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Enlighten (144.728 recursos)

Enlighten is the University of Glasgow's institutional repository service for published research material including peer-reviewed journal articles, published conference papers,books and book chapters

Status = Early Online Publication

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.322

  1. Inequalities in the dental health needs and access to dental services among looked after children in Scotland: a population data linkage study

    McMahon, Alex D.; Elliott, Lawrie; Macpherson, Lorna M.D.; Sharpe, Katharine H.; Connelly, Graham; Milligan, Ian; Wilson, Philip; Clark, David; King, Albert; Wood, Rachael; Conway, David I.
    Background: There is limited evidence on the health needs and service access among children and young people who are looked after by the state. The aim of this study was to compare dental treatment needs and access to dental services (as an exemplar of wider health and well-being concerns) among children and young people who are looked after with the general child population. Methods: Population data linkage study utilising national datasets of social work referrals for ‘looked after’ placements, the Scottish census of children in local authority schools, and national health service’s dental health and service datasets. Results: 633 204 children in publicly...

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing glaucoma: secondary analyses of the GATE study

    Virgili, Gianni; Michelessi, Manuele; Cook, Jonathan; Boachie, Charles; Burr, Jennifer; Banister, Katie; Garway-Heath, David F.; Bourne, Rupert R.A.; Asorey Garcia, Almudena; Ramsay, Craig R.; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto
    Background/Aims: To assess the diagnostic performance of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) data of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detecting glaucoma. Methods: Secondary analyses of a prospective, multicentre diagnostic study (Glaucoma Automated Tests Evaluation (GATE)) referred to hospital eye services in the UK were conducted. We included data from 899 of 966 participants referred to hospital eye services with suspected glaucoma or ocular hypertension. We used both eyes’ data and logistic regression-based receiver operator characteristics analysis to build a set of models to measure the sensitivity and specificity of the average and inferior quadrant RNFL thickness data of OCT. The reference...

  3. Single-cell microfluidics to study the effects of genome deletion on bacterial growth behavior

    Yuan, Xiaofei; Couto, Jillian M.; Glidle, Andrew; Song, Yanqing; Sloan, William; Yin, Huabing
    By directly monitoring single cell growth in a microfluidic platform, we interrogated genome-deletion effects in Escherichia coli strains. We compared the growth dynamics of a wild type strain with a clean genome strain, and their derived mutants at the single-cell level. A decreased average growth rate and extended average lag time were found for the clean genome strain, compared to those of the wild type strain. Direct correlation between the growth rate and lag time of individual cells showed that the clean genome population was more heterogeneous. Cell culturability (the ratio of growing cells to the sum of growing and...

  4. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease

    Eikelboom, John W.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R.; Hart, Robert G.; Shestakovska, Olga; Diaz, Rafael; Alings, Marco; Lonn, Eva M.; Anand, Sonia S.; Widimsky, Petr; Hori, Masatsugu; Avezum, Alvaro; Piegas, Leopoldo S.; Branch, Kelley R.H.; Probstfield, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Yan; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; O'Donnell, Martin; Kakkar, Ajay; Fox, Keith A.A.; Parkhomenko, Alexander N.; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Keltai, Matyas; Ryden, Lars; Pogosova, Nana; Dans, Antonio L.; Lanas, Fernando; Commerford, Patrick J.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Guzik, Tomasz J.; Verhamme, Peter B.; Vinereanu, Dragos; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Tonkin, Andrew M.; Lewis, Basil S.; Felix, Camilo; Yusoff, Khalid; Steg, P. Gabriel; Metsarinne, Kaj P.; Cook Bruns, Nancy; Misselwitz, Frank; Chen, Edmond; Leong, Darryl; Yusuf, Salim
    Background: We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. Methods: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after a mean follow-up of 23 months. Results: The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in...

