Hamnett, Hilary J.; McKie, Amanda E.; Morrison, Calum
The ability to work in a group is an important skill for graduates. Although the experiences of undergraduate students with group work have been extensively explored, there is much less information in the literature regarding postgraduate students and no information on those enrolled in science programmes. In this study, participants from a taught applied chemistry postgraduate MSc programme report their attitudes and experiences with group work. The usefulness of this approach and of scientific discourse for learning and teaching several key concepts is also explored. Participants in the study completed attitudinal questionnaires and group/individual multiple choice question (MCQ) tests. They...
Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Ogden, Ray W.
The microstructure of arteries, consisting, in particular, of collagen, elastin and vascular smooth muscle cells, plays a very significant role in their biomechanical response during a cardiac cycle. In this paper we highlight the microstructure and the contributions of each of its components to the overall mechanical behavior. We also describe the changes of the microstructure which occur as a result of abdominal aortic aneurysms and disease such as atherosclerosis. We also focus on how the passive and active constituents are incorporated into a mathematical model without going into detail of the mathematical formulation. We conclude by mentioning open problems...
Uusi-Kerttula, Hanni; Davies, James A; Thompson, Jill; Wongthida, Phonphimon; Evgin, Laura; Shim, Kevin G; Bradshaw, Angela; Baker, Alexander T; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Jones, Rachel; Hanna, Louise; Hudson, Emma; Vile, Richard; Chester, John D; Parker, Alan L
Purpose: Virotherapies are maturing in the clinical setting. Adenoviruses (Ad) are excellent vectors for the manipulability and tolerance of transgenes. Poor tumor selectivity, off-target sequestration, and immune inactivation hamper clinical efficacy. We sought to completely redesign Ad5 into a refined, tumor-selective virotherapy targeted to αvβ6 integrin, which is expressed in a range of aggressively transformed epithelial cancers but nondetectable in healthy tissues.
Experimental Design: Ad5NULL-A20 harbors mutations in each major capsid protein to preclude uptake via all native pathways. Tumor-tropism via αvβ6 targeting was achieved by genetic insertion of A20 peptide (NAVPNLRGDLQVLAQKVART) within the fiber knob protein. The vector's selectivity in...
Jones, Kelly M; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Blanton, Sarah; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Theadom, Alice; Thrift, Amanda G; Wolf, Steven L; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Parmar, Priya; Maujean, Annick; Ranta, Annemarei; Cadilhac, Dominique; Sanya, Emmanuel O; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Arora, Deepti; Obiako, Reginald O; Saposnik, Gustavo; Balalla, Shivanthi; Bornstein, Natan M; Langhorne, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Brown, Nita; Brainin, Michael; Taylor, Denise; Feigin, Valery L
To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial of an instructional and educational stroke DVD and determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of this intervention in a multinational context.
Non-funded, pilot randomized controlled trial of intervention versus usual care.
International, multicentre, community-based.
Community-living adults up to three years post stroke with moderate to severe disability and their nominated informal caregivers.
Intervention patients viewed and practised rehabilitation techniques demonstrated in the DVD over six weeks.
Trial feasibility by number of active recruitment sites, recruitment efficiency, randomization and follow-up. Intervention feasibility by patient and caregiver impressions. Preliminary efficacy by the quality of life –...
Morton, Alec; Bach, Peter B.; Briggs, Andrew
No abstract available.
Handayani, Wuri; Haniffa, Roszaini; Hudaib, Mohammad
Microfinance institutions (MFIs), including Islamic microfinance institutions (IMFIs) in Muslim countries, have spread across the globe and transformed into a new industry. However, how IMFIs in Indonesia evolved to become an important sector serving society have not been rigorously explored. Therefore, this paper addresses the lacuna on the emergence of an industry by examining the development of Islamic microfinance sector in Indonesia.
The paper adopts the historical research method to narrate the evolution of this specific sector based on data collected through oral history and published academic research documents during various periods of Indonesia’s economic and political milieu.
Puxty, Kathryn; McLoone, Philip; Quasim, Tara; Sloan, Billy; Kinsella, John; Morrison, David S.
