Kerdegari, H.; Kim, Y.; Prescott, T.
Sensory augmentation is one of the most exciting domains for research in human-machine biohybridicity. The current paper presents the design of a 2nd generation vibrotactile helmet as a sensory augmentation prototype that is being developed to help users to navigate in low visibility environments. The paper outlines a study in which the user navigates along a virtual wall whilst the position and orientation of the user’s head is tracked by a motion capture system. Vibrotactile feedback is presented according to the user’s distance from the virtual wall and their head orientation. The research builds on our previous work by developing...
Kerdegari, H.; Kim, Y.; Stafford, T.; Prescott, T.J.
This paper provides a novel psychophysical investigation of headmounted
vibrotactile interfaces for sensory augmentation. A 1-by-7 headband
vibrotactile display was used to provide stimuli on each participant’s forehead.
Experiment I investigated the ability to identify the location of a vibrotactile
stimulus presented to a single tactor in the display; results indicated that localization
error is uniform but biased towards the forehead midline. In Experiment
II, two tactors were activated simultaneously, and participants were asked to indicate
whether they experienced one or two stimulus locations. Participants reported
the funneling illusion—experiencing one stimulus when two tactors were
activated—mainly for the shortest inter-tactor difference. We discuss the significance
of these results for the...
Riihonen, T.; Vehkaperä, M.; Wichman, R.; Wang, X.
© 2015 IEEE. This paper concerns the performance of two-way point-to-point multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) links. In particular, the system of interest comprises a pair of multiantenna full-duplex terminals that communicate with each other through a MIMO radio channel under residual self-interference from imperfect mitigation using joint decoding for reception. The new theoretical result underlying this study is to express asymptotic achievable rates in the system whose dimensions grow without bound when detection and decoding is mismatched due to the residual self-interference and spatial data streams are separately encoded using some practical digital modulation scheme, in contrast to ideal matched decoding...
Shen, Q.; Liu, W.; Cui, W.; Wu, S.L.
To reach a higher number of degrees of freedom by exploiting the
fourth-order difference co-array concept, an effective structure extension
based on two-level nested arrays is proposed. It increases
the number of consecutive lags in the fourth-order difference coarray,
and a virtual uniform linear array (ULA) with more sensors
and a larger aperture is then generated from the proposed structure,
leading to a much higher number of distinguishable sources with
a higher accuracy. Compressive sensing based approach is applied
for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation by vectorizing the fourthorder
cumulant matrix of the array, assuming non-Gaussian impinging
Quichaud, F.; Burgess, I.W.; Huang, S-S
It is widely recognized that composite floor slabs experiencing large displacement develop a central zone of hydrostatic membrane tension, surrounded and equilibrated by a ring of membrane compression around the periphery. This mechanism, known as tensile membrane action, can greatly enhance the load-bearing capacity of a slab compared with that defined by yield line analysis. This is a very useful effect in cases where large deflections can be accepted, particularly in fire-resistance design of composite slabs, since the strength enhancement permits some beams to be left unprotected. Studies of tensile membrane action in the 1960s led to the development of...
Bourke, L.; Sohanpal, R.; Nanton, V.; Crank, H.; Rosario, D.J.; Saxton, J.M.
Background: The severe iatrogenic hypogonadal state induced by medical castration used for treatment of
prostate cancer is associated with adverse effects including fatigue, increased fracture risk, and a decrease in skeletal
muscle function, which negatively impact quality of life. We have previously reported beneficial changes in healthy
lifestyle behaviors, physical function and fatigue as a result of a novel combined exercise and dietary advice
intervention (a lifestyle intervention) in men with prostate cancer on androgen suppression therapy (AST). The aim
of this research was to conduct a qualitative evaluation of the lifestyle intervention in these men with advanced
prostate cancer receiving androgen suppression therapy (AST).
Greasley, R.; Khabazhaitajer, M.; Rosario, D.J.
Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of castration resistant prostate cancer from androgen-sensitive prostate cancer have provided new avenues exploring efficacious therapies in a disease which is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the western world. In the evolution of second generation anti-androgens, enzalutamide, a novel androgen-receptor signaling inhibitor, has emerged targeting multiple steps within the androgenic stimulation pathway. This review discusses what is currently known of the mechanisms surrounding castration resistant prostate cancer development and the current human clinical trials to determine whether enzalutamide presents a new hope for men...
