Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 95

  1. Race, Ethnicity, and Cultural Processes in Education: New Approaches for New Times

    Warikoo, Natasha Kumar

  2. Commentary: The Foundational Role of Teacher-Student Relationships.

    Gelbach, Hunter; Robinson, Carly Dolan
    Inevitably, the answer to most important social science questions seems to be “it’s complicated and it depends.” Yet such is not the case in assessing the import of teacher–student relationships. Unequivocally, students with more positive teacher–student relationships attain a myriad of more desirable student outcomes than their counterparts with less positive relationships (Roorda, Koomen, Split, & Oort, 2011). The handbook chapters in this section underscore how much teacher–student relationships matter and present new theoretical frameworks to organize this rich empirical knowledge. The next logical evolution for this area of research requires translating this scholarship into usable knowledge for practitioners. Wise...

  3. More Powerful Multiple Testing in Randomized Experiments with Non-Compliance

    Lee, Joseph J.; Forastiere, Laura; Miratrix, Luke Weisman; Pillai, Natesh S
    Two common concerns raised in analyses of randomized experiments are (i) appropriately handling issues of non-compliance, and (ii) appropriately adjusting for multiple tests (e.g., on multiple outcomes or subgroups). Although simple intention-to-treat (ITT) and Bonferroni methods are valid in terms of type I error, they can each lead to a substantial loss of power; when employing both simultaneously, the total loss may be severe. Alternatives exist to address each concern. Here we propose an analysis method for experiments involving both features that merges posterior predictive p-values for complier causal effects with randomization-based multiple comparisons adjustments; the results are valid familywise...

  4. Randomization Inference for Outcomes with Clumping at Zero

    Keele, Luke; Miratrix, Luke Weisman
    In randomized experiments, randomization forms the “reasoned basis for inference.” While randomization inference is well developed for continuous and binary outcomes, there has been comparatively little work for outcomes with nonnegative support and clumping at zero. Typically outcomes of this type have been modeled using parametric models that impose strong distributional assumptions. This article proposes new randomization inference procedures for nonnegative outcomes with clumping at zero. Instead of making distributional assumptions, we propose various assumptions about the nature of response to treatment. Our methods form a set of nonparametric methods for outcomes that are often described as zero-inflated. These methods...

  5. Big Data Analysis in Higher Education: Promises and Pitfalls

    Dede, Christopher J.; Mitros, Piotr; Ho, Andrew Dean
    The grand challenge in data-intensive research and analysis in higher education is to find the means to extract knowledge from the extremely rich data sets being generated today and to distill this into usable information for students, instructors, and the public.

  6. Assessment in Early Literacy Research

    Snow, Catherine Elizabeth; Oh, Soojin
    Much of what we know about children’s language and literacy development derives from efforts to assess those skills. In fact, language and literacy development might be taken as a case study in the history of assessment—a local domain which displays the full range of tensions, challenges, and approaches that have characterized the field of behavioral assessment, and in particular, the assessment of young children. In this chapter, we discuss language and literacy assessment in young children as an illustrative special case of issues that extend far beyond the language/literacy domain. In that larger domain, as in this specific one, three...

  7. Experimental Effects of Word Generation on Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Perspective Taking in High Poverty Middle Schools

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, James Sangil; LaRusso, Maria; Kim, Ha Yeon; Selman, Robert Louis; Uccelli, Paola; Barnes, Sophie Pauline; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine Elizabeth
    Time to Act, a 2009 report of the Carnegie Corporation’s Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy, concludes that U.S. students are ill-prepared for the literacy challenges of 21st century higher education, employment, and citizenship. The poor performance of U.S. high schoolers in international comparisons contrasts sharply with the relatively good performance of U.S. 4th graders. The success of 4th graders, and indeed the recent rise in 4th grade NAEP scores, is believed to reflect the success of federal and state policies focused on primary literacy. It seems we have learned to teach students to read at the 4th grade level without...

