Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 4.770

  1. Seasonal variation in food intake and the interaction effects of sex and age among adults in southern Brazil

    Rossato, Sinara; Olinto, M T A; Henn, R L; Moreira, L B; Camey, S A; Anjos, L A; Wahrlich, V; Waissmann, W; Fuchs, F D; Fuchs, S C
    Background/Objective: Because studies have evidenced variations 1 in nutrient intake, further investigation of the interaction between demographic characteristics and the seasons is necessary. We aimed to test the differences in food intake throughout the seasons and the interaction between the seasons and sex and age. Methods: This study included 273 individuals. Food intake was evaluated with 24-hour dietary recalls, and the reported food items were sorted into food groups. We performed the test on the differences in intake of food groups throughout the seasons with repeated measures and on the interaction by using the Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE). Results: Intake...

  2. Pathogenesis and classification of eosinophil disorders: a review of recent developments in the field

    Valent, Peter; Gleich, Gerald J; Reiter, Andreas; Roufosse, Florence; Weller, Peter Fahey; Hellmann, Andrzej; Metzgeroth, Georgia; Leiferman, Kristin M; Arock, Michel; Sotlar, Karl; Butterfield, Joseph H; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Vandenberghe, Peter; Haferlach, Torsten; Bochner, Bruce S; Gotlib, Jason; Horny, Hans-Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Klion, Amy D
    Eosinophils and their products play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various reactive and neoplastic disorders. Depending on the underlying disease, molecular defect and involved cytokines, hypereosinophilia may develop and may lead to organ damage. In other patients, persistent eosinophilia is accompanied by typical clinical findings, but the causative role and impact of eosinophilia remain uncertain. For patients with eosinophil-mediated organ pathology, early therapeutic intervention with agents reducing eosinophil counts can be effective in limiting or preventing irreversible organ damage. Therefore, it is important to approach eosinophil disorders and related syndromes early by using established criteria, to perform all...

  3. Novel targeted therapies for eosinophilic disorders

    Wechsler, Michael E.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Bochner, Bruce S.; Gauvreau, Gail M.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Henkel, Tim; Kolbeck, Roland; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ortega, Hector; Patel, Jatin; Prussin, Calman; Renzi, Paolo; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Roufosse, Florence; Simon, Dagmar; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weller, Peter Fahey; Klion, Amy D.
    Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a diverse group of conditions characterized by clinical manifestations attributable to eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of tissues. HESs are chronic disorders with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the availability of targeted chemotherapeutic agents, including imatinib, has improved quality of life and survival in some patients with HESs, additional agents with increased efficacy and decreased toxicity are sorely needed. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of eosinophil biology with an emphasis on potential targets of pharmacotherapy and to provide a summary of potential eosinophil-targeting agents, including those in development, in clinical trials, or...

  4. Workshop report from the National Institutes of Health Taskforce on the Research Needs of Eosinophil-Associated Diseases (TREAD)

    Bochner, Bruce S.; Book, Wendy; Busse, William W.; Butterfield, Joseph; Furuta, Glenn T.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Klion, Amy D.; Lee, James J.; Leiferman, Kristin M.; Minnicozzi, Michael; Moqbel, Redwan; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Wechsler, Michael E.; Weller, Peter Fahey
    BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are blood cells that are often found in high numbers in the tissues of allergic conditions and helminthic parasite infections. The pathophysiologic roles that eosinophils may serve in other human "eosinophil-associated" diseases remain obscure. OBJECTIVE: National Institutes of Health (NIH) Institutes and the Office of Disease Prevention assembled an international taskforce of clinical and basic scientists with the charge to propose and prioritize unmet research needs in eosinophil-associated diseases. METHODS: The taskforce used an organ system approach to identify the different and common themes of eosinophil cell involvement in these diseases. In early 2012, a draft document was...

  5. Eosinophilic pneumonias

    Akuthota, P.; Weller, Peter Fahey
    This review starts with discussions of several infectious causes of eosinophilic pneumonia, which are almost exclusively parasitic in nature. Pulmonary infections due specifically to Ascaris, hookworms, Strongyloides, Paragonimus, filariasis, and Toxocara are considered in detail. The discussion then moves to noninfectious causes of eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration, including allergic sensitization to Aspergillus, acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonias, Churg-Strauss syndrome, hypereosinophilic syndromes, and pulmonary eosinophilia due to exposure to specific medications or toxins.

  6. Eosinophil purification from peripheral blood

    Akuthota, Praveen; Capron, Kelsey; Weller, Peter Fahey
    Eosinophils are granulocytes integral to allergic inflammation and parasitic responses and comprise 1-4 % of the circulating leukocytes in human beings under normal conditions. Isolation of human eosinophils allows for ex vivo and in vitro experimentation, providing a valuable tool for the study of allergic mechanisms. Here, we describe a technique for the isolation of human eosinophils by negative selection from whole blood obtained by venipuncture.