  5. Women’s preferences for men’s facial masculinity: trade-off accounts revisited

    Holzleitner, Iris J.; Perrett, David I.
    Studies on mate preferences have demonstrated that women’s perception of male attractiveness is sensitive to men’s facial masculinity, and that women’s preferences for facial masculinity are subject to individual differences, such as own condition. These individual differences have been linked to potential trade-offs that women face given the hypothesized benefits and costs that masculinity may cue in a potential partner. Whereas most studies based conclusions regarding such trade-offs on shifts in mean preferences for a feminized vs. masculinized face shape, here we directly investigated attractiveness as a function of different levels of masculinity. Using computer-graphic methods, we manipulated the facial...

  6. Preliminary results for estimating the bone background uncertainties at SUERC using statistical analysis

    Naysmith, P.; Dunbar, E.; Scott, E.M.; Cook, G.T.; Tripney, B.G.
    Bone is frequently dated in archaeological studies and, especially for very old bones (more than 40,000 years old), it is critical to have an accurate and precise measure of the material-specific background value and its associated uncertainty. The SUERC Radiocarbon Laboratory has obtained a mammoth bone as a background bone standard and an appropriate number are now routinely prepared and measured in each AMS batch, resulting in the accumulation of a large number of background bone results over a two-year period. Additionally, information on which of the two accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) instruments was used to make the radiocarbon (14C)...

  7. Perivascular mast cells promote neointimal elastin deposition and suppress chronic vein graft restenosis in hyperlipidaemic mice

    Wu, Junxi; Lawrence, Catherine; Wadsworth, Roger M.; Kennedy, Simon
    Aim: Mast cells are versatile innate immune cells and are reported to promote vascular inflammation and neointimal lesion formation, thereby contributing to the development of vascular stenosis and atherosclerosis. However, it is not clear whether mast cells also regulate vascular matrix remodelling in established neointima. This study addressed the hypothesis that perivascular mast cells regulate neointimal matrix remodelling using a mouse vein graft model. Methods: The impact of mast cells on neointimal remodelling was investigated using mast cell-deficient animals in both normolipidaemic (KitW-sh/W-sh) and hyperlipidaemic (apoE-/-KitW-sh/W-sh) conditions. The effect of perivascular mast cells on vascular matrix remodelling, including collagen and elastin deposition, was investigated using a local mast...

  8. Trial-by-trial co-variation of pre-stimulus EEG alpha power and visuospatial bias reflects a mixture of stochastic and deterministic effects

    Benwell, Christopher S.Y.; Keitel, Christian; Harvey, Monika; Gross, Joachim; Thut, Gregor
    Human perception of perithreshold stimuli critically depends on oscillatory EEG-activity prior to stimulus-onset. However, it remains unclear exactly which aspects of perception are shaped by this pre-stimulus activity and what role stochastic (trial-by-trial) variability plays in driving these relationships. We employed a novel Jackknife approach to link single-trial variability in oscillatory activity to psychometric measures from a task that requires judgement of the relative length of two line-segments (the landmark task). The results provide evidence that pre-stimulus alpha fluctuations influence perceptual bias. Importantly, a mediation analysis showed that this relationship is partially driven by long-term (deterministic) alpha-changes over time, highlighting...

  9. Facial trustworthiness is associated with heritable facial attributes

    Lee, Anthony J.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.
    Facial trustworthiness is thought to underlie social judgements in face perception, though it is unclear whether trustworthiness judgements are based on stable facial attributes. If this were the case, we could expect a genetic component of facial trustworthiness. From facial photographs of a large sample of identical and nonidentical twins and siblings (1320 individuals), we tested for genetic variation in facial trustworthiness and genetic covariation with several stable facial attributes, including facial attractiveness, two measures of masculinity, and facial width-to-height ratio. We found a significant genetic component of facial trustworthiness in men (but not women), and significant genetic correlations with...

  10. Facial trustworthiness is associated with heritable facial attributes

    Lee, Anthony J.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.
    Facial trustworthiness is thought to underlie social judgements in face perception, though it is unclear whether trustworthiness judgements are based on stable facial attributes. If this were the case, we could expect a genetic component of facial trustworthiness. From facial photographs of a large sample of identical and nonidentical twins and siblings (1320 individuals), we tested for genetic variation in facial trustworthiness and genetic covariation with several stable facial attributes, including facial attractiveness, two measures of masculinity, and facial width-to-height ratio. We found a significant genetic component of facial trustworthiness in men (but not women), and significant genetic correlations with...