  8. Evaluating the impact of different early literacy interventions on low-income Costa Rican kindergarteners

    San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Arias, Melissa; Villers, Renata; Snow, Catherine Elizabeth
    Grade retention has been the de facto policy for children with academic difficulties in many Latin American countries [Schiefelbein, E., & Wolff, L. (1992). Repetition and inadequate achievement in Latin America’s primary schools: a review of magnitudes, causes, relationships, and strategies. Washington, DC: World Bank.]. In Costa Rica, 14.9% of public school children were retained in first grade in 2002. In a study of first grade classrooms in Costa Rica, children identified as in need of repeating first grade were found to have lower levels of reading ability [Rolla San Francisco, A., Arias, M., Villers, R., & Snow, C. (in...

  9. What Counts as Literacy in Early Childhood?

    Snow, Catherine Elizabeth
    Issues of literacy development are a major source of worry to American educators. Worries about whether U.S. children read well enough emerge every time results of an international comparison are published. Many of the provisions of the No Child Left Behind legislation are directed toward more stringent assessment and more effective instruction in literacy. Concerns about school readiness have led to interest in the quality of preschool programs, to the expansion of preschool programs designed as prevention or intervention efforts for children of low-income parents, and to movements toward publicly financed kindergarten classrooms for four-year-olds, to provide more time for...

  10. Professional Development for Reading Achievement: Results from the Collaborative Language and Literacy Instruction Project (CLLIP)

    Porche, Michelle V.; Pallante, Daniel H.; Snow, Catherine Elizabeth
    The Collaborative Language and Literacy Instruction Project (CLLIP) is a model of professional development designed to help teachers incorporate research-based practices of literacy instruction, support mastery, and sustained use of these practices through coaching, and serve as a foundation for whole-school reform efforts. We describe the model, intervention, implementation, and subsequent results from an exploratory study in which we tested student literacy outcomes for kindergartners and fourth graders in the classrooms of CLLIP teachers against a matched comparison group. Exploratory results from a rural cohort of elementary school teachers suggest support for skill building in the alphabetic principle, phonemic awareness,...

  11. Assessing Reading Comprehension in Bilinguals

    August, Diane; Francis, David J.; Hsu, Han‐Ya Annie; Snow, Catherine Elizabeth
    A new measure of reading comprehension, the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension (DARC), designed to reflect central comprehension processes while minimizing decoding and language demands, was pilot tested. We conducted three pilot studies to assess the DARC’s feasibility, reliability, comparability across Spanish and English, developmental sensitivity, and relation to standardized measures. The first study, carried out with 16 second‐through sixth‐grade English language learners, showed that the DARC items were at the appropriate reading level. The second pilot study, with 28 native Spanish‐speaking fourth graders who had scored poorly on the Woodcock‐Johnson Language Proficiency Reading Passages subtest, revealed a range of...

  12. La metodología RETAMHE y el proyecto CHILDES : breviario para la codificación y análisis del lenguaje infantil

    Díez Itza, Eliseo; Snow, Catherine Elizabeth; MacWhinney, Brian
    En este artículo se investigan algunas cuestiones metodológicas relativas al estudio del lenguaje infantil y se presenta la instrumentación y el software desarrollados en el proyecto CHILDES (Sistema de Intercambio de Datos del Lenguaje Infantil). El sistema proporciona potentes herramientas para investigar en el marco de la metodología de Registro, Transcripción y Análisis de Muestras de Habla Espontánea (RETAMHE). Se proporciona información del sistema de codificación (CHAT) que permite introducir finas distinciones en el proceso de transcripción, al tiempo que se exponen los requerimientos básicos (minCHAT) para crear archivos CHAT. El paquete de programas (CLAN) específicamente diseñados para analizar esos...

  13. Communicative Intents Expressed by Parents in Interaction with Young Children.

    Pan, Barbara; Imbens-Bailey, Alison; Winner, Kendra; Snow, Catherine Elizabeth
    Although much attention has been devoted to lexical, grammatical, and semantic aspects of child-directed speech, less is known about its pragmatics. This paper describes a longitudinal study of the communicative intents used by parents in interaction with their 14-, 20-, and 32-month-olds (n = 52). With 14-month-olds, parents used a small core set of communicative intents. This set grew in size and sophistication with increasing child age. Comparison with children's intents showed that some commonly used parental communicative intents were rare in children's language at all three ages. As children grew older, parental use of directive intents declined and child-centered...