Within the surgical population admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), cancer is a common condition. However, clinicians can be reluctant to admit patients with cancer to ICUs owing to concerns about survival. To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of surgical patients with and without cancer who are admitted to ICUs. An observational retrospective cohort study using ICU audit records linked to hospitalization discharge summaries, cancer registrations, and death records of all 16 general adult ICUs in the West of Scotland was conducted. All 25 017 surgical ICU admissions between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011, were included, and data...
Drummond, Russell; Malkin, Samuel; Du Preez, Michelle; Lee, Xin Ying; Hunt, Barnaby
To evaluate the cost‐effectiveness of IDegLira versus basal‐bolus therapy (BBT) with insulin glargine U100 plus up to 4 times daily insulin aspart for the management of type 2 diabetes in the UK.
A Microsoft Excel model was used to evaluate the cost‐utility of IDegLira versus BBT over a 1‐year time horizon. Clinical input data were taken from the treat‐to‐target DUAL VII trial, conducted in patients unable to achieve adequate glycaemic control (HbA1c <7.0%) with basal insulin, with IDegLira associated with lower rates of hypoglycaemia and reduced body mass index (BMI) in comparison with BBT, with similar HbA1c reductions. Costs (expressed...
Calixto, Cristiane P.G.; Guo, Wenbin; James, Allan B.; Tzioutziou, Nikoleta A.; Entizne, Juan C.; Panter, Paige E.; Knight, Heather; Nimmo, Hugh; Zhang, Runxuan; Brown, John W.S.
Plants have adapted to tolerate and survive constantly changing environmental conditions by re-programming gene expression. The dynamics of the contribution of alternative splicing (AS) to stress responses are unknown. RNA-sequencing of a time-series of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to cold determines the timing of significant AS changes. This shows a massive and rapid AS response with coincident waves of transcriptional and AS activity occurring in the first few hours of temperature reduction, and further AS throughout the cold. In particular, hundreds of genes showed changes in expression due to rapidly occurring AS in response to cold ("early AS" genes); these...
Dayan, Natalie; Schlosser, Kenny; Stewart, Duncan J.; Delles, Christian; Kaur, Amanpreet; Pilote, Louise
Women who have had preeclampsia (PE) are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying pathophysiology of this risk remains unclear, but potentially involves subclinical vascular damage or dysfunction. Alterations in the levels of circulating microRNAs may be implicated, as they are known to play pervasive roles in vascular biology. We investigated whether levels of circulating microRNAs are altered between women with premature acute coronary syndrome (ACS), with and without a history of PE.
Women with premature ACS (age ≤ 55 years) were categorized based on a prior history of PE or normotensive pregnancy. Relative plasma levels...
Li, Ke; Fissette, Skye D.; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Middleton, Zoe E.; Boyer, Alistair; Li, Weiming
Both enantiomers of petromyroxol are putative pheromones in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Here, we describe the separation and quantification of the petromyroxol enantiomers using high‐performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The separation was tested on a wide range of chiral columns with normal phases, and effects of the chromatographic parameters such as mobile phase and temperature on the separation were optimized. The AD‐H column showed the best separation of enantiomers with n‐hexane and ethanol as the mobile phase. The enantiomers were detected by multiple reaction monitoring with a positive atmospheric‐pressure chemical ionization on triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Validation revealed that...
Leigh, W.J.; Zadoks, R.N.; Jaglarz, A.; Costa, J.Z.; Foster, G.; Thompson, K.D.
The aim of this study was to design a set of primers for specific detection and identification of Streptococcus agalactiae in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that can detect a diverse range of S. agalactiae isolates from different hosts and that it is capable of discriminating between S. agalactiae and other species that are closely related or potentially present in aquaculture environments, notably Streptococcus iniae.
Methods and Results:
Primers, based on the groEL2 gene of S. agalactiae, were shown to be epidemiologically sensitive to 97 isolates of S. agalactiae, representing 11 clonal complexes derived from piscine, terrestrial and aquatic mammalian host...
Stott, David J.; Applegate, William B.