  11. Failure of non-vacuum steam sterilization processes for dental handpieces

    Winter, S.; Smith, Andrew; Lappin, David; McDonagh, George; Kirk, Brian
    Background: Dental handpieces are used in critical and semi-critical operative interventions. Although a number of dental professional bodies recommend that dental handpieces are sterilized between patient use there is a lack of clarity and understanding of the effectiveness of different steam sterilization processes. The internal mechanisms of dental handpieces contain narrow lumens (0·8-2·3mm) which can impede the removal of air and ingress of saturated steam required to achieve sterilization conditions. Aim: To identify the extent of sterilization failure in dental handpieces using a non-vacuum process. Methods: In-vitro and in-vivo investigations were conducted on commonly used UK benchtop steam sterilizers and three different types of dental...

  12. Failure of non-vacuum steam sterilization processes for dental handpieces

    Winter, S.; Smith, Andrew; Lappin, David; McDonagh, George; Kirk, Brian
    Background: Dental handpieces are used in critical and semi-critical operative interventions. Although a number of dental professional bodies recommend that dental handpieces are sterilized between patient use there is a lack of clarity and understanding of the effectiveness of different steam sterilization processes. The internal mechanisms of dental handpieces contain narrow lumens (0·8-2·3mm) which can impede the removal of air and ingress of saturated steam required to achieve sterilization conditions. Aim: To identify the extent of sterilization failure in dental handpieces using a non-vacuum process. Methods: In-vitro and in-vivo investigations were conducted on commonly used UK benchtop steam sterilizers and three different types of dental...

  13. Dietary antioxidants in life-history trade-offs: differential effects of a-tocopherol supplementation on blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus mothers and offspring during reproduction

    Larcombe, Stephen D.; Herborn, Katherine A.; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E.
    α-Tocopherol is assumed to be the most biologically active dietary antioxidant in vivo, but despite its potential importance little is known about its impacts on wild birds. Reproduction is presumed to be costly for parents through several routes, including increased oxidative stress, particularly for bird species producing large clutches. If dietary antioxidants can ameliorate oxidative stress associated with reproduction, mothers supplemented with dietary antioxidants are predicted to be in improved condition and/or invest more resources in reproduction than controls. We provided adult blue tit pairs with an α-tocopherol-enriched or control food supplement during nest building and egg laying, then cross-fostered...

  14. Dietary antioxidants in life-history trade-offs: differential effects of a-tocopherol supplementation on blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus mothers and offspring during reproduction

    Larcombe, Stephen D.; Herborn, Katherine A.; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E.
    α-Tocopherol is assumed to be the most biologically active dietary antioxidant in vivo, but despite its potential importance little is known about its impacts on wild birds. Reproduction is presumed to be costly for parents through several routes, including increased oxidative stress, particularly for bird species producing large clutches. If dietary antioxidants can ameliorate oxidative stress associated with reproduction, mothers supplemented with dietary antioxidants are predicted to be in improved condition and/or invest more resources in reproduction than controls. We provided adult blue tit pairs with an α-tocopherol-enriched or control food supplement during nest building and egg laying, then cross-fostered...

  15. Pancreatogastrostomy vs. pancreatojejunostomy: a risk-stratified analysis of 5316 pancreatoduodenectomies

    Ecker, Brett L.; McMillan, Matthew T.; Maggino, Laura; Allegrini, Valentina; Asbun, Horacio J.; Ball, Chad G.; Bassi, Claudio; Beane, Joal D.; Behrman, Stephen W.; Berger, Adam C.; Bloomston, Mark; Callery, Mark P.; Christein, John D.; Dickson, Euan; Dixon, Elijah; Drebin, Jeffrey A.; Fernandez-Del Castillo, Carlos; Fisher, William E.; Fong, Zhi Ven; Haverick, Ericka; Hollis, Robert H.; House, Michael G.; Hughes, Steven J.; Jamieson, Nigel B.; Kent, Tara S.; Kowalsky, Stacy J.; Kunstman, John W.; Malleo, Giuseppe; Salem, Ronald R.; Soares, Kevin C.; Valero, Vicente; Watkins, Ammara A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Zureikat, Amer H.; Vollmer, Charles M.
    No abstract available.

