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Enlighten (154.243 recursos)

Enlighten is the University of Glasgow's institutional repository service for published research material including peer-reviewed journal articles, published conference papers,books and book chapters

Status = Early Online Publication

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 4.274

  1. Self-sorting of heteroanions in the assembly of cross-shaped polyoxometalate clusters

    Zheng, Qi; Vilà-Nadal, Laia; Lang, Zhongling; Chen, Jia-jia; Long, De-Liang; Mathieson, Jennifer S.; Poblet, Josep M.; Cronin, Leroy
    Heteroanion (HA) moieties have a key role in templating of heteropolyoxometalate (HPA) architectures, but clusters templated by two different templates are rarely reported. Herein, we show how a cross-shaped HPA-based architecture can self-sort the HA templates by pairing two different guests into a divacant {XYW15O54} building block, with four of these building block units being linked together to complete the cross-shaped architecture. We exploited this observation to incorporate HA templates into well-defined positions within the clusters, leading to the isolation of a collection of mixed-HA templated cross-shaped polyanions [(XYW15O54)4(WO2)4]32–/36– (X = H–P, Y = Se, Te, As). The template positions...

  2. Effect of back-pressure forcing on shock train structures in rectangular channels

    Gnani, F.; Zare-Behtash, H.; Kontis, K.
    The deceleration of a supersonic flow to the subsonic regime inside a high-speed engine occurs through a series of shock waves, known as a shock train. The generation of such a flow structure is due to the interaction between the shock waves and the boundary layer inside a long and narrow duct. The understanding of the physics governing the shock train is vital for the improvement of the design of high-speed engines and the development of flow control strategies. The present paper analyses the sensitivity of the shock train configuration to a back-pressure variation. The complex characteristics of the shock...

  3. Visit-to-visit lipid variability: clinical significance, effects of lipid-lowering treatment, and (pharmaco)genetics

    Smit, Roelof A. J.; Jukema, Johan Wouter; Postmus, Iris; Ford, Ian; Slagboom, Pieternella Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Le Cessie, Saskia; Trompet, Stella
    In recent years, visit-to-visit variability of serum lipids has been linked to both clinical outcomes and surrogate markers for vascular disease. In this article, we present an overview of the current evidence connecting this intraindividual variability to these outcome measures, discuss its interplay with lipid-lowering treatment, and describe the literature regarding genetic factors of possible interest. In addition, we undertook an explorative genome-wide association analysis on visit-to-visit variability of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, examining additive effects in 2530 participants from the placebo arm of the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk trial. While we...

  4. Peer-review in practice: eight years of Aropä

    Purchase, Helen; Hamer, John
    Articles discussing and analysing student peer-review activities proliferate the educational literature, typically describing one or more class exercises where students provide feedback on each other’s work. These papers usually focus on a peer-review activity designed as a scholarly study, and make conclusions about its success or otherwise. There is not one standard model for ‘peer-review’, and information on the many different assessment designs used is distributed over an increasing number of publications and websites. This paper provides a meta-review of peer-review activities as they are implemented in practice, using configuration data from over a thousand assignments conducted using an online...

  5. Cortisol evaluation during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury - a prospective study

    Bensalah, Meriem; Donaldson, Malcolm; Aribi, Yamina; Iabassen, Malek; Cherfi, Lyes; Nebbal, Mustapha; Medjaher, Meriem; Haffaf, ElMehdi; Abdennebi, Benaissa; Guenane, Mustapha; Djermane, Adel; Kemali, Zahra; OuldKablia, Samia
    Background: Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is difficult in the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI) Aim: to assess the frequency and predictive factors of AI in victims of TBI from Algiers. Methods: Between November 2009 and December 2013, TBI victims had a single 8-9 a.m. serum cortisol measurement during the acute post injury period (0-7 days). AI was defined according to basal cortisol levels of 83, 276 and 414 nmol/L. Variables studied were TBI severity according to Glasgow coma scale, duration of intubation and coma, pupillary status, hypotension, anemia, brain imaging findings, diabetes insipidus and medication. Insulin tolerance test was performed during the...

