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Caltech Authors (157.532 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = IPTF

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 103

  1. iPTF16fnl: A Faint and Fast Tidal Disruption Event in an E+A Galaxy

    Blagorodnova, N.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Yan, L.; Bue, B. D.; Ho, A. Y. Q.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Laher, R. R.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F. J.; Neill, J. D.; Walters, R.
    We present ground-based and Swift observations of iPTF16fnl, a likely tidal disruption event (TDE) discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) survey at 66.6 Mpc. The light curve of the object peaked at an absolute mag M_g =- 17.2. The maximum bolometric luminosity (from optical and UV) was L_p ≃ (1.0 ± 0.15) x 10^(43) erg s^(−1), an order of magnitude fainter than any other optical TDE discovered so far. The luminosity in the first 60 days is consistent with an exponential decay, with L ∝ e^(-(t-t_0)/τ, where t_0 = 57631.0 (MJD) and τ ≃ 15 days. The X-ray...

  2. Revisiting Optical Tidal Disruption Events with iPTF16axa

    Hung, T.; Gezari, S.; Blagorodnova, N.; Roth, N.; Cenko, S. B.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, A.; Arcavi, I.; McCully, C.; Yan, Lin; Lunnan, R.; Fremling, C.; Cao, Y.; Nugent, P. E.; Wozniak, P.
    We report the discovery by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of a candidate tidal disruption event (TDE) iPTF16axa at z = 0.108 and present its broadband photometric and spectroscopic evolution from three months of follow-up observations with ground-based telescopes and Swift. The light curve is well fitted with a t^(−5/3) decay, and we constrain the rise time to peak to be <49 rest-frame days after disruption, which is roughly consistent with the fallback timescale expected for the ~5 × 10^6 M_⊙ black hole inferred from the stellar velocity dispersion of the host galaxy. The UV and optical spectral energy...

  3. Revisiting Optical Tidal Disruption Events with iPTF16axa

    Hung, T.; Gezari, S.; Blagorodnova, N.; Roth, N.; Cenko, S. B.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, A.; Arcavi, I.; McCully, C.; Yan, Lin; Lunnan, R.; Fremling, C.; Cao, Y.; Nugent, P. E.; Wozniak, P.
    We report the discovery by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of a candidate tidal disruption event (TDE) iPTF16axa at z = 0.108 and present its broadband photometric and spectroscopic evolution from three months of follow-up observations with ground-based telescopes and Swift. The light curve is well fitted with a t^(−5/3) decay, and we constrain the rise time to peak to be <49 rest-frame days after disruption, which is roughly consistent with the fallback timescale expected for the ~5 × 10^6 M_⊙ black hole inferred from the stellar velocity dispersion of the host galaxy. The UV and optical spectral energy...

  4. iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova

    Goobar, A.; Amanullah, R.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, P. E.; Johansson, J.; Steidel, C.; Lawrence, D.; Mörtsell, E.; Quimby, R.; Blagorodnova, N.; Brandeker, A.; Cao, Y.; Cooray, A.; Ferretti, R.; Fremling, C.; Hangard, L.; Kasliwal, M.; Kupfer, T.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F.; Miller, A. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Neill, J. D.; Ofek, E. O.; Papadogiannakis, S.; Petrushevska, T.; Ravi, V.; Sollerman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taddia, F.; Walters, R.; Wilson, D.; Yan, L.; Yaron, O.
    We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy. We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply...