No abstract available.
Tofte, N.; Lindhardt, M.; Adamova, K.; Beige, J.; Beulens, J. W. J.; Birkenfeld, A. L.; Currie, G.; Delles, C.; Dimos, I.; Francová, L.; Frimodt-Møller, M.; Girman, P.; Göke, R.; Havrdova, T.; Kooy, A.; Mischak, H.; Navis, G.; Nijpels, G.; Noutsou, M.; Ortiz, A.; Parvanova, A.; Persson, F.; Ruggenenti, P. L.; Rutters, F.; Rychlík, I.; Spasovski, G.; Speeckaert, M.; Trillini, M.; von der Leyen, H.; Rossing, P.
To compare clinical baseline data in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, who are at high or low risk of diabetic kidney disease based on the urinary proteomics classifier CKD273.
We conducted a prospective, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled international multicentre clinical trial and observational study in participants with Type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, stratified into high‐ or low‐risk groups based on CKD273 score. Clinical baseline data for the whole cohort and stratified by risk groups are reported. The associations between CKD273 and traditional risk factors for diabetic kidney disease were evaluated using univariate and logistic regression analysis.
Cull, Frith; Choo, Shimin; Milner, Thomas D.; Kontorinis, Georgios; Marshall, John
No abstract available.
Docherty, Kieran F.; Jhund, Pardeep S.
No abstract available.
Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Toiyama, Yuji; Yamamoto, Akira; Shigemori, Tsunehiko; Yin, Chengzeng; Narumi, Aya; Omura, Yusuke; Ide, Shozo; Kitajima, Takahito; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Hiromi; Hiro, Junichiro; Yoshiyama, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Minako; Araki, Toshimitsu; McMillan, Donald C.; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato
Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of skeletal muscle mass, accompanied by decreased muscle strength, and consists of myopenia and myosteatosis. Recent evidence has suggested the predictive value of sarcopenia for the risk of perioperative and oncological outcomes in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical impact of myopenia and myosteatosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.
We analyzed the preoperative psoas muscle mass index and intramuscular adipose tissue content using preoperative computed tomography images from 308 CRC patients using statistical methods.
Despite no significant correlation between myosteatosis and prognosis, preoperative myopenia significantly correlated with...
Hersh, Marion Ann; García Ramírez, Alejandro R.
A wide range of portable and wearable electronic travel aids have been developed to enable visually impaired people to move around public spaces without a sighted guide. However, few of them have gone beyond the prototype stage and the long cane and guide dog are still the main mobility aids. Despite the importance of evaluation to determine, for instance, effective functioning and end-user satisfaction, a standard approach has not yet been developed for mobility aids. The paper reports the evaluation of a low-cost electronic long cane, developed by the authors and colleagues in Brazil. It used a two-part methodology involving...
Shahzad, Zaigham; Kellermeier, Fabian; Armstrong, Emily M.; Rogers, Simon; Lobet, Guillaume; Amtmann, Anna; Hills, Adrian
If we want to understand how the environment has shaped the appearance and behavior of living creatures we need to compare groups of individuals that differ in genetic make-up and environment experience. For complex phenotypic features, such as body posture or facial expression in humans, comparison is not straightforward because some of the contributing factors cannot easily be quantified or averaged across individuals. Therefore, computational methods are used to reconstruct representative prototypes using a range of algorithms for filling in missing information and calculating means. The same problem applies to the root system architecture (RSA) of plants. Several computer programs...
Vanderbauwhede, Wim; Davidson, Gavin
Massively parallel accelerators such as GPGPUs, manycores and FPGAs represent a powerful and affordable tool for scientists who look to speed up simulations of complex systems. However, porting code to such devices requires a detailed understanding of heterogeneous programming tools and effective strategies for parallelization. In this paper we present a source to source compilation approach with whole-program analysis to automatically transform single-threaded FORTRAN 77 legacy code into OpenCL-accelerated programs with parallelized kernels.
The main contributions of our work are: (1) whole-source refactoring to allow any subroutine in the code to be offloaded to an accelerator. (2) Minimization of the data...