Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 71

  1. El ABC de la evaluación educativa.

    Koretz, Daniel

  2. Flat vs. Expressive Storytelling: Young Children’s Learning and Retention of a Social Robot’s Narrative

    Kory Westlund, Jacqueline M.; Jeong, Sooyeon; Park, Hae W.; Ronfard, Samuel; Adhikari, Aradhana; Harris, Paul L.; DeSteno, David; Breazeal, Cynthia L.
    Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children’s vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot’s active reading was expressive; the robot’s voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion (Expressive). For the remaining children, the robot read and conversed with a flat...

  3. Pathways to educational success among refugees: Connecting locally and globally situated resources.

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah Elizabeth; Dahya, Negin; Adelman, Elizabeth Fay
    This study identifies pathways to educational success among refugees. Data are from an original online survey of Somali diaspora and in-depth qualitative interviews with Somali refugee students educated in the Dadaab refugee camps of Kenya. This research builds on Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model, to consider both the locally- and globally-situated nature of resources across refugees’ ecosystems. Analysis examines the nature and content of studentidentified supports and their perceived influence on access and persistence in school, as well as the mediating role of technology. The findings suggest consideration of both locally-situated relationships and globally-situated relationships, as critical educational supports. Implications include leveraging naturally...

  4. Early literacy development and instruction: An overview

    Snow, Catherine Elizabeth
    The goal of this chapter is to give an overview of what we know about literacy development in children up to age eight, as well as to introduce some topics for which more research is needed. We know that good readers have developed familiarity and automaticity with symbols used in their writing system and how those symbols represent sounds, as well as oral language skills strong enough to enable them to make sense of the words they are decoding. This full array of skills develops optimally when children have access to rich language and literacy experiences at home and in...

  5. Why Reform Sometimes Succeeds: Understanding the Conditions That Produce Reforms That Last

    Cohen, David Kastnev; Mehta, Jal David
    Counter to narratives of persistently failed school reform, we argue that reforms sometimes succeed, and seek to understand why. Drawing on examples from the founding of public schools to the present, we find that successful system-wide reforms addressed problems that teachers thought they had, by being consistent with prevailing norms and values, by mobilizing a significant public constituency, and building the needed educational infrastructure. We distinguish between system-wide and niche reforms, suggesting that some--particularly those seeking ambitious instruction—failed system-wide but succeeded by creating protected educational niches. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for the Common Core.

  6. From Bureaucracy to Profession: Remaking the Educational Sector for the Twenty-First Century

    Mehta, Jal David
    n this essay, Jal Mehta examines the challenges faced by American schooling and the reasons for persistent failure of American school reforms to achieve successful educational outcomes at scale. He concludes that many of the problems faced by American schools are artifacts of the bureaucratic form in which the education sector as a whole was cast: “We are trying to solve a problem that requires professional skill and expertise by using bureaucratic levers of requirements and regulations.” Building on research from a variety of fields and disciplines, Mehta advances a “sectoral” perspective on education reform, exploring how this shift in...

  7. How Paradigms Create Politics: The Transformation of American Educational Policy, 1980-2001

    Mehta, Jal David
    American educational policy was rapidly transformed between 1980 and 2001. Accountability was introduced into a sphere that had long been loosely coupled, both major political parties reevaluated longstanding positions, and significant institutional control over the schooling shifted to the federal government for the first time in the nation’s history. These changes cannot be explained by conventional theories such as interest groups, rational choice, and historical institutionalism. Drawing on extensive archival research and more than 80 interviews, this article argues that this transformation can be explained by a changed policy paradigm which restructured the political landscape around education reform. More generally,...

  8. The Penetration of Technocratic Logic into the Educational Field: Rationalizing Schooling from the Progressives to the Present

    Mehta, Jal David
    Educational accountability is not a recent invention. Over the course of the 20th century, there were three major movements demanding accountability in American education: the efficiency reforms of the Progressive Era, the now almost forgotten movement toward accountability in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and the modern standards and accountability movement, culminating in No Child Left Behind. This paper considers the three movements as cases of school “rationalization” in the Weberian sense, in that each sought to reduce variation and discretion across schools in favor of increasingly formal systems of standardized top-down control. This impulse to rationalize schools cannot...

  9. From “Whether” to “How”: The Varied Roles of Ideas in Politics

    Mehta, Jal David
    This chapter examines ideas of varying levels of generality that define how policymakers should act. Building upon and drawing together the best work in the field, it seeks to offer a synthetic analysis of how ideas matter in politics: what is known, what is not known, and what areas are in need of further research. It considers ideas at three levels of generality: policy solutions, problem definitions, and public philosophies or zeitgeist. It also consider interactions between the levels of ideas, with a particular interest in “upward-flowing” interactions, showing that not only does the conception of a problem constrain policy...

  10. When Professions Shape Politics: The Case of Accountability in K-12 and Higher Education

    Mehta, Jal David
    Professionalization is an important but overlooked dimension in education politics, particularly the politics of accountability. To isolate the importance of professionalization, this article compares accountability movements in K-12 education with similar movements in higher education. I draw on three pairs of reports that have sought to impose accountability between 1983 and 2006, in each case comparing a report on K-12 with a similar report on higher education. I find that calls for accountability in both sectors have intensified over the period under study, but that higher education has been much more protected from accountability pressures by its greater degree of...

