Navarro, Carlos; Duan, Meng; Parihar, Mukta Sing; Adamu-Lema, Fikru; Coseman, Stefan; Lacord, Joris; Lee, Kyunghwa; Sampedro, Carlos; Cheng, Binjie; El Dirani, Hassan; Barbe, Jean-Charles; Fonteneau, Pascal; Kim, Seong-Il; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Bawedin, Maryline; Millar, Campbell; Galy, Philippe; Le Royer, Cyrille; Karg, Siegfried; Riel, Heike; Wells, Paul; Kim, Yong-Tae; Asenov, Asen; Gamiz, Francisco
2-D numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the Z²-FET as a competitive embedded capacitor-less dynamic random access memory cell for low-power applications. Experimental results in 28-nm fully depleted-silicon on insulator technology are used to validate the simulations prior to downscaling tests. Default scaling, without any structure optimization, and enhanced scaling scenarios are considered before comparing the bit cell area consumption and integration density with other eDRAM cells in the literature.
Zhu, Chuanqing; Xu, Ming; Qiu, Nansheng; Hu, Shengbiao
We compared the consistency of γ-ray spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry by analyzing measurement results of the radioactive heat-producing elements U, Th, and K from borehole samples. This analysis was based on 49 samples obtained from mudstone, siltstone, and carbonate rock, and 11 of the 15 control groups showed great consistency. The radioactive heat production (RHP) of carbonate rocks was relatively low (0.23–0.63 µW m−3) and was mainly contributed by U. Mudstone and siltstone have higher RHPs, which was 1.73 ± 0.46 and 2.04 ± 0.49 µW m−3, respectively.
Egea, J.; Fabregat, I.; Frapart, Y.M.; Ghezzi, P.; Görlach, A.; Kietzmann, T.; Kubaichuk, K.; Knaus, U.G.; Lopez, M.G.; Olaso-Gonzalez, G.; Petry, A.; Schulz, R.; Vina, J.; Winyard, P.; Abbas, K.; Ademowo, O.S.; Afonso, C.B.; Andreadou, I.; Antelmann, H.; Antunes, F.; Aslan, M.; Bachschmid, M.M.; Barbosa, R.M.; Belousov, V.; Berndt, C.; Bernlohr, D.; Bertrán, E.; Bindoli, A.; Bottari, S.P.; Brito, P.M.; Carrara, G.; Casas, A.I.; Chatzi, A.; Chondrogianni, N.; Conrad, M.; Cooke, M.S.; Costa, J.G.; Cuadrado, A.; My-Chan Dang, P.; De Smet, B.; Debelec-Butuner, B.; Dias, I.H.K.; Dunn, J.D.; Edson, A.J.; El Assar, M.; El-Benna, J.; Ferdinandy, P.; Fernandes, A.S.; Fladmark, K.E.; Förstermann, U.; Giniatullin, R.; Giricz, Z.; Görbe, A.; Griffiths, H.; Hampl, V.; Hanf, A.; Herget, J.; Hernansanz-Agustín, P.; Hillion, M.; Huang, J.; Ilikay, S.; Jansen-Dürr, P.; Jaquet, V.; Joles, J.A.; Kalyanaraman, B.; Kaminskyy, D.; Karbaschi, M.; Kleanthous, M.; Klotz, L.O.; Korac, B.; Korkmaz, K.S.; Koziel, R.; Kračun, D.; Krause, K.H.; Křen, V.; Krieg, T.; Laranjinha, J.; Lazou, A.; Li, H.; Martínez-Ruiz, A.; Matsui, R.; McBean, G.J.; Meredith, S.P.; Messens, J.; Miguel, V.; Mikhed, Y.; Milisav, I.; Milković, L.; Miranda-Vizuete, A.; Mojović, M.; Monsalve, M.; Mouthuy, P.A.; Mulvey, J.; Münzel, T.; Muzykantov, V.; Nguyen, I.T.N.; Oelze, M.; Oliveira, N.G.; Palmeira, C.M.; Papaevgeniou, N.; Pavićević, A.; Pedre, B.; Peyrot, F.; Phylactides, M.; Pircalabioru, G.G.; Pitt, A.R.; Poulsen, H.E.; Prieto, I.; Rigobello, M.P.; Robledinos-Antón, N.; Rodríguez-Mañas, L.; Rolo, A.P.; Rousset, F.; Ruskovska, T.; Saraiva, N.; Sasson, S.; Schröder, K.; Semen, K.; Seredenina, T.; Shakirzyanova, A.; Smith, G.L.; Soldati, T.; Sousa, B.C.; Spickett, C.M.; Stancic, A.; Stasia, M.J.; Steinbrenner, H.; Stepanić, V.; Steven, S.; Tokatlidis, K.; Tuncay, E.; Turan, B.; Ursini, F.; Vacek, J.; Vajnerova, O.; Valentová, K.; Van Breusegem, F.; Varisli, L.; Veal, E.A.; Yalçın, A.S.; Yelisyeyeva, O.; Žarković, N.; Zatloukalová, M.; Zielonka, J.; Touyz, R.M.; Papapetropoulos, A.; Grune, T.; Lamas, S.; Schmidt, H.H.H.W.; Di Lisa, F.; Daiber, A.
