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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (80.208 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

28th Hayes Graduate Research Forum (February, 2014)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 37

  1. Art1-Arrestin in cytokinesis

    Davidson, Reshma
    Background: Cytokinesis partitions a mother cell into two daughter cells and is essential for cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Septins, a family of conserved GTPases, are essential for cytokinesis in budding yeast and some animal cells. However, septin deletion mutants are viable in the fission yeast S. pombe, indicating the presence of a parallel pathway for maintenance of cell integrity during cytokinesis. A synthetic lethal screen with septin deficient strain identified the arrestin Art1 as a component of this parallel pathway. Arrestins are known to regulate cellular signaling in higher eukaryotes. However, their functions in S. pombe are unknown. Findings: I...

  2. The In/visibility of Race: Mixed-race Chinese Americans during the Exclusion Era

    Winans, Adrienne
    “The In/visibility of Race: Mixed-Race Chinese Americans during the Exclusion Era” interrogates the experiences of mixed-race Chinese American families during the years of Chinese exclusion, 1875-1943. Drawing on a piece of my dissertation, “Race, Space, and Gender: Re-mapping a Chinese American from the Margins, 1975-1943,” I read through the archives left by the anti-Chinese measures of the U.S. gate-keeping state. In this presentation, I use the history of Charlie Stewart Cue as a case study of intimate interraciality in small town America at the turn of century and as an example of the erasure of not only these spaces but...

  3. What Price Postmodernism?

    Lopez, Delano
    A case study of the funding of an intellectual movement- Postmodernism- and its effect on the political claims of that movement.

  4. The Illuminated Scores & The Architectural Design of Musical Form

    Alonso, Orlay
    The Illuminated Scores are designed as scholarly editions for performing artists and educators, to portray the form and structure of a musical composition. They incorporate semiotic tools into the study of musical language intended to make the architectural design visible in a coherent format. The purpose of the study is to develop a method of representing music graphically that differs from the established score layout, reorganizing content in a manner that allows one to overcome the constraints under which musical skills are developed in the current model of publishing music. The motivation for such a study grew out of the...

  5. Lysine Methylation is an Endogenous Post-Translational Modification of Tau Protein in Human Brain and a Modulator of Aggregation Propensity

    Cooper, Grace
    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting 13% of Americans aged at least 65 years and 43% of Americans aged at least 85 years. It is a major driver of long-term care costs in the U.S., and there is currently no cure or preventative treatment. AD is defined by the appearance of two hallmark lesions: extracellular plaques composed of the beta-amyloid peptide and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of the microtubule-binding protein tau. The accumulation of these proteins in aggregated forms is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. However, the accumulation of NFTs better...

  6. When grammar meets politics: Uses of stigmatized language on a political talk show

    Grammon, Devin
    In this study, we trace the use of stigmatized Spanish grammatical variants on a Venezuelan political talk show, Aló Presidente, with the aim of better understanding how non-standard grammar associated with poor and uneducated speakers can be taken up as ideological resources in high-stakes political interactions. These stigmatized grammatical forms, conjugations of the presentational verb haber displaying non-standard plural agreement, are widely held to be indexical of the primary political constituency of the show’s host: the controversial former Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez. Hypothesizing that the use of these variants will be predicted in both colorful stylistic uses of language and...

  7. Microglia induce motor neuron death via the classical NF-κB pathway in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Frakes, Ashley
    Neuroinflammation is one of the most striking hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB), a master regulator of inflammation, is upregulated in spinal cords of ALS patients and SOD1-G93A mice. In this study, we show that selective NF-κB inhibition in ALS astrocytes is not sufficient to rescue motor neuron (MN) death. However, the localization of NF-κB activity and subsequent deletion of NF-κB signaling in microglia led to rescued MNs from microglial-mediated death in vitro and extended survival in ALS mice by impairing pro-inflammatory microglial activation. Conversely, constitutive activation of NF-κB selectively in WT microglia induced gliosis and...