  6. Atypical chemokine receptor 4 shapes activated B cell fate

    Kara, Ervin E.; Bastow, Cameron R.; McKenzie, Duncan R.; Gregor, Carly E.; Fenix, Kevin A.; Babb, Rachelle; Norton, Todd S.; Zotos, Dimitra; Rodda, Lauren B.; Hermes, Jana R.; Bourne, Katherine; Gilchrist, Derek S.; Nibbs, Robert J.; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Vinuesa, Carola G.; Tarlinton, David M.; Brink, Robert; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Cyster, Jason G.; Comerford, Iain; McColl, Shaun R.
    Activated B cells can initially differentiate into three functionally distinct fates-early plasmablasts (PBs), germinal center (GC) B cells, or early memory B cells-by mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we identify atypical chemokine receptor 4 (ACKR4), a decoy receptor that binds and degrades CCR7 ligands CCL19/CCL21, as a regulator of early activated B cell differentiation. By restricting initial access to splenic interfollicular zones (IFZs), ACKR4 limits the early proliferation of activated B cells, reducing the numbers available for subsequent differentiation. Consequently, ACKR4 deficiency enhanced early PB and GC B cell responses in a CCL19/CCL21-dependent and B cell-intrinsic manner. Conversely, aberrant...

  7. From physiology and nutrition to biological sciences, and back again!

    Davison, Gareth; Aldred, Sarah; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Gray, Stuart
    No abstract available.

  8. An intramolecular oxa-Michael reaction on α,β-unsaturated α-amino-δ-hydroxycarboxylic acid esters. Synthesis of functionalized 1,3-dioxanes

    Becerra-Figueroa, L.; Movilla, S.; Prunet, J.; Miscione, G. P.; Gamba-Sánchez, D.
    A highly diastereoselective intramolecular oxa-Michael reaction on α,β-unsaturated α-amino-δ-hydroxycarboxylic acid esters is presented; 1,3-dioxanes functionalized in positions 2,4 and 6 were obtained in good yields and with excellent selectivities; an experimental and computational study was carried out to understand the reaction course in terms of yields and selectivities. This reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions using highly electrophilic aldehydes and ketones.

  9. Problematizing silences in intangible heritage: unsettling historical records of women in protests

    Kosmala, Katarzyna; Beall, T.S.
    This paper addresses questions of women’s visibility in constructed histories, as well as levels of recognition concerning their participation in politics through historical narratives. In particular, historical narratives representing women in protest in the context of waterfront heritage zones associated with the shipbuilding industry are examined, based on examples of two public art projects: Strong Women of the Clydeside: Protests and Suffragettes from Govan’s Hidden Histories led by the artist t s Beall in the Govan area of Glasgow, Scotland and Shipyard is a Woman by Arteria Association and Metropolitanka in Gdansk, Poland.

  10. The role of social media in enhancing guanxi and perceived effectiveness of E-commerce institutional mechanisms in online marketplace

    Chong, Alain Yee Loong; Lacka, Ewelina; Boying, Li; Chan, Hing Kai
    This study extends literature on e-commerce trust and repurchase intentions by exploring the role of swift guanxi and the perceived effectiveness of institutional mechanisms (PEEIM) in the context of a Chinese e-marketplace – Taobao. We explore how Taobao’s social media technologies (online reviews and instant messenger) can improve swift guanxi and PEEIM by increasing online interactivity and presence. We find that buyers’ PEEIM negatively moderates trust in online sellers and repurchase intentions. We show that swift guanxi, created by social media’s interactivity and presence, enhances trust, which further increases repurchase intentions. Theoretical and managerial implications and future research directions are...

