Mostrando recursos 1 - 16 de 16

  1. Blaine's Name in Vain?: State Constitutions, School Choice, & Charitable Choice

    Goldenziel, Jill Iris
    In this article, Ms. Goldenziel explores the growing controversy over no-funding provisions, state constitutional provisions that restrict state funding of religious institutions. These provisions, allegedly rooted in anti-Catholic bigotry, may threaten state implementation of school choice programs and faith-based initiatives involving public funding of religious social service organizations. Ms. Goldenziel argues that these no-funding provisions, which are commonly termed Blaine Amendments, Little Blaines, or Baby Blaines, are often unrelated to the failed federal Blaine Amendment, and do not always share the federal amendment's infamous anti-Catholic history. In the first study of its type, Ms. Goldenziel surveys the language and history...

  2. Administratively Quirky, Constitutionally Murky: The Bush Faith-Based Initiative

    Goldenziel, Jill Iris
    In this article, Ms. Goldenziel explores the administrative and constitutional peculiarities of the Bush Administration's Faith-Based Initiative. She argues that the Supreme Court's establishment clause jurisprudence offers no clear standards for administrative rule-making. However, the Bush administration has ignored the Supreme Court's guidelines and has crafted a program of dubious constitutionality. The Initiative is nearly impermeable to constitutional challenges or other public checks because of its peculiar place in the administrative structure. Because the Initiative endangers the fundamental constitutional right to freedom from religious establishment, Ms. Goldenziel calls for the Initiative to be publicly accountable, and provides suggestions for how...

  3. Genetic citizenship: DNA testing and the Israeli Law of Return

    McGonigle, Ian V.; Herman, Lauren W.
    The Israeli State recently announced that it may begin to use genetic tests to determine whether potential immigrants are Jewish or not. This development would demand a rethinking of Israeli law on the issue of the definition of Jewishness. In this article, we discuss the historical and legal context of secular and religious definitions of Jewishness and rights to immigration in the State of Israel. We give a brief overview of different ways in which genes have been regarded as Jewish, and we discuss the relationship between this new use of genetics and the society with which it is co-produced....

  4. Displaced: A Proposal for International Law to Protect Refugees, Migrants, and States

    Goldenziel, Jill Iris
    How can international law better protect both international security and the human rights of people fleeing violence? International refugee law protects only the refugees: those fleeing across borders due to a well-founded persecution on the basis of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. The world’s other 42.3 million people displaced by violence have few protections under international law. This article proposes and sketches new international law to address this crucial human rights problem. I argue that a new Displaced Persons Convention to protect people fleeing violent conflict is needed to supplement the 1951 Refugee...

  5. Displaced: Why We Need New International Law to Protect Refugees, Displaced People, and Human Rights

    Goldenziel, Jill Iris
    How can international law protect both international security and the human rights of displaced people? Existing international law protects only displaced refugees: those who flee persecution on the basis of religion, race, nationality, or political opinion. This article argues that a new Displaced Persons Convention must be created to protect the human rights of the world’s other 35 million victims of civil conflict and climate change who do not meet this narrow definition. International Refugee Law must be preserved as it is because it enshrines critical protections for minority rights that must not be diluted. However, an additional instrument of...

  6. When Law Migrates: Refugees in Comparative International Law

    Goldenziel, Jill Iris
    The current European migration crisis has been playing out worldwide. As record numbers of migrants have fled their countries in recent years, wealthier states have had an increasing interest in restricting their borders to protect national security. The challenge of balancing domestic security interests with international human rights commitments has fallen to courts. Drawing on cases involving interdiction of migrants and refugees at sea from the U.S., Australia, and the European Court of Human Rights, this chapter will compare how the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees has been interpreted across countries and over time. It will show...

  7. Russia: Grasping the Reality of Nuclear Terror

    Saradzhyan, Simon
    Radical separatists based in the North Caucasus have the motive and are seeking the means to commit an act of nuclear terrorism as well as allies to help them carry it out. Their proximity to insufficiently secured Russian nuclear facilities and their contents makes the prospect of nuclear terror in Russia very real. This article assesses the magnitude of this threat, considers possible attack scenarios, and suggests ways to reduce the likelihood of a catastrophic attack on Russian soil.

  8. Russia's Support for Zero: Tactical Move or Long-term Commitment?

    Saradzhyan, Simon

  9. Seven Lessons of the Cuban Missile Crisis for the Karabakh Conflict

    Saradzhyan, Simon; Saradhyan, Artur
    This paper will explore which lessons of the 1962 Cuban missile crisis Armenian and Azeri leaders should consider institutionalizing if they wish to prevent reheating of their conflict over Nagorny Karabakh into a war. Using the October 1962 crisis as an example, the paper will demonstrate how dangerously mistaken national leaders could be when they place their bets on their ability to control conflict escalation. What a leader may perceive as an incremental step – that he is taking to up the pressure on the opponent – can set off a chain of actions on international, national, organizational, and even...