  16. Pancreatogastrostomy vs. pancreatojejunostomy: a risk-stratified analysis of 5316 pancreatoduodenectomies

    Ecker, Brett L.; McMillan, Matthew T.; Maggino, Laura; Allegrini, Valentina; Asbun, Horacio J.; Ball, Chad G.; Bassi, Claudio; Beane, Joal D.; Behrman, Stephen W.; Berger, Adam C.; Bloomston, Mark; Callery, Mark P.; Christein, John D.; Dickson, Euan; Dixon, Elijah; Drebin, Jeffrey A.; Fernandez-Del Castillo, Carlos; Fisher, William E.; Fong, Zhi Ven; Haverick, Ericka; Hollis, Robert H.; House, Michael G.; Hughes, Steven J.; Jamieson, Nigel B.; Kent, Tara S.; Kowalsky, Stacy J.; Kunstman, John W.; Malleo, Giuseppe; Salem, Ronald R.; Soares, Kevin C.; Valero, Vicente; Watkins, Ammara A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Zureikat, Amer H.; Vollmer, Charles M.
    No abstract available.

  17. The "plus" side of epilepsy phenotyping

    Zuberi, Sameer M.; Striano, Pasquale
    No abstract available.

  18. The "plus" side of epilepsy phenotyping

    Zuberi, Sameer M.; Striano, Pasquale
    No abstract available.

  19. The functional response of mesenchymal stem cells to electron-beam patterned elastomeric surfaces presenting micrometer to nanoscale heterogeneous rigidity

    Biggs, Manus J.P.; Fernandez, Marc; Thomas, Dilip; Cooper, Ryan; Palma, Matteo; Liao, Jinyu; Fazio, Teresa; Dahlberg, Carl; Wheadon, Helen; Pallipurath, Anuradha; Pandit, Abhay; Kysar, Jeffrey; Wind, Shalom J.
    Cells directly probe and respond to the physicomechanical properties of their extracellular environment, a dynamic process which has been shown to play a key role in regulating both cellular adhesive processes and differential cellular function. Recent studies indicate that stem cells show lineage-specific differentiation when cultured on substrates approximating the stiffness profiles of specific tissues. Although tissues are associated with a range of Young's modulus values for bulk rigidity, at the subcellular level, tissues are comprised of heterogeneous distributions of rigidity. Lithographic processes have been widely explored in cell biology for the generation of analytical substrates to probe cellular physicomechanical...

  20. The functional response of mesenchymal stem cells to electron-beam patterned elastomeric surfaces presenting micrometer to nanoscale heterogeneous rigidity

    Biggs, Manus J.P.; Fernandez, Marc; Thomas, Dilip; Cooper, Ryan; Palma, Matteo; Liao, Jinyu; Fazio, Teresa; Dahlberg, Carl; Wheadon, Helen; Pallipurath, Anuradha; Pandit, Abhay; Kysar, Jeffrey; Wind, Shalom J.
    Cells directly probe and respond to the physicomechanical properties of their extracellular environment, a dynamic process which has been shown to play a key role in regulating both cellular adhesive processes and differential cellular function. Recent studies indicate that stem cells show lineage-specific differentiation when cultured on substrates approximating the stiffness profiles of specific tissues. Although tissues are associated with a range of Young's modulus values for bulk rigidity, at the subcellular level, tissues are comprised of heterogeneous distributions of rigidity. Lithographic processes have been widely explored in cell biology for the generation of analytical substrates to probe cellular physicomechanical...

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