  11. Beta-blocker therapy and clinical outcomes in patients with moderate COPD and heightened cardiovascular risk: an observational sub-study of SUMMIT

    Dransfield, Mark T.; McAllister, David A.; Anderson, Julie A.; Brook, Robert D.; Calverley, Peter M.A.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Crim, Courtney; Gallot, Natacha; Martinez, Fernando J.; Scanlon, Paul D.; Yates, Julie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Newby, David E.
    Rationale: Cardiovascular disease is a common comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although beta-blockers can be used safely in COPD, concerns remain regarding safety and efficacy interactions in patients using concomitant inhaled long-acting beta-agonists. Objectives: To compare the differential effects of long-acting beta agonist or inhaled corticosteroid use on clinical outcomes in patients with heightened cardiovascular risk treated and not treated with beta-blockers. Methods: We examined data from 16,485 participants in the Study to Understand Mortality and MorbidITy in COPD (SUMMIT) who were randomized to once daily inhaled fluticasone furoate (FF), vilanterol (VI), their combination (FF/VI), or...

  12. Turbulence accelerates the growth of drinking water biofilms

    Tsagkari, E.; Sloan, W.T.
    Biofilms are found at the inner surfaces of drinking water pipes and, therefore, it is essential to understand biofilm processes to control their formation. Hydrodynamics play a crucial role in shaping biofilms. Thus, knowing how biofilms form, develop and disperse under different flow conditions is critical in the successful management of these systems. Here, the development of biofilms after 4 weeks, the initial formation of biofilms within 10 h and finally, the response of already established biofilms within 24-h intervals in which the flow regime was changed, were studied using a rotating annular reactor under three different flow regimes: turbulent,...

  13. Potential immune priming of the tumor microenvironment with FOLFOX chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Roxburgh, Campbell S.; Shia, Jinru; Vakiani, Efsevia; Daniel, Tanisha; Weiser, Martin R.
    Strategies to enhance tumor immunogenicity may expand the role of immunotherapy beyond the mismatch repair-deficient subtype. In this pilot study, biopsies were performed at baseline and after four cycles of FOLFOX in eight patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for stage II/III locally advanced rectal cancer. Immunostaining was performed for T cell subsets (CD3+, CD8+, CD45RO+); macrophages (CD163+); T regulatory cells (FOXP3+); and expression of MHC class I, PD-1 and PD-L1. Changes in cell number or intensity were quantified and correlated with treatment response. Pretreatment patterns of immune infiltrates were mixed and did not correlate with treatment response. Posttreatment increases in T...

  14. Visualising the interaction of CD4 T cells and DCs in the evolution of inflammatory arthritis.

    Prendergast, Catriona T.; Patakas, Agapitos; Al-Khabouri, Shaima; McIntyre, Claire L.; McInnes, Iain B.; Brewer, James M.; Garside, Paul; Benson, Robert A.
    Successful early intervention in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with the aim of resetting immunological tolerance requires a clearer understanding of how specificity, cellular kinetics and spatial behaviour shape the evolution of articular T cell responses. We aimed to define initial seeding of articular CD4+ T cell responses in early experimental arthritis, evaluating their dynamic behaviour and interactions with dendritic cells (DCs) in the inflamed articular environment. Antigen-induced arthritis was used to model articular inflammation. Flow cytometry and PCR of T cell receptor (TCR) diversity genes allowed phenotypic analysis of infiltrating T cells. The dynamic interactions of T cells with joint residing...

  15. The biomechanics of tree frogs climbing curved surfaces: a gripping problem.

    Hill, Iain D.C.; Dong, Benzheng; Barnes, W. Jon P.; Ji, Aihong; Endlein, Thomas
    The adhesive mechanisms of climbing animals have become an important research topic because of their biomimetic implications. We examined the climbing abilities of hylid tree frogs on vertical cylinders of differing diameter and surface roughness to investigate the relative roles of adduction forces (gripping) and adhesion. Tree frogs adhere using their toe pads and subarticular tubercles, the adhesive joint being fluid-filled. Our hypothesis was that, on an effectively flat surface (adduction forces on the largest 120 mm diameter cylinder were insufficient to allow climbing), adhesion would effectively be the only means by which tree frogs could climb, but on the...