Watson, A.J.M.; Bruhn, H.; MacLeod, K.; McDonald, A.; McPherson, G.; Kilonzo, M.; Norrie, J.; Loudon, M.A.; McCormack, K.; Buckley, B.; Brown, S.; Curran, F.; Jayne, D.; Rajagopal, R.; Cook, J.A.; eTHoS study group,
Background: Current interventions for haemorrhoidal disease include traditional haemorrhoidectomy (TH) and
stapled haemorrhoidopexy (SH) surgery. However, uncertainty remains as to how they compare from a clinical,
quality of life (QoL) and economic perspective. The study is therefore designed to determine whether SH is more
effective and more cost-effective, compared with TH.
Methods/Design: eTHoS (either Traditional Haemorrhoidectomy or Stapled Haemorrhoidopexy for Haemorrhoidal
Disease) is a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Currently, 29 secondary care centres are open to
recruitment. Patients, aged 18 year or older, with circumferential haemorrhoids grade II to IV, are eligible to take part.
The primary clinical and economic outcomes are QoL profile (area under...
dos Santos, L.F.; Gobato, Y.G.; Teodoro, M.D.; Lopez-Richard, V.; Marques, G.E.; Brasil, M.J.S.P.; Orlita, M.; Kunc, J.; Maude, D.K.; Henini, M.; Airey, R.J.
We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL) in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs
resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW) PL presents
strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T). The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows
evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of
carriers in the QW. However, the circular polarization degree in the QW also depends on various other parameters,
including the g-factors of the different layers, the density of carriers along the structure, and the Zeeman and
Gordo, V.O.; Herval, L.K.S.; Galeti, H.V.A.; Gobato, Y.G.; Brasil, M.J.S.P.; Marques, G.E.; Henini, M.; Airey, R.J.
We have studied the polarized resolved photoluminescence of n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diodes
under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. Under resonant tunneling conditions, we have observed two
emission lines attributed to neutral (X) and negatively charged excitons (X−
). We have observed a
voltage-controlled circular polarization degree from the quantum well emission for both lines, with values up to
−88% at 15 T at low voltages which are ascribed to an efficient spin injection from the 2D gases formed at the
Hylton, N.P.; Hinrichsen, T.F.; Vaquero-Stainer, A.R.; Yoshida, M.; Pusch, A.; Hopkinson, M.; Hess, O.; Phillips, C.C.; Ekins-Daukes, N.J.
This paper reports on the results of an investigation into the nature of photoluminescence upconversion at
GaAs/InGaP2 interfaces. Using a dual-beam excitation experiment, we demonstrate that the upconversion in our
sample proceeds via a sequential two-photon optical absorption mechanism. Measurements of photoluminescence
and upconversion photoluminescence revealed evidence of the spatial localization of carriers in the InGaP2
material, arising from partial ordering of the InGaP2. We also observed the excitation of a two-dimensional electron
gas at the GaAs/InGaP2 heterojunction that manifests as a high-energy shoulder in the GaAs photoluminescence
spectrum. Furthermore, the results of upconversion photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy demonstrate that
the photon energy onset of upconversion luminescence coincides...
Taga, M.; Minett, T.; Classey, J.; Matthews, F.E.; Brayne, C.; Ince, P.G.; Nicoll, J.A.R.; Hugon, J.; Boche, D.
Epidemiological and genetic studies have identified metabolic disorders and inflammation as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence in obesity and type-2 diabetes suggests a role for a metabolic inflammasome (“metaflammasome”) in mediating chronic inflammation in peripheral organs implicating IKKβ (inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta), IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1), JNK (c-jun N-terminal kinase), and PKR (double-stranded RNA protein kinase). We hypothesized that these proteins are expressed in the brain in response to metabolic risk factors in AD. Neocortex from 299 participants from the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies was analysed by immunohistochemistry for the expression...
Swift, D.G.; Dunning, L.T.; Igea, J.; Brooks, E.J.; Jones, C.S.; Noble, L.R.; Ciezarek, A.; Humble, E.; Savolainen, V.
