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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (74.597 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

19th Denman Undergraduate Research Forum (2014)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 37

  1. Investigation of Vaporizing Foil Actuator Welding Between Dissimilar Metals

    Benzing, Jake; He, Mei; Vivek, Anupam
    This work aims to study the effect of microstructure of the weld between aluminum alloy AA6061 and commercially pure copper, Cu 110, on its mechanical properties. AA6061-T6 and T4 aluminum sheets of 1 mm thickness were launched towards copper targets using the Vaporizing Foil Actuator (VFA) tool operating at 8 kJ input energy level. Flyer plate velocities, measured via photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV), were observed to be approximately 800 m/s. All the welded samples were subjected to instrumented peel testing, microhardness testing, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and SEM. The welded joints had cracks which ran through the continuous intermetallic layers...

  2. Analysis of Rotationally Excited States of Deuterated CH5+ Using Diffusion Monte Carlo

    Ford, Jason E.
    The chemistry that occurs in space is very different from that on Earth, but it is necessary to understand these differences in order to comprehend many astronomical processes. In order to study the astrochemistry that is taking place, radioastronomy can be used to observe transitions between rotational energy levels of the molecules and ions. The resulting information, the spectrum, acts as a molecular fingerprint and can be utilized to determine some of the properties of the molecules and ions that are present. Understanding and predicting spectra is quite difficult for floppy molecules, those that exhibit large amplitude vibrational motions in...

  3. Examining the short term effects of restoration plantings on emerald ash borer infested flood plains

    Hefflinger, Rachel
    Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) has been identified as present in Ohio since 2003. Since then this small Asian beetle has been devastating to floodplain areas throughout Ohio, killing almost the entire population (99%) of ash trees. In many of these ecosystems, ash was the dominant species in the canopy. The question now remains as how to best repair these areas. In 2011, restoration plots were planted in Clinton Conservation Area (Clinton, Ohio), Oak Openings Metropark (Toledo, OH) and Sharon Woods Metropark (Columbus, OH), representing a gradient of infestation duration and ash mortality. Three different species were planted randomly throughout...

  4. Using Biosensors to Measure Behavioral and Milk Compositional Changes During Bovine Mastitis

    Kester, Hannah
    Automated bio-sensors were used to compare milk constituents and physical activity measures of cows experimentally infected with Streptococcus uberis mastitis with those of uninfected cows. Twelve late lactation Holsteins cows were placed into 6 pairs based upon milk production and parity. One cow in each pair was experimentally infected into the right front mammary gland with Steptococcus uberis, while the remaining cow in each pair served as an uninfected control. The automated bio-sensor system provided real-time analysis of milk fat, protein, and lactose at each milking. Pedometers were placed on the left front leg of all cows and activity was...

  5. Overexpression of miR-3151 leads to direct deregulation of the TP53 pathway and is associated with BRAF mutations in malignant melanoma

    Lankenau, Malori
    The BRAF gene is the most frequently mutated gene in malignant melanoma (MM). When mutated, it is associated with a more aggressive disease phenotype. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that downregulate the expression of their target genes by binding to their 3′-UTR. Recently, microRNA miR-3151 was identified in intron 1 of BAALC, the most upregulated gene in BRAF mutated melanoma. In acute myeloid leukemia, both high miR-3151 and high BAALC are associated with poor survival. In addition, miR-3151 has leukemogenic activity via direct deregulation of TP53. To begin to decipher miR-3151’s role in MM carcinogenesis, miR-3151 and TP53 expression levels...

  6. Dance, Design, and Neuroscience: Interdisciplinary Strategies to Promote Sustainability and Vitality in the Creative Sector

    Bedal, Lauren
    With the oversaturation of marketing and advertising in today’s world, the biggest challenge in the performing arts industry lies in encouraging consumers to leave the comfort of their homes to engage in a live cultural experience. Marketing and advertising for these organizations has called for innovative brand direction shifting from traditional market research to explore the psychological and neurological implications behind brand perception. In this study, I investigated how design theory and neuroscience, when included in branding and marketing strategies, can increase brand awareness and loyalty for the performing arts, specifically focusing on dance organizations. Today, the concept of branding...