  7. Pre-embedding immunogold labeling to optimize protein localization at subcellular compartments and membrane microdomains of leukocytes

    Melo, Rossana; Morgan, Ellen; Monahan-Earley, Rita; Dvorak, Ann Marie; Weller, Peter Fahey
    Precise immunolocalization of proteins within a cell is central to understanding cell processes and functions such as intracellular trafficking and secretion of molecules during immune responses. Here we describe a protocol for ultrastructural detection of proteins in leukocytes. The method uses a pre-embedding approach (immunolabeling before standard processing for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)). This protocol combines several strategies for ultrastructure and antigen preservation, robust blocking of nonspecific binding sites, as well as superior antibody penetration for detecting molecules at subcellular compartments and membrane microdomains. A further advantage of this technique is that electron microscopy (EM) processing is quick. This method...

  8. The transcription factor XBP1 is selectively required for eosinophil differentiation

    Bettigole, Sarah Elizabeth; Lis, Raphael; Adoro, Stanley; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Spencer, Lisa Ann; Weller, Peter Fahey; Glimcher, Laurie Hollis
    The transcription factor XBP1 has been linked to the development of highly secretory tissues such as plasma cells and Paneth cells, yet its function in granulocyte maturation has remained unknown. Here we discovered an unexpectedly selective and absolute requirement for XBP1 in eosinophil differentiation without an effect on the survival of basophils or neutrophils. Progenitors of myeloid cells and eosinophils selectively activated the endoribonuclease IRE1α and spliced Xbp1 mRNA without inducing parallel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways. Without XBP1, nascent eosinophils exhibited massive defects in the post-translational maturation of key granule proteins required for survival, and these unresolvable structural...

  9. Key findings and clinical implications from The Epidemiology and Natural History of Asthma: Outcomes and Treatment Regimens (TENOR) study

    Chipps, Bradley E.; Zeiger, Robert S.; Borish, Larry; Wenzel, Sally E.; Yegin, Ashley; Hayden, Mary Lou; Miller, Dave P.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Simons, F. Estelle R.; Szefler, Stanley J.; Weiss, Scott Tillman; Haselkorn, Tmirah
    Patients with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma are an understudied population but account for considerable asthma morbidity, mortality, and costs. The Epidemiology and Natural History of Asthma: Outcomes and Treatment Regimens (TENOR) study was a large, 3-year, multicenter, observational cohort study of 4756 patients (n = 3489 adults ≥18 years of age, n = 497 adolescents 13-17 years of age, and n = 770 children 6-12 years of age) with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma. TENOR's primary objective was to characterize the natural history of disease in this cohort. Data assessed semiannually and annually included demographics, medical history, comorbidities, asthma control, asthma-related...

  10. The genomic origins of asthma

    Sharma, Sunita; Chhabra, Divya; Kho, Alvin Thong-Juak; Hayden, Lystra P.; Tantisira, Kelan; Weiss, Scott Tillman
    Lung function tracks from the earliest age that it can be reliably measured. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that most variants identified for common complex traits are both regulatory in function and active during fetal development. Fetal programming of gene expression during development is critical to the formation of a normal lung. An understanding of how fetal developmental genes related to diseases of the lungs and airways is a critical area for research. This review article will consider the developmental origins hypothesis, the stages of normal lung development and a variety of environmental exposures that might influence the developmental...

  11. Incidence and Mortality of Hip Fractures in the United States

    Brauer, Carmen A.; Cutler, David M.; Coca-Perraillon, Marcelo
    Context: Understanding the incidence and subsequent mortality following hip fracture is essential to measuring population health and the value of improvements in health care. Objective: To examine trends in hip fracture incidence and resulting mortality over 20 years in the US Medicare population. Design, Setting, and Patients: Observational study using data from a 20% sample of Medicare claims from 1985-2005. In patients 65 years or older, we identified 786 717 hip fractures for analysis. Medication data were obtained from 109 805 respondents to the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey between 1992 and 2005. Main Outcome Measures: Age- and sex-specific incidence of hip...

  12. Potential Consequences of Reforming Medicare Into a Competitive Bidding System

    Song, Zirui; Cutler, David M.; Chernew, Michael Esman

  13. Hospitals, Market Share, and Consolidation

    Cutler, David M.; Scott Morton, Fiona

  14. Who Benefits From Health System Change?

    Cutler, David M.

  15. A New Federal Health Care Strategy

    Cutler, David M.
    Although Ebola has consumed the health care headlines of late, US consumers are worried about more than this dangerous viral disease. The cost and quality of medical care remain paramount in people’s minds.

  16. Payment Reform Is About to Become a Reality

    Cutler, David M.

  17. Insurers Again at Odds With Hospitals and Physicians

    Cutler, David M.

  18. Campaign Wars: Health Policy in a Fantasy World

    Cutler, David M.
    National health reform debates reminds me of a night at the movies. On the one hand, there are true-life stories like “Apollo 13,” that profile actual people and the problems they face. And then there are the fantasies, like “Star Wars,” in which magical things happen and the rules of normal life don’t apply. As I view the world of “Campaign Wars,” I have developed the uneasy impression that Republican health care proposals exist only in a fantasy universe.

  19. On human nature and human rights

    Marks, Stephen P.

  20. Cambodia: Civil society, power and stalled democracy

    Marks, Stephen P.; Naraharisetti, Ramya

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