  14. The Interactional Origins of Foreigner Talk: Municipal Employees and Foreign Workers

    Snow, Catherine Elizabeth; Eeden, Roos; Muysken, Pieter

  15. Reading and Language in the Early Grades

    Snow, Catherine Elizabeth; Matthews, Timothy Joseph
    How does literacy develop in children’s early years, and what programs or practices promote adequate literacy for all children? These are the questions Catherine Snow and Timothy Matthews tackle in this article. Fundamental literacy skills can be grouped into two categories, Snow and Matthews write. The first category is constrained skills, which are readily teachable because they’re finite: for example, the 26 letters of the alphabet, or a set of 20 to 30 common spelling rules. These skills have a ceiling; young children can and do achieve perfect performance. As they grow older, though, children need to understand words rarely encountered in...

  16. Literacy Challenges for the Twenty-First Century: Introducing the Issue

    Murnane, Richard J.; Sawhill, Isabel; Snow, Catherine Elizabeth
    Advanced literacy is a prerequisite to adult success in the twenty-first century, By advanced literacy we do not mean simply the ability to decode words or read a text, as necessary as these elementary skills are, Instead we mean the ability to use reading to gain access to the world of knowledge, to synthesize information from different sources, to evaluate arguments, and to learn totally new subjects, These higher-level skills are now essential to young Americans who wish to explore fields as disparate as history, science, and mathematics; to succeed in postsecondary education, whether vocational or academic; to earn a...

  17. Teen Culture, Technology and Literacy Instruction: Urban Adolescent Students’ Perspectives

    Li, Jia; Snow, Catherine Elizabeth; White, Claire
    Modern teens have pervasively integrated new technologies into their lives, and technology has become an important component of teen popular culture. Educators have pointed out the promise of exploiting technology to enhance students’ language and literacy skills and general academic success. However, there is no consensus on the effect of technology on teens, and scant literature is available that incorporates the perspective of urban and linguistically diverse students on the feasibility of applying new technologies in teaching and learning literacy in intact classrooms. This paper reports urban adolescents’ perspectives on the use of technology within teen culture, for learning in...

  18. Examining Racial Bias in Education: A New Approach

    Jacoby-Senghor, Drew; Fei, Jessica Tseming; Sinclair, Stacey; Warikoo, Natasha Kumar
    In this article we argue that social-psychological research on implicit racial associations—relatively unconscious associations based on race—is a fruitful area to explore for a greater understanding of how racial bias affects children in schools. We highlight the key insights of research on implicit racial associations and their implications for education. Further, we identify areas for research on implicit racial associations in education, calling for collaboration between scholars of racial inequality in education and scholars of implicit racial associations. This research is likely to provide a productive new perspective for understanding why and when teachers and other school personnel engage in...

  19. Decomposing Treatment Effect Variation

    Ding, Peng; Feller, Avi; Miratrix, Luke Weisman
    Understanding and characterizing treatment effect variation in randomized experiments has become essential for going beyond the "black box" of the average treatment effect. Nonetheless, traditional statistical approaches often ignore or assume away such variation. In the context of a randomized experiment, this paper proposes a framework for decomposing overall treatment effect variation into a systematic component that is explained by observed covariates, and a remaining idiosyncratic component. Our framework is fully randomization-based, with estimates of treatment effect variation that are fully justified by the randomization itself. Our framework can also account for noncompliance, which is an important practical complication. We...

  20. “There is still peace. There are no wars.”: Prioritizing unity over diversity in Botswana’s social studies policies and practices and the implications for positive peace

    Mulimbi, Bethany Lynn; Dryden-Peterson, Sarah Elizabeth

Aviso de cookies: Usamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios, para análisis estadístico y para mostrarle publicidad. Si continua navegando consideramos que acepta su uso en los términos establecidos en la Política de cookies.