Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 248

  1. Executive control in bilinguals: A concise review on fMRI studies.

    Pliatsikas, C.; Luk, Gigi
    The investigation of bilingualism and cognition has been enriched by recent developments in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Extending how bilingual experience shapes cognition, this review examines recent fMRI studies adopting executive control tasks with minimal or no linguistic demands. Across a range of studies with divergent ages and language pairs spoken by bilinguals, brain regions supporting executive control significantly overlap with brain regions recruited for language control (Abutalebi & Green, this issue). Furthermore, limited but emerging studies on resting-state networks are addressed, which suggest more coherent spatially distributed functional connectivity in bilinguals. Given the dynamic nature of bilingual experience,...

  2. What is Wrong with Grade Inflation (If Anything)?

    Finefter-Rosenbluh, Ilana; Levinson, Meira L.
    Grade inflation is a global phenomenon that has garnered widespread condemnation among educators, researchers, and the public. Yet, few have deliberated over the ethics of grading, let alone the ethics of grade inflation. The purpose of this paper is to map out and examine the ethics of grade inflation. By way of beginning, we clarify why grade inflation is a problem of practical ethics embedded in contemporary social practice. Then, we illuminate three different aspects of grade inflation—longitudinal, compressed, and comparative—and explore the ethical dilemmas that each one raises. We demonstrate how these three aspects may be seen as corresponding...

  3. Development and validation of an early childhood development scale for use in low-resourced settings

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Sudfeld, Christopher Robert; Bellinger, David C; Muhihi, Alfa; Ashery, Geofrey; Weary, Taylor Evans; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Fink, Gunther
    Background:Low-cost, cross-culturally comparable measures of the motor, cognitive, and socioemotional skills of children under 3 years remain scarce. In the present paper, we aim to develop a new caregiver-reported early childhood development (ECD) scale designed to be implemented as part of household surveys in low-resourced settings. Methods: We evaluate the acceptability, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and discriminant validity of the new ECD items, subscales, and full scale in a sample of 2481 18- to 36-month-old children from peri-urban and rural Tanzania. We also compare total and subscale scores with performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) in a subsample...

  4. Peer influence on children’s reading skills: A social network analysis of elementary school classrooms.

    Cooc, North; Kim, James Sangil
    Research has found that peers influence the academic achievement of children. However, the mechanisms through which peers matter remain underexplored. The present study examined the relationship between peers’ reading skills and children’s own reading skills among 4,215 total second- and third-graders in 294 classrooms across 41 schools. One innovation of the study was the use of social network analysis to directly assess who children reported talking to or seeking help from and whether children who identified peers with stronger reading skills experienced higher reading skills. The results indicated that children on average identified peers with stronger reading skills and the...

  5. Conducting sparse feature selection on arbitrarily long phrases in text corpora with a focus on interpretability

    Miratrix, Luke Weisman; Ackerman, Robin
    We propose a general framework for topic-specific summarization of large text corpora, and illustrate how it can be used for analysis in two quite different contexts: an OSHA database of fatality and catastrophe reports (to facilitate surveillance for patterns in circumstances leading to injury or death) and legal decisions on workers’ compensation claims (to explore relevant case law). Our summarization framework, built on sparse classification methods, is a compromise between simple word frequency based methods currently in wide use, and more heavyweight, model-intensive methods such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). For a particular topic of interest (e.g., mental health disability,...

  6. Creating Pathways to Prosperity: A Blueprint for Action

    Ferguson, Ronald F.; Lamback, Sarah

  7. Family–school relationships in immigrant children’s well-being: the intersection of demographics and school culture in the experiences of black African immigrants in the United States

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah Elizabeth
    This article explores the types of family-school relationships that promote academic, socioeconomic, and social and emotional well-being of black African immigrant children in the United States. The data are ethnographic, drawing on one year of participant observation and interviews at two elementary schools. The findings are also set within the context of an analysis of data from the New Immigrant Survey. The article identifies mechanisms by which relationships between black African immigrants and schools are created and argues that intersections between demographics and school culture are central, particularly as related to the possibilities for relational power, which can allow parents...

  8. Refugee education: Education for an unknowable future

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah Elizabeth
    Conflict and displacement are increasingly protracted, requiring rethinking of refugee education as a long-term endeavor, connected not only to the idea of return but to the on-going nature of exile. In this essay, I examine how refugees conceptualize education and its role in creating certainty and mending the disjunctures of their trajectories as refugees. Through a portrait of one refugee teacher, the essay explores technical, curricular, and relational dimensions of refugee education that assist refugee students in preparing for unknowable futures.

  9. A Conditional Randomization Test to Account for Covariate Imbalance in Randomized Experiments

    Hennessy, Jonathan; Dasgupta, Tirthankar; Miratrix, Luke Weisman; Pattanayak, Cassandra; Sarkar, Pradipta
    We consider the conditional randomization test as a way to account for covariate imbalance in randomized experiments. The test accounts for covariate imbalance by comparing the observed test statistic to the null distribution of the test statistic conditional on the observed covariate imbalance. We prove that the conditional randomization test has the correct significance level and introduce original notation to describe covariate balance more formally. Through simulation, we verify that conditional randomization tests behave like more traditional forms of covariate adjustmet but have the added benefit of having the correct conditional significance level. Finally, we apply the approach to a...

  10. Compared to what? Variation in the impacts of early childhood education by alternative care type

    Feller, Avi Isaac; Grindal, Todd; Miratrix, Luke Weisman; Page, Lindsay Coleman
    Early childhood education research often compares a group of children who receive the intervention of interest to a group of children who receive care in a range of different care settings. In this paper, we estimate differential impacts of an early childhood intervention by alternative care setting, using data from the Head Start Impact Study, a large-scale randomized evaluation. To do so, we utilize a Bayesian principal stratification framework to estimate separate impacts for two types of Compliers: those children who would otherwise be in other center-based care when assigned to control and those who would otherwise be in home-based...