  7. Oncolytic HSV-mediated Regulation of the Host Hypoxia Response

    Hurwitz, Brian; Yoo, Ji Young
    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly primary brain tumor, accounting for over 10,000 new cancer diagnoses in the United States each year. The poor prognosis for GBM patients necessitates novel biological treatments. One such approach is the use of oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1 (oHSV). Like many novel treatments, oHSV therapy causes side effects that are not yet well understood. Our lab has demonstrated that oHSV treatment increases the vascularity of brain tumors. The goal of this study is to determine the mechanism by which oHSV treatment increases the vascularity of brain tumors. We have determined that the...

  8. The Identification of New Genes Critical for Proper Epidermal Cell Division through Comparative Genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae

    Fillis, Cambree; Chamberlin, Helen
    The evolutionary conservation of genes within the EGF/Ras signaling pathway among biological systems exemplifies the pathway’s significance in proper organismal development. Even slight deviation from the normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes within the pathway commonly results in abnormal cell proliferation and the formation of malignant growths. In order to identify and better understand these genes, we are continuing to investigate the role of genetic differences within the EGF/Ras signaling pathway and their influence on epidermal cell division by studying the relationship of vulva development between the nematode worm species, C. elegans and C. briggsae. A genetic screen...

  9. Effects of Regional Dialect on Word-Final Consonant Voicing

    Royer, Adam
    In English word-final consonants, the voicing feature is signaled by temporal cues, including the duration of the preceding vowel and the consonant itself (House, 1961; Klatt, 1976) and by non-temporal cues, including voicing during the consonant (Fowler, 1991). Purnell et al.'s (2012) research found that regional dialects of English vary in how they signal word-final consonant voicing. The goal of this study is to examine the use of temporal and non-temporal cues to phonological voicing as a function of regional American English dialect and consonant type. Monosyllabic words ending in either a stop (e.g. p, t, k, b, d, g)...

  10. Health Information in the Digital Age: Online Federal Resources for Secondary Health Conditions Common in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Monteleone, Rebecca
    According to the Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Improve the Health and Wellness of Persons with Disabilities (2007), there is a public health crisis occurring among Americans who identify as disabled. In particular, the intellectually and developmentally disabled population (I/DD)—which currently accounts for nearly 4 million Americans—has both a significantly increased risk of secondary health conditions such as heart disease, oral health issues and obesity, and decreased access to health promotion and education programs. Currently, there are many resources available online for preventable health conditions, often produced and distributed by national non-profit networks. The accessibility of these resources for...

  11. Turbulence Intensity Study at Inlet of 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel Caused by Upwind Blockage

    Yuricich, Jillian
    The National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel (80 x 120) at NASA Ames Research Center has operated as the world’s largest wind tunnel since the facility’s inception. Because the 80 x 120 inlet draws in air from the environment, precautions were taken during its design to reduce the effects of turbulence from ambient air by including inlet guide vanes, splitters, and screens. The effect of upwind buildings is unknown, and with the construction of a new Google building complex approximately 1200 feet upwind from the 80 x 120 inlet, it is necessary to investigate the consequences of...

  12. Mind and Motion: Merging Words with Action through Choreography and Improvisation

    Sauma, Kathryn
    Last Spring I designed and performed a solo in Berlin, Germany in which I established a theory of improvisation based on the interplay of metaphysics and metaphor as revealed through a fluid alternation of text and movement. Text depicts metaphysical descriptions of present situations as experienced by the dancers, whereas abstract movement creates a metaphorical visual portrayal of relationship and symbolism. As an emerging contemporary dance artist at The Ohio State University I have become increasingly intrigued by the boundaries of theater and the roles of performer and audience in experiencing live art that intermixes choreography and structured improvisation, movement...

  13. The Role of Indirect PAR1 Activation in Tissue Repair after SCI

    Milich, Lindsay
    PAR1 (Protease-Activated Receptor 1) is a G protein-coupled receptor present on many different CNS (Central Nervous System) cell types. When cleaved by serine proteases, PAR1 initiates several signaling cascades associated with tissue repair. After spinal cord injury (SCI), PAR1 is upregulated within the damaged tissue. We hypothesized that PAR1 activation would promote the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC’s), which are known to play a role in repair after SCI. Indeed, activation of PAR1 within the spinal cord via microinjection of a PAR1 agonist promoted an increase in OPC proliferation, accompanied by an acculumation of microglia surrounding the microinjection site....