  5. Confined dense circumstellar material surrounding a regular type II supernova

    Yaron, O.; Perley, D. A.; Gal-Yam, A.; Groh, J. H.; Horesh, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Sollerman, J.; Fransson, C.; Rubin, A.; Szabo, P.; Sapir, N.; Taddia, F.; Cenko, S. B.; Valenti, S.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Khazov, D.; Fox, O. D.; Cao, Y.; Gnat, O.; Kelly, P. L.; Nugent, P. E.; Filippenko, A. V.; Laher, R. R.; Wozniak, P. R.; Lee, W. H.; Rebbapragada, U. D.; Maguire, K.; Sullivan, M.; Soumagnac, M. T.
    With the advent of new wide-field, high-cadence optical transient surveys, our understanding of the diversity of core-collapse supernovae has grown tremendously in the last decade. However, the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars, which sets the physical backdrop to these violent events, is theoretically not well understood and difficult to probe observationally. Here we report the discovery of the supernova iPTF 13dqy = SN 2013fs  a mere ~3 h after explosion. Our rapid follow-up observations, which include multiwavelength photometry and extremely early (beginning at ~6 h post-explosion) spectra, map the distribution of material in the immediate environment (≲10^(15) cm) of the exploding star and establish that...

  6. Confined dense circumstellar material surrounding a regular type II supernova

    Yaron, O.; Perley, D. A.; Gal-Yam, A.; Groh, J. H.; Horesh, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Sollerman, J.; Fransson, C.; Rubin, A.; Szabo, P.; Sapir, N.; Taddia, F.; Cenko, S. B.; Valenti, S.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Khazov, D.; Fox, O. D.; Cao, Y.; Gnat, O.; Kelly, P. L.; Nugent, P. E.; Filippenko, A. V.; Laher, R. R.; Wozniak, P. R.; Lee, W. H.; Rebbapragada, U. D.; Maguire, K.; Sullivan, M.; Soumagnac, M. T.
    With the advent of new wide-field, high-cadence optical transient surveys, our understanding of the diversity of core-collapse supernovae has grown tremendously in the last decade. However, the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars, which sets the physical backdrop to these violent events, is theoretically not well understood and difficult to probe observationally. Here we report the discovery of the supernova iPTF 13dqy = SN 2013fs  a mere ~3 h after explosion. Our rapid follow-up observations, which include multiwavelength photometry and extremely early (beginning at ~6 h post-explosion) spectra, map the distribution of material in the immediate environment (≲10^(15) cm) of the exploding star and establish that...

  7. PTF1 J082340.04+081936.5: A Hot Subdwarf B Star with a Low-mass White Dwarf Companion in an 87-minute Orbit

    Kupfer, Thomas; van Roestel, Jan; Brooks, Jared; Geier, Stephan; Marsh, Tom R.; Groot, Paul J.; Bloemen, Steven; Prince, Thomas A.; Bellm, Eric; Heber, Ulrich; Bildsten, Lars; Miller, Adam A.; Dyer, Martin J.; Dhillon, Vik S.; Green, Matthew; Irawati, Puji; Laher, Russ; Littlefair, Stuart P.; Shupe, David L.; Steidel, Charles C.; Rattansoon, Somsawat; Pettini, Max
    We present the discovery of the hot subdwarf B star (sdB) binary PTF1 J082340.04+081936.5. The system has an orbital period of P_(orb) = 87.49668(1) minutes (0.060761584(10) days), making it the second-most compact sdB binary known. The light curve shows ellipsoidal variations. Under the assumption that the sdB primary is synchronized with the orbit, we find a mass of M_(sdB) = 0.45_(-0.07)^(+0.09) M_⊙, a companion white dwarf mass of M_(WD) = 0.46_(-0.09)^(+0.12) M_⊙, and a mass ratio of q = M_(WD)/M_(sdB) = 1.03_(-0.08)^(+0.10). The future evolution was calculated using the MESA stellar evolution code. Adopting a canonical sdB mass of M_(sdB)...