  11. Tracing pathways to higher education for refugees: the role of virtual support networks and mobile phones for women in refugee camps

    Dahya, Negin; Dryden-Peterson, Sarah Elizabeth
    In this paper, we explore the role of online social networks in the cultivation of pathways to higher education for refugees, particularly for women. We compare supports garnered in local and offline settings to those accrued through online social networks and examine the differences between women and men. The paper draws on complementary original data sources, including an online survey of Somali Diaspora (n=248) and in-depth interviews (n=21) with Somali refugees who do or have lived in the Dadaab refugee camps of Kenya. We find an important interplay of local and global interactions, mediated by mobile technology, that participants identify...

  12. Refugee Education: The Crossroads of Globalization

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah Elizabeth
    In this article, I probe a question at the core of comparative education – how to realize the right to education for all and ensure opportunities to use that education for future participation in society. I do so thorough examination of refugee education from World War II to the present, including analysis of an original dataset of documents (n=214) and semi-structured interviews (n=208). The data illuminate how refugee children are caught between the global promise of universal human rights, the definition of citizenship rights within nation-states, and the realization of these sets of rights in everyday practices. Conceptually, I demonstrate...

  13. Pathways toward Peace: Negotiating National Unity and Ethnic Diversity through Education in Botswana

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah Elizabeth; Mulimbi, Bethany Lynn
    This study examines how education can disrupt threats of conflict, specifically in the presence of ethnic diversity. We present a historical analysis of Botswana, using methods of process tracing drawing on documents, in-depth interviews, and Afrobarometer survey data. Post-independence Botswana engaged in redistribution of educational access across ethnic groups and promotion of common civic principles of social harmony. At the same time, it constructed through schools ethnically-based national identity, which excluded many minorities. Lack of recognition for ethnic minorities remains a persistent challenge, yet it exists in a context of high commitment to unity and the nation-state, even among minority...

  14. Evaluating the validity of volume-based and surface-based brain image registration for developmental cognitive neuroscience studies in children 4 to 11 years of age

    Ghosh, Satrajit S; Kakunoori, Sita; Augustinack, Jean C.; Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Kovelman, Ioulia; Gaab, Nadine; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Fischl, Bruce R.
    Understanding the neurophysiology of human cognitive development relies on methods that enable accurate comparison of structural and functional neuroimaging data across brains from people of different ages. A fundamental question is whether the substantial brain growth and related changes in brain morphology that occur in early childhood permit valid comparisons of brain structure and function across ages. Here we investigated whether valid comparisons can be made in children from ages 4 to 11, and whether there are differences in the use of volume-based versus surface-based registration approaches for aligning structural landmarks across these ages. Regions corresponding to the calcarine sulcus,...

  15. Adapting Educational Measurement to the Demands of Test-Based Accountability

    Koretz, Daniel
    Accountability has become a primary function of large-scale testing in the U.S. The pressure on educators to raise scores is vastly greater than it was several decades ago. Research has shown that high-stakes testing can generate behavioral responses that inflate scores, often severely. I argue that because of these responses, using tests for accountability necessitates major changes in the practices of educational measurement. The needed changes span the entire testing endeavor. This paper addresses implications for design, linking, and validation. It offers suggestions about possible new approaches and calls for research evaluating them.

  16. Learning Civic Leadership: Leader Skill Development in the Sierra Club

    Baggetta, Matthew; Lim, Chaeyoon; Ganz, Marshall Louis; Han, Hahrie; Andrews, Kenneth

  17. Learning to Lead: Pedagogy of Practice

    Ganz, Marshall Louis; Lin, Emily

  18. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Koretz, Daniel; Yu, C; Mbekeani, Preeya Pandya; Langi, M.; Dhaliwal, Tasminda Kaur; Braslow, David Arthur
    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA and both college admissions and high school tests in mathematics and English. In both systems, the choice of tests had only trivial...

  19. Scaffolding Voluntary Summer Reading for Children in Grades 3 to 5: An Experimental Study

    Kim, James Sangil; White, Thomas G.
    The effects of a voluntary summer reading intervention with teacher and parent scaffolding were investigated in an experimental study. A total of 24 teachers and 400 children in Grades 3, 4, and 5 were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: (1) Control, (2) Books Only, (3) Books with Oral Reading Scaffolding, and (4) Books with Oral Reading and Comprehension Scaffolding. Books were matched to children’s reading levels and interests. Children were pre- and post-tested on measures of oral reading fluency (DIBELS) and silent reading ability (ITBS). Results showed that children in the Books with Oral Reading and Comprehension...

  20. Teacher Study Group: Impact of the Professional Development Model on Reading Instruction and Student Outcomes in First Grade Classrooms

    Gersten, Russell; Dimino, Joseph; Jayanthi, Madhavi; Kim, James Sangil; Santoro, Lana E.
    Randomized field trials were used to examine the impact of the Teacher Study Group (TSG), a professional development model, on first grade teachers’ reading comprehension and vocabulary instruction, their knowledge of these areas, and on the comprehension and vocabulary achievement of their students. The multi-site study was conducted in three large urban school districts from three states. A total of 81 first grade teachers and their 468 students from 19 Reading First schools formed the analytic sample in the study. Classrooms observations of teaching practice showed significant improvements in TSG schools. TSG teachers also significantly outperformed control teachers on the teacher knowledge...

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