  14. Preconditioning with lipopolysaccharide activates spinal cord microglia without causing neuropathology

    Sweet, David
    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), normally provide sentinel functions in intact CNS but once activated by injury or disease, microglia can exacerbate CNS pathology. However, not all forms of microglia activation are injurious. Injecting sub-lethal doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), activates microglia but without causing damage. This “preconditioning” can be neuroprotective in the brain; however, it is not known if spinal cord microglia also can be preconditioned with LPS. To test whether LPS can condition spinal cord microglia, mice were injected intraperitoneally daily for four consecutive days with LPS (1mg/kg). The next day, spinal cords...

  15. Assessing changing water quality in Peru due to glacial recession

    Battista, Robert; Mark, Bryan; Fernandez, Alfonso; Guittard, Alexandre
    As concerns over future access to fresh water are beginning to spread in the United States, other more vulnerable regions like western-draining Andean watersheds in Peru are already feeling the effects of climate change on drinking water. Here, the glaciated peaks of the Andes buffer seasonal contrasts in stream runoff. However, these glaciers are now receding faster than ever before, and scientists have already recorded significant reductions in the water they supply to rivers. Furthermore, certain streams have also been found to have adversely high acidity and potentially toxic concentrations of certain heavy metals. Many such streams are used in agricultural irrigation. To test the extent and source(s) of river water contamination...

  16. Variants in Hdac9 Intronic Enhancer as Candidates for Skin Tumor Susceptibility Locus

    Siekmann, Tyler
    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common forms of cancer in the world accounting for nearly half of all cancer diagnoses. Rates of NMSC are on the rise with an over 300% increase in diagnosis of these cancers in the last 20 years. While environmental risk factors for skin cancers are well understood, little is known about genetic risk factors for these cancers. Mouse linkage studies have identified several loci housing skin cancer susceptibility genes. Human tumors show evidence of preferential allelic imbalance for polymorphisms in Hdac9, a gene mapping to one of the linkage regions, Skts5. One intron...

  17. Assessing Rigor in Social Work Education from the Perspective of Students and Instructors

    Pever, Jessica
    For social work students to develop the competencies and skills required for successful social work practice a rigorous curriculum must be available to them. While it is generally accepted that a “rigorous” curriculum leads to better learning outcomes, the actual meaning of rigor and the key components of a rigorous curriculum are not well defined. This study seeks to better understand the concept of rigor as it relates to social work education. The goals of this study are to analyze the perception of rigor collectively held by students and instructors currently engaged in the Ohio State University undergraduate social work...

  18. Sensory Perceptions of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Between Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarette Smokers

    Vigil, Anna
    Although recent research has shown that smoking menthol cigarettes negatively impacts smoking cessation among adults, there are still over 10 million menthol smokers in the U.S., the highest populations being represented by Non-Hispanic Black smokers and young adult smokers. The research questions were: 1) Were menthol cigarette users more likely to quit than nonmenthol cigarette users during nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in a two week study? 2) What is the relationship between cigarette smoking and NRT usage regarding sensory perceptions of liking, satisfaction and sensation strength? and 3) Is there a difference in sensory perceptions of liking, satisfaction and sensation...

  19. Executive Function: Generational and Environmental Influences

    Hanna, Nathan
    A link between the executive function (EF) of children and their mothers is a topic of psychology seldom explored, but could be of paramount importance. Limited empirical evidence suggests a connection in EF between parents and offspring. Familial factors, such as SES and maternal stress, have also been linked with the development of EF. Since forms of psychopathology involve deficits in EF, recognizing a predictive relationship between mother-child EF could lead to early identification of psychological conditions in their children. The current study explores how maternal EF and familial environment affects the development of child EF. Participants included 90 mother-child dyads...

  20. Dairy Plant Water Conservation by CIP System Redesign and Loadout of Cow Drinkable High BOD Water

    Schroder, Emmy; Peterson, Amanda; Ameser, Anna
    Snowville Creamery is a sustainable dairy processing plant which prides itself on providing products that are as close to natural as possible. As production quantities grow, so does the plant’s water usage and waste. All drained wastewater is spray irrigated to the pastures, and since the farm raises exclusively grass fed cattle, it is essential to minimize the quantity of the wastewater as well as its biological oxygen demand (BOD) and concentration of suspended solids. Previously, all cleaning processes utilized fresh city water with no reuse. The goal of this study was to discover and implement methods of water reuse...

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