  16. NASICON LiM2(PO4)3 electrolyte (M = Zr) and electrode (M = Ti) materials for all solid-state Li-ion batteries with high total conductivity and low interfacial resistance

    El-Shinawi, Hany; Regoutz, Anna; Payne, David J.; Cussen, Edmund J.; Corr, Serena A.
    All solid-state batteries based on NASICON-type LiM2(PO4)3 electrolyte phases are highly promising owing to their high ionic conductivities and chemical stabilities. Unlike Ti-based phases, extensively studied as Li+ solid electrolyte membranes, LiZr2(PO4)3 (LZP) is expected to form a stable interface with a metallic lithium anode, a challenge which has posed a serious roadblock to realising safe all solid-state batteries. However, prohibitively large grain boundary resistances are often observed in this material and this issue, combined with processing difficulties in fabricating LZP in dense forms, has impinged on the application of LZP as a solid electrolyte for all solid-state batteries. To...

  17. On the calibration of the Schwartz two-factor model to WTI crude oil options and the extended Kalman Filter

    Ewald, Christian-Oliver; Zhang, Aihua; Zong, Zhe
    The Schwartz (J Finance 52(3):923–973, 1997) two factor model serves as a benchmark for pricing commodity contracts, futures and options. It is normally calibrated to fit the term-structure of a range of future contracts with varying maturities. In this paper, we investigate the effects on parameter estimates, if the model is fitted to prices of options, with varying maturities and strikes instead of futures, as is commonly done. The use of option prices rather than futures in the calibration leads to non-linearities, which the standard Kalman filter approach is unable to cope with. To overcome these issues, we use the...

  18. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (Socs2) deletion protects bone health of mice with DSS-induced inflammatory bowel disease

    Dobie, R.; MacRae, V.E.; Pass, C.; Milne, E.M.; Ahmed, S.F.
    Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often present with poor bone health. The development of targeted therapies for this bone loss requires a fuller understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms. Although bone loss in IBD is multifactorial the altered sensitivity and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in IBD is understood to be a critical contributing mechanism. The expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), a well-established negative regulator of GH signaling, is stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, it is likely that SOCS2 expression represents a critical mediator through which pro-inflammatory cytokines inhibit GH/IGF-1 signaling...

  19. Application of molecularly imprinted polymers in an analytical chiral separation and analysis

    Rutkowska, Małgorzata; Płotka-Wasylka, Justyna; Morrison, Calum; Wieczorek, Piotr Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Marć, Mariusz
    Over the last two decades the process of development and application of a new types of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) sorbents in the field of analytical chemistry have been widely described in the literature. One of the new trends in analytical chemistry practice is the use of new types of MIP sorbents as specific sorption materials constituting the stationary phase in advanced separation techniques. The following review paper contains comprehensive information about the application of a specific and well defined MIP sorbents (with the data base in the paper about the reagents used in MIP preparation process) as stationary phases...

  20. The changing returns to crime: do criminals respond to prices?

    Draca, Mirko; Koutmeridis, Theodore; Machin, Stephen
    To what extent does crime follow the pattern of potential gains to illegal activity? This paper presents evidence on how criminals respond to this key incentive by reporting crime-price elasticities estimated from a comprehensive crime dataset containing detailed information on stolen items for London between 2002 and 2012. Evidence of significant positive crime-price elasticities are shown, for a panel of 44 consumer goods and for commodity related goods (jewellery, fuel and metal crimes). The reported evidence indicates that potential gains are a major empirical driver of criminal activity and a crucial part of the economic model of crime. The changing...

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