  10. Russia’s Non-strategic Nuclear Weapons in Their Current Configuration and Posture: A Strategic Asset or Liability?

    Saradzhyan, Simon
    Russia's military-political leadership envisions a formidable range of uses for the country's arsenal of non-strategic nuclear weapons (NSNWs). In the eyes of Russian leaders, these weapons play a critical role in the nation's defense and security posture as part of the country's overall nuclear arsenal and as an equalizer for the weakness of the nation's conventional forces vis-a-vis NATO and China. Russia's military-political leadership and policy influentials also assign a number of specific roles to NSNWs, including deterrence of powers in the south. Given these perceived and real benefits of possessing NSNWs, it is rather difficult to imagine that Russia will...

  11. The Emergency Framing of Solar Geoengineering: Time for a Different Approach

    Horton, Joshua
    Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a possible response measure in the event of a "climate emergency." Scientific evidence for climate emergencies in the form of tipping points, however, is contested and unsettled. Furthermore, declarations of emergency entail authoritarian political tendencies that historically have given rise to repression and abuse. By definition, an emergency must exhibit a combination of high risk, urgency and necessity; no plausible climatic tipping point displays all these attributes simultaneously. A weak scientific basis together with genuine societal peril argues against the continued emergency framing of solar geoengineering.

  12. Stating Appointment Costs in SMS Reminders Reduces Missed Hospital Appointments: Findings from Two Randomised Controlled Trials

    Hallsworth, Michael; Berry, Dan; Sanders, Michael; Sallis, Anna; King, Dominic; Vlaev, Ivo; Darzi, Ara
    Background: Missed hospital appointments are a major cause of inefficiency worldwide. Healthcare providers are increasingly using Short Message Service reminders to reduce ‘Did Not Attend’ (DNA) rates. Systematic reviews show that sending such reminders is effective, but there is no evidence on whether their impact is affected by their content. Accordingly, we undertook two randomised controlled trials that tested the impact of rephrasing appointment reminders on DNA rates in the United Kingdom. Trial Methods Participants were outpatients with a valid mobile telephone number and an outpatient appointment between November 2013 and January 2014 (Trial One, 10,111 participants) or March and...

  13. Designing Procedural Mechanisms for the Governance of Solar Radiation Management Field Experiments: Workshop Report

    Horton, Joshua; Blackstock, Jason; Craik, Neil; Doughty, Jack
    The unexpected ocean fertilization experiment off the west coast of Canada in 2012 highlights the reality that non-governmental actors can already initiate small- to medium-scale environmental experiments and solar radiation management (SRM) field experiments with no government funding or approval. Without careful consideration and development of a governance framework for these types of experimentation, governments could be caught out having to respond ad hoc to situations driven by non-governmental actors. This two-day workshop considered and evaluated governance mechanisms that may be useful for managing proposed SRM field experiments. Two specific procedural mechanisms were under consideration: environmental impact assessments and research registries....

  14. Protestantism and Human Capital in Guatemala and the Republic of Korea

    McCleary, Rachel M.
    Protestant missions from the United States entered the Republic of Korea and Guatemala at the same time (1884 and 1882, respectively). Yet, their impact on human capital has been divergent. The analysis presented in this paper supports the findings of Woodberry (2004, 2009, 2011) and Nunn (2009) in the case of the Republic of Korea. Mainline Protestant missions — Presbyterian and Methodist — promoted the Social Gospel and were the largest in the Republic of Korea implementing successful strategies such as using Korean (Hangul) as the lingua franca in their schools, churches, and medical facilities. Whereas the mainline Protestant denominations...

  15. Developing Managers and Leaders: Experiences and Lessons from International NGOs

    Jayawickrama, Sherine S
    This paper explores the context, practice and lessons related to management and leadership development in a handful of large international NGOs (INGOs) focused on humanitarian and development efforts. The paper is based on eighteen semi-structured interviews with senior managers of human resources or organizational development at INGOs including ActionAid, CARE, Catholic Relief Services, Habitat for Humanity, Médecins Sans Frontières, Mercy Corps, Oxfam, Save the Children and World Vision. It describes how INGOs (individually and collectively) are addressing the challenge of developing strong managers and leaders, what some promising approaches in management and leadership development currently are, what lessons can be...

  16. Confusion, Contradiction and Irony: The Iraqi Media in 2010

    Amos, Deborah
    After the fall of Baghdad on April 9, 2003, Iraq’s news media environment transformed almost overnight from the tightly controlled propaganda arm of Saddam Hussein’s rule into one of the most diverse and unrestricted news environments in the Middle East. Built in an atmosphere of chaos and conflict, Iraq’s media landscape now reflects the ethno‐sectarian divide in the country. These deeply partisan news outlets have the potential to widen the gap between communities and weaken the national identity. However, new studies show the majority of Iraqis have learned to read the media landscape, sampling news programs across the sectarian divide...

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