  8. Therapeutic AAV9-mediated Suppression of Mutant SOD1 Slows Disease Progression and Extends Survival in Models of Inherited ALS

    Likhite, Shibi
    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) resulting in progressive motor neuron death through one or more acquired toxicities. Involvement of wild-type SOD1 has been linked to sporadic ALS, as misfolded SOD1 has been reported in affected tissues of sporadic patients and toxicity of astrocytes derived from sporadic ALS patients to motor neurons has been reported to be reduced by lowering the synthesis of SOD1. We now report slowed disease onset and progression in two mouse models following therapeutic delivery using a single peripheral injection of an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) encoding...

  9. Validation of a 10-Item Questionnaire Measuring Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in 9-11 year old Children Living in Low Income Households

    Berger, Laura
    Background: Many U.S. children do not meet the recommended daily requirement for fruit and vegetable intake; this is particularly true among low-income populations. In order to determine the effectiveness of nutrition education programs aimed at improving children’s food choices and eating behaviors, cost-effective and easily administered validated assessment tools are needed. Unfortunately, to date, few such survey tools exist. Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to test the criterion (concurrent) validity of a 10-item fruit and vegetable questionnaire (FVQ) in preadolescent children (ages 9 to 11 years), previously validated for face and content validity. The 24-hr dietary recall was...

  10. Housing system may affect behavior and performance of Jersey heifer calves

    Pempek, Jessica
    There is increasing social pressure to adopt alternative housing and management practices that allow farm animals more opportunity to exercise and demonstrate social behavior. The present study investigated the effect of paired housing on the behavior and performance of Jersey heifer calves. Forty female Jersey calves were allocated to individual or pair housing at birth and monitored for 9 wk. Calves were provided with a single hutch, and those allocated to the paired housing treatment were provided a pen enclosure twice the size of individually housed calves and only one hutch was provided per pair. All calves were fed milk...

  11. Mission-Based Objectives, Market-Based Funding: The Relationship between Nonprofit Enterprise and Service Delivery

    Levine Daniel, Jamie
    This paper addresses the relationship between earned revenue activities and core service delivery in nonprofit organizations. Two key assumptions drive this study: (1) organizations are resource-dependent and (2) nonprofit organizations are mission-driven. Past studies have examined earned revenue as aggregate measures, i.e.: the sum of all market-driven income activities, or the sum of revenue from program/service related activities. Some of these studies argue earned revenue complements service delivery because organizations can use this financial resource to invest in the organizational technologies and acquire the resources needed to deliver their core services. Other studies have considered the potential negative effects because...

  12. Comparison of the Corrosion Behavior of High Strength Aluminum Alloys after Exposure to ASTM B117 Environment

    Grieshop, Sara
    In recent years, design requirements for new aircraft have required materials engineers to develop a stronger yet lighter aluminum alloy than the traditional AA7075 and AA2024 type alloys used previously. The aluminum-lithium alloy system is attractive to the aerospace industry due to the its lower density, increased elastic modulus, increased fatigue crack growth resistance, formation of strengthening phases, and increased corrosion resistance when compared to AA7075 and AA2024. Third generation aluminum-lithium alloys have proven to be a viable replacement for incumbent alloys AA7075 and AA2024 in aircraft structures. A key interest in these alloys is increased corrosion resistance and much...

  13. Fabrication and Analysis of Thermally Invariant Smart Composites via Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing

    Pritchard, Joshua
    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM), a form of 3D printing based on ultrasonic metal welding, is a fabrication technique that is rapidly altering the development of new components within the research and commercial industries. Through the use of piezoelectric boosters, vibrating at 20 kHz, and the application of normal forces in excess of 5000 Newtons, thin metal foils can be welded in a fusionless, low-temperature process to produce bulk structures. Because of its low-temperature, UAM provides the opportunity to embed thermally sensitive materials, such as nickel-titanium (NiTi), a shape memory alloy. NiTi exhibits a shape change as it undergoes thermally-induced crystallographic...

