The objective of this study is to examine the potential relationship between walkability and demographic characteristics at the city level. Failure to meet physical activity guidelines contributes to the high burden of chronic disease in the United States. Neighborhood environments that are conducive to physical activity help residents meet physical activity guidelines and lead healthier lives. Walkability is a score that characterizes the neighborhood activity environment; it takes into account distances to various types of destinations at the street-, city-, or zip code-level. Higher Walk Scores have been associated with higher levels of physical activity as well as better health...
Abstract: The rate of infant mortality in the United States is higher than most other developed countries. Ohio has second highest infant mortality rate (IMR) in the country, and Franklin County has one of the highest IMRs in Ohio. Moms2B is a pregnancy education and support program that seeks to reduce the IMR throughout Franklin County. The aim of this study was to evaluate the program efficacy of Moms2B’s East location. Data collected from Moms2B was compared to data from Columbus Public Health (CPH) on Near East Side births. The data analysis concluded that Moms2B has similar low birth weight...
Objectives: This analysis aims to determine 1) which methods of contraception are used by women in Malawi; 2) whether the methods differ by self-reported HIV status; and 3) whether frequency of condom use at last sex differs by self-reported HIV status.
Methods: The analysis is based on 13,618 non-pregnant women aged 15-49 in the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey who had sexual debut and reported the result of their last HIV test. We accounted for the 2-stage cluster sampling design by applying cluster, stratum, and sample weights. Current contraceptive method analysis was restricted to the subgroup with contraceptive need (i.e.,...
The overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has frequently been targeted as a significant contributor to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. Many American adults opt for low-calorie sweetened beverages (LCSB), such as Diet Coke, as a replacement. LCSB provide consumers with the sweetness of a traditional soda without the excessive caloric intake provided by added sugar. However, some researchers have called the use of LCSB into question, arguing that the consumption of LCSB may lead to weight gain rather than prevent it by disrupting metabolic responses, increasing one’s preference for sweet substances, and decreasing feelings...
In 2014 the infant mortality rate in Franklin County was 8.4 deaths per 1,000 births compared to the national rate of 6 deaths per 1,000 births. There is much evidence in peer reviewed journals that suggests links between various maternal health characteristics and poor birth outcomes. Due to the high number of deaths in Franklin County, it is important to use the county’s data as a case study in order to learn more about the relationship between maternal characteristics and fetal-infant mortality. The objective of this study is to analyze the data set compiled by the Franklin County Fetal- Infant...
Research has shown that tobacco use among college students is influenced by the social environment, especially among a subset of smokers known as social smokers. Although many college campuses now have tobacco-free policies that could restrict social use of tobacco products, these policies often do not extend to common places of summer employment for college students that have similar social environments. Currently, no recommended tobacco policy exists for such summer programs, and little research has been done to assess their need. The objective of this study was to examine trends in tobacco use among the college-aged summer staff members of...
This project explores the issue of sexual violence on Ohio State's campus and appropriate University response to the issue. Including a survey of over 600 students to assess the issue on campus and benchmarked data from peer academic institutions, the report issues specific recommendations to better respond to the issue on campus.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in many countries of the world. The practice of having concurrent sexual partners is an important risk factor for STI transmission. Social capital is a target area for improving sexual health. Social capital describes the ways in which individuals are connected to resources that can influence their behaviors, and provides methods of coping with stressors. Previous studies have yielded contradicting findings about the effects social capital has on sexual health behaviors and STI prevalence. Our study aims to investigate social factors, namely social...
The increase in electronic cigarette (e-cigarettes) use in the United States, along with the uncertainty of the health effects resultant of use, have caused a number of states and local municipalities to regulate these products like cigarettes. Many policies have been passed to regulate youth access to e-cigarettes and limit e-cigarette use in public places. In this paper, I estimate the reach of e-cigarette inclusion in smoke-free and youth access laws, estimate the rate at which e-cigarettes are taxed and if they are taxed at the same rates as cigarettes, and describe the influence of the tobacco industry on e-cigarette...
Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5, diameter less than 2.5 μm) is a major component of air pollutants. Because of the small sizes of particulate categorized as PM2.5, it can easily be inhaled deeply into the lungs and deposit in the alveoli. These small particles may cross the air-liquid interface, enter the blood stream, and spread to the rest of the body. Studies over the past few decades have linked PM2.5 to different health consequences including cardiovascular diseases by causing local or systemic damage. Moreover, it has been well recognized that toxicity of PM2.5 depends, in part, on the specific chemical...