments were conducted in two sections of an Empirical Methods course (API- 202) to assess to what extent these techniques increased student preparation and learning. Main conclusion is that in the context of this course, these two techniques led to increases in the amount of time that students spend reading before class, but not to learning gains. The study led the instructor to reflect on several aspects of his teaching practice, including the use of these two techniques for...

  18. Engaged Scholarship: Perspectives from Outside the University

    Bilmes, Linda J.; Nash, Jennifer H.
    Engaged scholarship brings universities and external partners together to create knowledge for mutual benefit. Together, faculty, students, and external partners define problems, undertake analysis, and share findings. A defining characteristic of engaged scholarship is reciprocity—participants share benefits as well as costs. This paper explores engaged scholarship as a growing part of the HKS curriculum. More students are calling for engaged scholarship opportunities. More faculty are offering engaged scholarship courses. The school is developing resources to help faculty assume new, more externally focused roles. To date, however, relatively little attention has been given to how the school’s growing interest in engaged...

  19. Low-Cost Interventions to Reduce Anonymity in Large Classes

    Goodman, Joshua Samuel
    In large classes, it is challenging for faculty to get to know students and vice versa. Though some students participate actively in class or take advantage of office hours, others remain relatively quiet and thus less familiar to faculty during the semester. More problematically, often it is the students that faculty get to know least during the semester who are precisely the ones for whom a deeper relationship with a faculty member might be most beneficial. This paper describes a simple study of the impact of two forms of personalized interventions on student performance in one section of a quantitative...

  20. Salience, Credibility, Legitimacy and Boundaries: Linking Research, Assessment and Decision Making

    Cash, David; Clark, William C.; Alcock, Frank; Dickson, Nancy M.; Eckley, Noelle; Jäger, Jill
    The boundary between science and policy is only one of several boundaries that hinder the linking of scientific and technical information to decision making. Managing boundaries between disciplines, across scales of geography and jurisdiction, and between different forms of knowledge is also often critical to transferring information. The research presented in this paper finds that information requires three (not mutually exclusive) attributes - salience, credibility, and legitimacy - and that what makes boundary crossing difficult is that actors on different sides of a boundary perceive and value salience, credibility, and legitimacy differently. Presenting research on water management regimes in the...

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