Background: All vertebrates initially feed their offspring using yolk reserves. In some live-bearing species these yolk
reserves may be supplemented with extra nutrition via a placenta. Sharks belonging to the Carcharhinidae family
are all live-bearing, and with the exception of the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), develop placental connections
after exhausting yolk reserves. Phylogenetic relationships suggest the lack of placenta in tiger sharks is due to
secondary loss. This represents a dramatic shift in reproductive strategy, and is likely to have left a molecular
footprint of positive selection within the genome.
Results: We sequenced the transcriptome of the tiger shark and eight other live-bearing shark species. From...
Siletsky, S.A.; Rappaport, F.; Poole, R.K.; Borisov, V.B.
Cytochrome bd-I is one of the three proton motive force-generating quinol oxidases in the
O2-dependent respiratory chain of Escherichia coli. It contains one low-spin haem (b558)
and the two high-spin haems (b595 and d) as the redox-active cofactors. In order to examine
the flash-induced intraprotein reverse electron transfer (the so-called ''electron backflow''),
CO was photolyzed from the ferrous haem d in one-electron reduced (b558
cytochrome bd-I, and the fully reduced (b5582+b5952+d2+-CO) oxidase as a control. In contrast
to the fully reduced cytochrome bd-I, the transient spectrum of one-electron reduced
oxidase at a delay time of 1.5 μs is clearly different from that at a delay time of...
Pino, M.; Parry, R.; Land, V.; Faull, C.; Feathers, L.; Seymour, J.
To examine how palliative medicine doctors engage patients in end-of-life (hereon, EoL)
talk. To examine whether the practice of “eliciting and responding to cues”, which has been
widely advocated in the EoL care literature, promotes EoL talk.
Conversation analysis of video- and audio-recorded consultations.
Unselected terminally ill patients and their companions in consultation with experienced palliative
Outpatient clinic, day therapy clinic, and inpatient unit of a single English hospice.
Doctors most commonly promoted EoL talk through open elaboration solicitations; these
created opportunities for patients to introduce–then later further articulate–EoL considerations
in such a way that doctors did not overtly ask about EoL matters. Importantly, the
wording of elaboration...
Parker, C.; Finkelstein, S.E.; Michalski, J.M.; O'Sullivan, J.M.; Bruland, Ø.; Vogelzang, N.J.; Coleman, R.E.; Nilsson, S.; Sartor, O.; Li, R.; Seger, M.A.; Bottomley, D.
Background: The phase 3 ALSYMPCA trial enrolled metastatic castration-resistant prostate
cancer patients with or without baseline opioid use.
Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) versus
placebo in ALSYMPCA patients by baseline opioid use.
Design, setting, and participants: Nine hundred and twenty one patients enrolled at 136 centers
Intervention: Radium-223 (50 kBq/kg, intravenous injection) every 4 wk for six cycles or
matching placebo, each plus best standard of care.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Primary endpoint (overall survival [OS]),
main secondary efficacy endpoints, and safety were evaluated by baseline opioid use.
Additional analyses included time to first opioid use, time to first external beam radiation
Prajapati, P.; Lambert, D.W.
Khundakar, A.A.; Hanson, P.S.; Erskine, D.; Lax, N.Z.; Roscamp, J.; Karyka, E.; Tsefou, E.; Singh, P.; Cockell, S.J.; Gribben, A.; Ramsay, L.; Blain, P.G.; Mosimann, U.P.; Lett, D.J.; Elstner, M.; Turnbull, D.M.; Xiang, C.C.; Brownstein, M.J.; O’Brien, J.T.; Taylor, J-P.; Attems, J.; Thomas, A.J.; McKeith, I.G.; Morris, C.M.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients frequently experience well formed recurrent complex visual hallucinations (RCVH). This is associated with reduced blood flow or hypometabolism on imaging of the primary visual cortex. To understand these associations in DLB we used pathological and biochemical analysis of the primary visual cortex to identify changes that could underpin RCVH. Alpha-synuclein or neurofibrillary tangle pathology in primary visual cortex was essentially absent. Neurone density or volume within the primary visual cortex in DLB was also unchanged using unbiased stereology. Microarray analysis, however, demonstrated changes in neuropeptide gene expression and other markers, indicating altered GABAergic neuronal...
Maheswaran, R.; Pearson, T.; Beevers, S.D.; Campbell, M.J.; Wolfe, C.D.