  8. The Palomar Transient Factory and RR Lyrae: The Metallicity–Light Curve Relation Based on ab-type RR Lyrae in the Kepler Field

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Yu, Po-Chieh; Bellm, Eric; Yang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Chan-Kao; Miller, Adam; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason; Ip, Wing-Huen
    The wide-field synoptic sky surveys, known as the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF), will accumulate a large number of known and new RR Lyrae. These RR Lyrae are good tracers to study the substructure of the Galactic halo if their distance, metallicity, and galactocentric velocity can be measured. Candidates of halo RR Lyrae can be identified from their distance and metallicity before requesting spectroscopic observations for confirmation. This is because both quantities can be obtained via their photometric light curves, because the absolute V-band magnitude for RR Lyrae is correlated with metallicity, and the...

  9. Large Super-Fast Rotator Hunting Using the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Ip, Wing-Huen; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Levitan, David; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason
    In order to look for large super-fast rotators, in late 2014 and early 2015, five dedicated surveys covering ~188 deg2 in the ecliptic plane have been carried out in the R-band, with ~10 minute cadence using the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. Among 1029 reliable rotation periods obtained from the surveys, we discovered 1 new large super-fast rotator, (40511) 1999 RE88, and 18 other candidates. (40511) 1999 RE88 is an S-type inner main-belt asteroid with a diameter of D = 1.9 ± 0.3 km, a rotation period of P = 1.96 ± 0.01 hr, and a light curve amplitude of Δm...

  10. Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh

    Ferretti, R.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Johansson, J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Butler, R. P.; Cao, Y.; Cenko, S. B.; Doran, G.; Filippenko, A. V.; Freeland, E.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Lundqvist, P.; Mattila, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P. E.; Petrushevska, T.; Valenti, S.; Vogt, S. S.; Wozniak, P.
    Context. Temporal variability of narrow absorption lines in high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is studied to search for circumstellar matter. Time series which resolve the profiles of absorption lines such as Na I D or Ca II H&K are expected to reveal variations due to photoionisation and subsequent recombination of the gases. The presence, composition, and geometry of circumstellar matter may hint at the elusive progenitor system of SNe Ia and could also affect the observed reddening law. Aims. To date, there are few known cases of time-varying Na I D absorption in SNe Ia, all of which...

  11. Localization and Broadband Follow-up of the Gravitational-wave Transient GW150914

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Cahillane, C.; Callister, T.; Cepeda, C. B.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Couvares, P.; Coyne, D. C.; Dergachev, V.; Drever, R. W. P.; Ehrens, P.; Etzel, T.; Gossan, S. E.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Hall, E. D.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hodge, K. A.; Isi, M.; Kanner, J. B.; Kells, W.; Kondrashov, V.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Lazzarini, A.; Li, T. G. F.; Mageswaran, M.; Maros, E.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Meshkov, S.; Pedraza, M.; Perreca, A.; Price , L. R.; Quintero, E. A.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Sachdev, S.; Sanchez, E. J.; Schmidt, P.; Shao, Z.; Singer, A.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Taylor, R.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Torrie, C. I.; Vajente, G.; Vass, S.; Wallace, L.; Weinstein, A. J.; Williams, R. D.; Wipf, C. C.; Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Chen, Yanbei; Engels, W.; Thorne, K. S.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Duggan, G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Miller, A. A.; Barlow, T.; Bellm, E.; Cook, D.; Prince, T.; Kupfer, T.; Laher, R.; Masci, F.; Surace, J.
    A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize the...

  12. Localization and Broadband Follow-up of the Gravitational-wave Transient GW150914

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Cahillane, C.; Callister, T.; Cepeda, C. B.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Couvares, P.; Coyne, D. C.; Dergachev, V.; Drever, R. W. P.; Ehrens, P.; Etzel, T.; Gossan, S. E.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Hall, E. D.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hodge, K. A.; Isi, M.; Kanner, J. B.; Kells, W.; Kondrashov, V.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Lazzarini, A.; Li, T. G. F.; Mageswaran, M.; Maros, E.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Meshkov, S.; Pedraza, M.; Perreca, A.; Price , L. R.; Quintero, E. A.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Sachdev, S.; Sanchez, E. J.; Schmidt, P.; Shao, Z.; Singer, A.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Taylor, R.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Torrie, C. I.; Vajente, G.; Vass, S.; Wallace, L.; Weinstein, A. J.; Williams, R. D.; Wipf, C. C.; Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Chen, Yanbei; Engels, W.; Thorne, K. S.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Duggan, G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Miller, A. A.; Barlow, T.; Bellm, E.; Cook, D.; Prince, T.; Kupfer, T.; Laher, R.; Masci, F.; Surace, J.
    A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize the...