  11. Bringing values back in: How purposes shape practices in coherent school designs

    Mehta, Jal David; Fine, Sarah Melanie
    Perhaps the most daunting challenge in building good educational systems is generating quality practice consistently across classrooms. Recent work has suggested that one way to address this dilemma is by building an educational infrastructure that would guide the work of practitioners. This article seeks to build upon and complicate this work on infrastructure by examining why two very different schools are able to achieve consistency of practice where many other schools do not. Findings suggest that infrastructure is not self-enacting and needs to be coupled to school level design in ways that are coherent and mutually reinforcing if infrastructure is...

  12. Jurisdictional Politics: A New Federal Role in Education

    Mehta, Jal David; Teles, Steven

  13. Professionalization 2.0: The Case for Plural Professionalization in Education

    Mehta, Jal David; Teles, Steven

  14. Executive control in bilinguals: A concise review on fMRI studies.

    Pliatsikas, C.; Luk, Gigi
    The investigation of bilingualism and cognition has been enriched by recent developments in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Extending how bilingual experience shapes cognition, this review examines recent fMRI studies adopting executive control tasks with minimal or no linguistic demands. Across a range of studies with divergent ages and language pairs spoken by bilinguals, brain regions supporting executive control significantly overlap with brain regions recruited for language control (Abutalebi & Green, this issue). Furthermore, limited but emerging studies on resting-state networks are addressed, which suggest more coherent spatially distributed functional connectivity in bilinguals. Given the dynamic nature of bilingual experience,...

  15. What is Wrong with Grade Inflation (If Anything)?

    Finefter-Rosenbluh, Ilana; Levinson, Meira L.
    Grade inflation is a global phenomenon that has garnered widespread condemnation among educators, researchers, and the public. Yet, few have deliberated over the ethics of grading, let alone the ethics of grade inflation. The purpose of this paper is to map out and examine the ethics of grade inflation. By way of beginning, we clarify why grade inflation is a problem of practical ethics embedded in contemporary social practice. Then, we illuminate three different aspects of grade inflation—longitudinal, compressed, and comparative—and explore the ethical dilemmas that each one raises. We demonstrate how these three aspects may be seen as corresponding...

  16. Development and validation of an early childhood development scale for use in low-resourced settings

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Sudfeld, Christopher Robert; Bellinger, David C; Muhihi, Alfa; Ashery, Geofrey; Weary, Taylor Evans; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Fink, Gunther
    Background:Low-cost, cross-culturally comparable measures of the motor, cognitive, and socioemotional skills of children under 3 years remain scarce. In the present paper, we aim to develop a new caregiver-reported early childhood development (ECD) scale designed to be implemented as part of household surveys in low-resourced settings. Methods: We evaluate the acceptability, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and discriminant validity of the new ECD items, subscales, and full scale in a sample of 2481 18- to 36-month-old children from peri-urban and rural Tanzania. We also compare total and subscale scores with performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) in a subsample...

  17. Peer influence on children’s reading skills: A social network analysis of elementary school classrooms.

    Cooc, North; Kim, James Sangil
    Research has found that peers influence the academic achievement of children. However, the mechanisms through which peers matter remain underexplored. The present study examined the relationship between peers’ reading skills and children’s own reading skills among 4,215 total second- and third-graders in 294 classrooms across 41 schools. One innovation of the study was the use of social network analysis to directly assess who children reported talking to or seeking help from and whether children who identified peers with stronger reading skills experienced higher reading skills. The results indicated that children on average identified peers with stronger reading skills and the...

  18. Conducting sparse feature selection on arbitrarily long phrases in text corpora with a focus on interpretability

    Miratrix, Luke Weisman; Ackerman, Robin
    We propose a general framework for topic-specific summarization of large text corpora, and illustrate how it can be used for analysis in two quite different contexts: an OSHA database of fatality and catastrophe reports (to facilitate surveillance for patterns in circumstances leading to injury or death) and legal decisions on workers’ compensation claims (to explore relevant case law). Our summarization framework, built on sparse classification methods, is a compromise between simple word frequency based methods currently in wide use, and more heavyweight, model-intensive methods such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). For a particular topic of interest (e.g., mental health disability,...

  19. Creating Pathways to Prosperity: A Blueprint for Action

    Ferguson, Ronald F.; Lamback, Sarah

  20. Family–school relationships in immigrant children’s well-being: the intersection of demographics and school culture in the experiences of black African immigrants in the United States

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah Elizabeth
    This article explores the types of family-school relationships that promote academic, socioeconomic, and social and emotional well-being of black African immigrant children in the United States. The data are ethnographic, drawing on one year of participant observation and interviews at two elementary schools. The findings are also set within the context of an analysis of data from the New Immigrant Survey. The article identifies mechanisms by which relationships between black African immigrants and schools are created and argues that intersections between demographics and school culture are central, particularly as related to the possibilities for relational power, which can allow parents...

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