  14. Repeated social defeat decreased neurogenesis and impaired working memory in mice

    McKim, Daniel
    Recent studies demonstrate that microglia activation and inflammatory cytokines are potent regulators of cognition and neuroplasticity. Moreover, repeated social defeat (RSD) in mice causes microglia activation and increased production inflammatory cytokines in the brain. The present examined the association between hippocampal cytokine expression, learning & memory, and hippocampal neurogenesis. We show that RSD increased production of hippocampal cytokines (i.e., IL-1b, IL-6, and TNFa) without reducing common neurogenic growth factors (e.g., VEGF, NGF, IGF1, and BDNF). Increased hippocampal cytokine expression was not associated with reduced proliferation or survival of hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs) but was associated with reduced NPC differentiation...

  15. Ets-2 in Pancreatic Cancer Associated Fibroblasts Promotes Tumor Initiation and Development.

    Pitarresi, Jason
    Pancreatic cancer remains an overwhelmingly fatal disease with less than 5% of patients surviving beyond 5 years, largely due to our lack of understanding of the complexity of the disease. Many recent reports have begun to highlight the potential role that stromal cells—fibroblasts in particular—may have on pancreatic tumor cell biology and this report provides data that supports the theory of tumor-stroma co-evolution in pancreatic cancer. Here we use a novel mouse model to show that Ets-2 in the tumor-associated stroma promotes pancreatic tumor initiation and development. We observed a decrease in tumorigenesis events such as acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) and...

  16. Assessing the Impact of Financial Disclosure Forms on the Mortgage Selection Process

    Mountain, Travis
    The recent housing crisis has raised the important question of whether consumers are making appropriate decisions when it comes to various mortgage options. Specifically, do consumers know when to choose an adjustable rate mortgage versus a fixed rate mortgage? Further, does additional mortgage disclosure help consumers make the correct decision? This study uses unique data in a 2x2 experimental design in which some participants were randomly assigned to receive a Federal Reserve Board document containing information explaining the difference between these two major mortgage types. Participants were then given two distinct scenarios, one where an adjustable and one where a...

  17. Determination of Biologically Relevant Vitamin D Metabolites in a Mouse Model of Non Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Teegarden, Matthew
    Background: Vitamin D has received recent attention as a nutrient in which a large portion of Americans may be deficient. Vitamin D is a unique “essential” nutrient in that it can be produced endogenously in the skin via UVB irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, or taken in from the diet. Although it is well established that vitamin D plays a role in bone health, a growing body of evidence suggests that it may also have a role in chronic diseases, including several types of cancer. Vitamin D is not naturally present in many foods although some foods including dairy products and ready...

  18. Degenerate Gaugino Mass Region and Mono-Boson Collider Signatures

    Anandakrishnan, Archana
    We propose here a program of searches for degenerate electro-weakinos in various final state search topologies. In particular we emphasize the usefulness of searching for mass degenerate charginos and neutralinos in the mono-Z search channel. We demonstrate that the mono-Z search supersedes the mono-jet and mono-photon search topologies and present arguments using effective operators to explain why mono Z searches can succeed where mono-jet and mono-photon searches have failed.

  19. War Bugs: Street Art as Performed Discourse in Bogotá

    Wilson, Geoffrey
    Historically, the embodied practice of making stencil or graffiti art has been uniquely heightened because of the fact that the artist is in danger of arrest during the creation of the work. This has led to anti-authoritarian posturing and interpretation by the artists and spectators. However, new commercial opportunities for urban artists and increasing acceptance of their art as art has led to the establishment of legal spaces for street art in some cities, including Bogotá. Theorists such as Jean Boudrillard, Dwight Conquergood, and others who have contributed to the theorization of graffiti have generally conceived of graffiti as textual,...

  20. Waveguide Magnetic Resonance Elastography in a Pressure-Varying Porcine Model

    Mazumder, Ria
    Purpose: To determine anisotropic myocardial stiffness using waveguide cardiac magnetic resonance elastography (CMRE) in an ex-vivo porcine model with varying left ventricular pressure simulating heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and compare the results against isotropic myocardial stiffness. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and CMRE was implemented on three ex-vivo porcine hearts inflated with two different pressure values on a 3T MRI scanner to obtain fiber orientation and displacement information respectively. An orthotropic inversion was performed on the displacement data to estimate the anisotropic stiffness coefficients (compressional and shear) in the heart for both the inflation pressures and the results were...

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