Sánchez, Juan Matías
This paper develops a model in which it is possible to evaluate alternatives of human capital financing. The alternative systems under discussion are: total feeing; graduates taxes and uniform taxes (this can be associated to the scheme presently used in the Argentina universitary system). Assessment of the alternatives is performed over welfare, based on the indicators of poverty, equality, equity (justice in the distribution) and the average levels of utility and wealth. Likewise, the functions of welfare presented by Bentham, Rawls, Atkinson, Sen and Kakwani are also considered. The most remarkable results are obtained through the simulation of an economy...
This paper examines the impact of national and foreign trade reforms on poverty in Argentina. National reforms include the removal of Argentine import tariffs. Foreign reforms include the elimination of agricultural subsidies, and tariffs and non-tariff barriers in developed countries (i.e. the United States and the European Union). From a head count ratio of 25.7 percent in 1999, a combination of domestic and global trade liberalization would cause a decline of between 1.6 and 4.6 percentage points in the poverty rate. The marginal effects of national trade reforms are larger than those of foreign trade reforms. However, there is a...
Páez P., Pedro
This paper is based in a simultaneous equations econometric model -estimated with the help of genetic algorithms- for the depiction of the Ecuadorian economy functioning. The structural model links the traditional macroeconomic relationships with the evolution of social conditions, generally omitted on this regard. The model purposes, with favorable econometric evidence, that aside the known rapports of poverty with growth and inflation, there is a very important impact of the variation of key prices like the exchange rate and the minimum wage, even in the short-run. Besides, there exists a two-way influence: social conditions also affect macroeconomic performance via price...
Ñopo, Hugo; Saavedra, Jaime; Torero, Máximo
Our approach to the concept of ethnicity involves the usage of instruments in many of its several dimensions: mother tongue, parental background, religion, migration events and race. In order to approximate what can be called racial differences in a context like the Peruvian in which "racial mixture" is the main characteristic of the population, we use a score-based procedure to capture both the differences and the mixtures. By means of this procedure each individual is assigned intensities by pollsters in each of the four categories that correspond to the most easily recognized distinct racial groups in the Peruvian society: Asiatic,...
López Zadicoff, Pablo D.; Paz, Jorge A.
En este trabajo se analizan los determinantes de la participación en el Programa Jefes de Hogar (PJH), implementado en la Argentina en abril de 2002. Se avanza también en la descripción de la inserción ocupacional de los beneficiarios del programa. Para el examen de la participación se propone una metodología de estimación de la población blanco del programa la que permite a su vez evaluar su eficacia para garantizar el Derecho Familiar a la Inclusión Social, fin principal manifiesto en el decreto de creación del PJH.
La participación es evaluada en función de un conjunto de variables individuales, familiares y ocupacionales....
Fiszbein, Ariel; Giovagnoli, Paula Inés; Thurston, Norman
At the end of 2001, Argentina suffered one of its worst economic crises in memory. When presented with lower incomes, reduced employment, and other economic shocks, households have responded by adjusting their consumer behavior and adopting a number of coping strategies. In this paper, we use evidence from a household survey completed at the time of the Argentine crisis to examine whether the use of coping strategies is directly linked to the type of shock experienced by the household and whether household behavior varies by wealth or family type.
Engerman, Stanley L.; Sokoloff, Kenneth L.
Whereas traditional explanations of differences in long-run paths of development across the Americas generally point to the significance of differences in national heritage or religion, we highlight the relevance of stark contrasts in the degree of inequality in wealth, human capital, and political power in accounting for how fundamental economic institutions evolved over time. We argue, moreover, that the roots of these disparities in the extent of inequality lay in differences in the initial factor endowments (dating back to the era of European colonization). We document -through comparative studies of suffrage, public land, and schooling policies- systematic patterns by which...
This chapter summarizes information on inequality in living standards in Latin American and Caribbean countries. To that aim we work with a sample of more than 50 household surveys from 20 LAC countries from 1989 to 2001, and we survey results from other authors. Although the core of the statistics are on household income inequality, the study also presents information by country/year on inequality in the distribution of earnings, hourly wages, hours, worked, employment, unemployment, child labor, non-labor income, education, literacy, school enrollment, household size, housing, land ownership, social services, health status and services, political representation and crime victimization. Additionally,...
Di Tella, Rafael; Galiani, Sebastian; Schargrodsky, Ernesto
Crime levels have risen significantly in Argentina during recent years. In this study, we analyze the relationship between crime victimization and income distribution. Our main question is whether the rich or the poor have been the main victims of this crime rise. For home robberies, we found that the poor have suffered the main crime increases. For street robberies, both groups show similar augments in victimization. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the rich are better able to protect their houses through private security devices than the poor. Additional evidence supports this interpretation.
Contreras G., Dante; Galván, Marco
Este trabajo examina la discriminación salarial por género, etnia y su interacción en Bolivia para el período 1994-1999. Se investiga el rol que desempeña la discriminación en los niveles de ingreso y sobre la desigualdad salarial. El estudio estima ecuaciones de ingresos tipo Mincer corregidas por sesgo de selección, desagregando en dos grupos de edad. Posteriormente, se utiliza la descomposición de Fields, metodología que cuantifica la contribución de las diferentes variables incluidas en la ecuación de ingresos en la explicación de la desigualdad salarial. Así es posible observar el impacto de la discriminación sobre los niveles de desigualdad. Los principales...
Corbacho, Ana; García-Escribano, Mercedes; Inchauste, Gabriela
Using urban household surveys, we constructed a panel dataset to study the effects of the Argentine macroeconomic crisis of 1999-2002 with the aim of (1) identifying the most vulnerable households, (2) investigating whether employment in the public sector and government spending served to decrease vulnerability, and (3) understanding the mechanisms used by households to smooth the effects of the crisis. Households whose heads were male, less educated, and employed in the construction sector were more vulnerable to the crisis, experiencing larger-than-average declines in income and higher dispersion. Households whose heads were employed in the public sector were more protected from...
Chumacero, Rómulo A.; Paredes M., Ricardo
This paper develops direct tests for evaluating the performance of two types of emergency employment programs put in place in Chile since 1999. Our results suggest: First, decentralized and market-driven programs (subsidies for hiring and training) are more efficient in terms of productivity, but are targeted to people that are less vulnerable to unemployment. Second, direct employment programs result in moderate increases of the income of the households of the participants. This increase may be outweighted by the costs (in present value) associated with higher school drop-out and participation rates. Third, if analyzed at a municipality level (comuna), centralized programs...
Datria, Pablo; Buera, Francisco Javier; Nicolini, Juan Pablo
El objetivo de este trabajo es poder identificar empíricamente un candidato para este mecanismo de transmisión usando datos de hogares en Argentina: las decisiones de deserción escolar originadas por restricciones al crédito. Una combinación de argumentos teóricos y empíricos nos centran en este candidato. Primero, la heterogeneidad en la acumulación de capital humano es una fuente importante de los diferenciales de ingresos entre los individuos. Segundo, las decisiones de deserción pueden tener altos costos de reversión, ya que estas decisiones solo pueden ser echas una vez por año. También debe considerarse que la participación en el mercado laboral genera acumulación...