No abstract available.
Gu, Henry Y.; Marks, Neil D.; Winter, Alan D.; Weir, William; Tzelos, Thomas; McNeilly, Tom N.; Britton, Collette; Devaney, Eileen
microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in a range of animals, including nematodes. We have analysed a cluster of four miRNAs from the pathogenic nematode species Haemonchus contortus that are closely linked in the genome. We find that the cluster is conserved only in clade V parasitic nematodes and in some ascarids, but not in other clade III species nor in clade V free-living nematodes. Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro...
de Villiers, A.M.; McBride, A.T.; Reddy, B.D.; Franz, T.; Spottiswoode, B.S.
The flow rate inside arteriovenous fistulas is many times higher than physiological flow and is accompanied by high wall shear stress resulting in low patency rates. A fluid–structure interaction finite element model is developed to analyse the blood flow and vessel mechanics to elucidate the mechanisms that can lead to failure. The simulations are validated against flow measurements obtained from magnetic resonance imaging data.
Roberts, Andrew P.; Almeida, Trevor P.; Church, Nathan S.; Harrison, Richard J.; Heslop, David; Li, Yiliang; Li, Jinhua; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Williams, Wyn; Zhao, Xiang
The term ‘pseudo-single domain’ (PSD) has been used to describe the transitional state in rock magnetism that spans the particle size range between the single domain (SD) and multi-domain (MD) states. The particle size range for the stable SD state in the most commonly occurring terrestrial magnetic mineral, magnetite, is so narrow (~20-75 nm) that it is widely considered that much of the paleomagnetic record of interest is carried by ‘PSD’ rather than stable SD particles. The PSD concept has, thus, become the dominant explanation for the magnetization associated with a major fraction of particles that record paleomagnetic signals throughout...
Docherty, Craig K.; Carswell, Andy; Friel, Elaine; Mercer, John R.
Background and aims:
DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to play an essential role in ageing and the energetic decline of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) essential for maintaining plaque integrity. We aimed to better understand VSMCs and identify potentially useful compensatory pathways that could extend their lifespan. Moreover, we wanted to assess if defects in mitochondrial respiration exist in human atherosclerotic plaques and to identify the appropriate markers that may reflect a switch in VSMC energy metabolism.
Human plaque tissue and cells were assessed for composition and evidence of DNA damage, repair capacity and mitochondrial dysfunction. Fresh plaque tissue was...