  13. Hα Variability in PTFO8-8695 and the Possible Direct Detection of Emission from a 2 Million Year Old Evaporating Hot Jupiter

    Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Prato, Lisa; McLane, Jacob N.; Ciardi, David R.; van Eyken, Julian C.; Chen, Wei; Stauffer, John R.; Beichman, Charles A.; Frazier, Sarah A.; Boden, Andrew F.; Morales-Calderón, María; Rebull, Luisa M.
    We use high time cadence, high spectral resolution optical observations to detect excess Hα emission from the 2–3 Myr old weak-lined T Tauri star PTFO 8-8695. This excess emission appears to move in velocity as expected if it were produced by the suspected planetary companion to this young star. The excess emission is not always present, but when it is, the predicted velocity motion is often observed. We have considered the possibility that the observed excess emission is produced by stellar activity (flares), accretion from a disk, or a planetary companion; we find the planetary companion to be the most...

  14. Host-Galaxy Properties of 32 Low-Redshift Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory

    Perley, D. A.; Quimby, R. M.; Yang, L.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; De Cia, A.; Lunnan, R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Yaron, O.; Filippenko, A. V.; Graham, M. L.; Laher, R.; Nugent, P. E.
    We present ultraviolet through near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the host galaxies of all superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory prior to 2013 and derive measurements of their luminosities, star formation rates, stellar masses, and gas-phase metallicities. We find that Type I (hydrogen-poor) SLSNe (SLSNe I) are found almost exclusively in low-mass (M_* < 2 x 10^9 M_⊙) and metal-poor (12 + log_(10)[O/H] < 8.4) galaxies. We compare the mass and metallicity distributions of our sample to nearby galaxy catalogs in detail and conclude that the rate of SLSNe I as a fraction of all SNe is...

  15. Disappearance of the Progenitor of Supernova iPTF13bvn

    Folatelli, Gastón; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi; Bersten, Melina C.; Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Pignata, Giuliano; Hamuy, Mario; Quimby, Robert M.; Zheng, Weikang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Smith, Nathan; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Foley, Ryan J.; Miller, Adam A.
    Supernova (SN) iPTF13bvn in NGC 5806 was the first Type Ib SN to have been tentatively associated with a progenitor in pre-explosion images. We performed deep ultraviolet (UV) and optical Hubble Space Telescope observations of the SN site ~740 days after explosion. We detect an object in the optical bands that is fainter than the pre-explosion object. This dimming is likely not produced by dust absorption in the ejecta; thus, our finding confirms the connection of the progenitor candidate with the SN. The object in our data is likely dominated by the fading SN, implying that the pre-SN flux is...

  16. Be Stars in the Open Cluster NGC 6830

    Yu, Po-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Lee, Chien-De; Konidaris, Nick; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chen, Hui-Chen; Malkan, Matthew A.; Chang, Chan-Kao; Laher, Russ; Huang, Li-Ching; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Edelson, Rick; Ritter, Andreas; Quimby, Robert; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Ofek, Eran O.; Surace, Jason; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
    We report the discovery of two new Be stars, and re-identify one known Be star in the open cluster NGC 6830. Eleven Hα emitters were discovered using the Hα imaging photometry of the Palomar Transient Factory Survey. Stellar membership of the candidates was verified with photometric and kinematic information using 2MASS data and proper motions. The spectroscopic confirmation was carried out by using the Shane 3 m telescope at the Lick observatory. Based on their spectral types, three Hα emitters were confirmed as Be stars with Hα equivalent widths greater than −10 Å. Two objects were also observed by the...