Kelly, Christopher; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Barron, Laurence D.; Govorov, Alexander O.; Karimullah, Affar S.; Kadodwala, Malcolm
The advent of metamaterials has heralded a period of unprecedented control of light. The optical responses of metamaterials are determined by the properties of constituent nanostructures. The current design philosophy for tailoring metamaterial functionality is to use geometry to control the nearfield coupling of the elements of the nanostructures. A drawback of this geometry-focused strategy is that the functionality of a metamaterial is pre-determined and cannot be manipulated easily post-fabrication. Here we present a new design paradigm for metamaterials, in which the coupling between chiral elements of a nanostructure is controlled by the chiral asymmetries of the nearfield, which can...
Chou, Angela; Froio, Danielle; Nagrial, Adnan M.; Parkin, Ashleigh; Murphy, Kendelle J.; Chin, Venessa T.; Wohl, Dalia; Steinmann, Angela; Stark, Rhys; Drury, Alison; Walters, Stacey N.; Vennin, Claire; Burgess, Andrew; Pinese, Mark; Chantrill, Lorraine A.; Cowley, Mark J.; Molloy, Timothy J.; Waddell, Nicola; Johns, Amber; Grimmond, Sean M.; Chang, David K.; Biankin, Andrew V.; Sansom, Owen J.; Morton, Jennifer P.; Grey, Shane T.; Cox, Thomas R.; Turchini, John; Samra, Jaswinder; Clarke, Stephen J.; Timpson, Paul; Gill, Anthony J.; Pajic, Marina
Objective: Extensive molecular heterogeneity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), few effective therapies and high mortality make this disease a prime model for advancing development of tailored therapies. The p16-cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6-retinoblastoma (RB) protein (CDK4) pathway, regulator of cell proliferation, is deregulated in PDA. Our aim was to develop a novel personalised treatment strategy for PDA based on targeting CDK4.
Design: Sensitivity to potent CDK4/6 inhibitor PD-0332991 (palbociclib) was correlated to protein and genomic data in 19 primary patient-derived PDA lines to identify biomarkers of response. In vivo efficacy of PD-0332991 and combination therapies was determined in subcutaneous, intrasplenic and orthotopic...
Ren, Shijie; Minton, Jonathan; Whyte, Sophie; Latimer, Nicholas R.; Stevenson, Matt
Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) in cost-effectiveness analysis involves sampling a large number of realisations of an economic model. For some parameters, we may be uncertain around the true mean values of the variables, but the ordering of the values is known. Typical sampling approaches lack either statistical or clinical validity. For example, sampling using a common number generator results in extreme dependence, and independent sampling can lead to realisations with incorrect ordering.
We propose a new sampling approach for ordered parameters, the difference method (DM) approach, which samples the parameters of interest via a difference parameter. If the parameters of interest...
The final report in this series focuses on the emerging intersections between historical geography, archaeology
and the law. Whilst staying attuned to the darkest of geographies emerging from the sub-field, this
report turns its attention to the creative and critical ways in which the dead are being used to reveal past lives
and worlds that have been destroyed and forgotten. Using soil and the archaeological imagination as a pivot,
this report centres on the interweaving themes of fragile environments, resurfacing and legal worlds in order
to suggest the emerging possibilities for a hopeful excavation of new historical geographies.
Ngowo, Halfan Said; Kaindoa, Emmanuel Wilson; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Ferguson, Heather M.; Okumu, Fredros Oketch
Background: Mosquito behaviours including the degree to which they bite inside houses or outside is a crucial determinant of human exposure to malaria. Whilst seasonality in mosquito vector abundance is well documented, much less is known about the impact of climate on mosquito behaviour. We investigated how variations in household microclimate affect outdoor-biting by malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus.
Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled indoors and outdoors weekly using human landing catches at eight households in four villages in south-eastern Tanzania, resulting in 616 trap-nights over 12 months. Daily temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were recorded. Generalized additive mixed models...
McColl, Kenneth E.L.