  17. Be Stars in the Open Cluster NGC 6830

    Yu, Po-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Lee, Chien-De; Konidaris, Nick; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chen, Hui-Chen; Malkan, Matthew A.; Chang, Chan-Kao; Laher, Russ; Huang, Li-Ching; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Edelson, Rick; Ritter, Andreas; Quimby, Robert; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Ofek, Eran O.; Surace, Jason; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
    We report the discovery of two new Be stars, and re-identify one known Be star in the open cluster NGC 6830. Eleven Hα emitters were discovered using the Hα imaging photometry of the Palomar Transient Factory Survey. Stellar membership of the candidates was verified with photometric and kinematic information using 2MASS data and proper motions. The spectroscopic confirmation was carried out by using the Shane 3 m telescope at the Lick observatory. Based on their spectral types, three Hα emitters were confirmed as Be stars with Hα equivalent widths greater than −10 Å. Two objects were also observed by the...

  18. CHIMERA: a wide-field, multi-colour, high-speed photometer at the prime focus of the Hale telescope

    Harding, L. K.; Hallinan, G.; Milburn, J.; Gardner, P.; Konidaris, N.; Singh, N.; Shao, M.; Sandhu, J.; Kyne, G.; Schlichting, H. E.
    The Caltech HIgh-speed Multi-colour camERA (CHIMERA) is a new instrument that has been developed for use at the prime focus of the Hale 200-inch telescope. Simultaneous optical imaging in two bands is enabled by a dichroic beam splitter centred at 567 nm, with Sloan u′ and g′ bands available on the blue arm and Sloan r′, i′ and z_s bands available on the red arm. Additional narrow-band filters will also become available as required. An electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) detector is employed for both optical channels, each capable of simultaneously delivering sub-electron effective read noise under multiplication gain and frame...

  19. Metallicity from Type II supernovae from the (i)PTF

    Taddia, F.; Moquist, P.; Sollerman, J.; Rubin, A.; Leloudas, G.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Cao, Y.; Filippenko, A. V.; Graham, M. L.; Mazzali, P. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Pan, Y.-C.; Silverman, J. M.; Xu, D.; Yaron, O.
    Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) have recently been proposed as metallicity (Z) probes. The spectral models of Dessart et al. (2014, MNRAS, 440, 1856) showed that the pseudo-equivalent width of Fe II λ5018 (pEW_(5018)) during the plateau phase depends on the primordial Z, but there was a paucity of SNe IIP exhibiting pEW_(5018) that were compatible with Z < 0.4 Z⊙. This lack might be due to some physical property of the SN II population or to the fact that those SNe have been discovered in luminous, metal-rich targeted galaxies. Here we use SN II observations from the untargeted (intermediate) Palomar...

  20. Metallicity from Type II supernovae from the (i)PTF

    Taddia, F.; Moquist, P.; Sollerman, J.; Rubin, A.; Leloudas, G.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Cao, Y.; Filippenko, A. V.; Graham, M. L.; Mazzali, P. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Pan, Y.-C.; Silverman, J. M.; Xu, D.; Yaron, O.
    Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) have recently been proposed as metallicity (Z) probes. The spectral models of Dessart et al. (2014, MNRAS, 440, 1856) showed that the pseudo-equivalent width of Fe II λ5018 (pEW_(5018)) during the plateau phase depends on the primordial Z, but there was a paucity of SNe IIP exhibiting pEW_(5018) that were compatible with Z < 0.4 Z⊙. This lack might be due to some physical property of the SN II population or to the fact that those SNe have been discovered in luminous, metal-rich targeted galaxies. Here we use SN II observations from the untargeted (intermediate) Palomar...

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