In 2001, it was observed that the cardia region of the lumen of the stomach remained highly acidic after a meal and escaped the buffering effect of the food. This phenomenon was termed the acid pocket and is thought to explain why reflux symptoms occur after meals despite the buffering effect of food. This review describes the discovery of the acid pocket and our progress in understanding the intragastric physiology producing it, its exaggeration in hiatus hernia and role in reflux disease. The recent discovery that the acid pocket is attenuated in the Helicobacter pylori-infected population and the significance of...
Wood, Claire Louise; Ahmed, S. Faisal
Evaluation of bone health in childhood is important to identify children who have inadequate bone mineralisation and who may benefit from interventions to decrease their risk of osteoporosis and subsequent fracture. There are no bone protective agents that are licensed specifically for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in children. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of action and use of bisphosphonates and other new and established bone protective agents in children.
Eaton, S.; Zuniga, C.; Czyzewski, J.; Ellis, C.J.; Genney, D.; Haydon, D.; Mirzai, N.; Yahr, R.
This paper sets out a novel method to determine dispersal distances in lichens. Direct measurement of dispersal often remains difficult for lichens and other small inconspicuous species because of the need to track microscopic reproductive propagules, which even if they can be captured, cannot be identified using traditional morphological approaches.
A low-cost device (<£200) was developed in order to trap the reproductive propagules of lichens, capable of sampling around 0.1m3 of air per minute. In parallel, molecular techniques were developed to enable species specific detection of propagules caught by the devices, with identification using novel species-specific primers and optimization of a...
Petrie, John R.; Peters, Anne L.; Bergenstal, Richard M.; Holl, Reinhard W.; Fleming, G. Alexander; Heinemann, Lutz
The first systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) became available over 15 years ago. Many then believed CGM would revolutionize the use of intensive insulin therapy in diabetes; however, progress toward that vision has been gradual. Although increasing, the proportion of individuals using CGM rather than conventional systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose on a daily basis is still low in most parts of the world. Barriers to uptake include cost, measurement reliability (particularly with earlier-generation systems), human factors issues, lack of a standardized format for displaying results, and uncertainty on how best to use CGM data to make therapeutic...
Liu, Yuliang; Wu, Shunan; Radice, Gianmarco; Wu, Zhigang
No abstract available.
Baumgartner, Christine; da Costa, Bruno R.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Feller, Martin; Floriani, Carmen; Bauer, Douglas C.; Cappola, Anne R.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Ceresini, Graziano; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; den Elzen, Wendy P.J.; Peeters, Robin P.; Luben, Robert; Völzke, Henry; Dörr, Marcus; Walsh, John P.; Bremner, Alexandra; Iacoviello, Massimo; Macfarlane, Peter; Heeringa, Jan; Stott, David J.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Magnani, Jared W.; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas
Background -Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent disorder leading to heart failure, stroke, and death. Enhanced understanding of modifiable risk factors may yield opportunities for prevention. The risk of AF is increased in subclinical hyperthyroidism, but it is uncertain whether variations in thyroid function within the normal range or subclinical hypothyroidism are also associated with AF. Methods -We conducted a systematic review and obtained individual participant data from prospective cohort studies that measured thyroid function at baseline and assessed incident AF. Studies were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to July 27, 2016. The euthyroid state was...
Souleimanov, Emil Aslan; Aliyev, Huseyn; Ratelle, Jean-François
Can former insurgents in the service of counterinsurgent paramilitaries be considered a perfectly loyal force? What mechanisms may help to deter subsequent defections of individuals who have already “betrayed” once? Drawing on a unique set of primary data, this article examines the effective counter-defection practices of Chechnya’s pro-Moscow paramilitaries toward prospective defectors from among ex-insurgents. It explores three interwoven mechanisms employed with various intensities to avert “double defections” at the peak of the locally fought counterinsurgency in Chechnya from 2000 to 2005. These mechanisms are: a) extrajudicial executions of recidivists and their relatives, b) initiation violence targeting insurgents’ relatives, and...
Hill, Robert A.; Sutherland, Andrew
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as tryptorubin A isolated from a Streptomyces species.