Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.038

  1. Forensic criminal identification is hampered by the limited capacity of witness memory

    Onwuegbusi, Tochukwu; ,; ,; ,; ,
    Previous research has shown that memory performance for unfamiliar faces are very inaccurate. This is important because judgements of identity are often used in criminal proceedings. Errors of identification have been shown to be a major source of miscarriages of justice; both in the conviction of the innocent and in approximately 75% of DNA exonerations (www.innocenceproject.org). This study investigates the way capacity limits in visual short term memory (VSTM) affect the accuracy of recall for unfamiliar faces. To test this, a Change Detection paradigm was used to contrast visual memory for unfamiliar faces at different levels of memory-to-test similarity in...

  2. New insights from fractional order skyhook damping control for railway vehicles

    Zolotas, Argyrios C.; Goodall, Roger M.
    Active suspensions for railway vehicles have been a topic of research for a number of decades and while their applications in service operation are limited it seems clear that they will in due course see widespread adoption. Railway suspension design is a problem of compromise on the non-trivial trade-off of ride quality vs track following (guidance), and the skyhook damping control approach has been paramount in illustrating the potential benefits. Since skyhook damping control, various advanced control studies appeared contributing to redefine the boundaries of the aforementioned trade-off. Yet there is no study on the impact of fractional order methods...

  3. Towns in Victorian England and Wales: a new classification

    Smith, Harry; Bennett, Robert; Radicic, Dragana
    This article describes the creation of a new urban classification based on the 1891 Census of England and Wales. It is the first attempt to use the recently available electronic version of the census to classify all large towns in late-Victorian England and Wales on the basis of their economic structure. The creation of I-CeM, which is an integrated, standardized electronic dataset of the England and Wales censuses for 1851-1911, allows the previous limitations of census data for urban classification to be overcome. Where previously scholars were restricted by the geographical units and aggregated occupation data provided in the published...

  4. Widespread, long-term admixture between grey wolves and domestic dogs across Eurasia and its implications for the conservation status of hybrids

    Pilot, Malgorzata; Greco, Claudia; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Randi, Ettore; Jędrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Konopiński, Maciej K.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wayne, Robert K.
    Hybridisation between a domesticated species and its wild ancestor is an important conservation problem, especially if it results in the introgression of domestic gene variants into wild species. Nevertheless, the legal status of hybrids remains unregulated, partially because of the limited understanding of the hybridisation process and its consequences. The occurrence of hybridisation between grey wolves and domestic dogs is well-documented from different parts of the wolf geographic range, but little is known about the frequency of hybridisation events, their causes and the genetic impact on wolf populations. We analysed 61K SNPs spanning the canid genome in wolves from across...

  5. Cryptic lineage differentiation among Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the northwest Indian Ocean

    Gray, H.; Nishida, S.; Welch, A. J.; Moura, A. E.; Tanabe, S.; Kiani, M. S.; Culloch, R.; Möller, L.; Natoli, A.; Ponnampalam, L. S.; Minton, G.; Gore, M.; Collins, T.; Willson, A.; Baldwin, R.; Hoelzel, A. R.
    Phylogeography can provide insight into the potential for speciation and identify geographic regions and evolutionary processes associated with species richness and evolutionary endemism. In the marine environment, highly mobile species sometimes show structured patterns of diversity, but the processes isolating populations and promoting differentiation are often unclear. The Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins) are a striking case in point and, in particular, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.). Understanding the radiation of species in this genus is likely to provide broader inference about the processes that determine patterns of biogeography and speciation, because both fine-scale structure over a range of kilometers and relative panmixia...

  6. Do thinking styles play a role in whether people pathologise their pornography use?

    Duffy, Athena; Dawson, Dave; Moghaddam, Nima; Das Nair, Roshan
    The concept of pornography addiction remains controversial and as such there are no diagnostic criteria. Despite this, individuals present to services with self-perceived problematic pornography use. Current treatment generally focuses on the pornography use, yet people's relationship with pornography is complex, and other factors may be relevant for therapy. Drawing on cognitive theory literature, this study explored whether thinking styles, influenced how people evaluate their pornography use. Self-reported (n = 265) “pornography addicts”, “somewhat pornography addicts”, and “non-addicts” were compared on their perceived effects of their pornography use, cognitive distortions, impact of religious beliefs, social desirability, and shame, within the...

  7. How the laughing, irreverent Briton trumped fact-checking: a textual analysis of fake news in British newspaper stories about the EU.

    Henkel, Imke
    After the British people voted for Brexit in June 2016, the role the media played was intensely debated. However, the research has focused so far on the issues of fake news and biased reporting. This paper will argue that a focus on the role story telling played in persuading voters needs to complement the existing research. The paper builds on insights from political psychology that showed under which conditions misrepresentations of the truth prevail even after they have been debunked. It further uses Roland Barthes’ definition of myth as “depoliticised speech” and Jack Lule’s analysis of archetypal mythologies in news...

  8. The effect of bilateral eye-movements versus no eye-movements on sexual fantasies

    Bartels, Ross; Harkins, Leigh; Harrison, Samantha; Beard, Nikki; Beech, Anthony R.
    Background and Objectives Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental imagery) in the same manner. Methods Eighty undergraduates (40 males, 40 females) took part in four counterbalanced conditions: (1) EMs and an experience-based sexual fantasy; (2) EMs and an imagination-based sexual fantasy; (3) experience-based sexual fantasy only; and (4) imagination-based sexual fantasy only. In each condition, the vividness, emotionality, and arousability of...

  9. The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on in vivo immunity following prolonged exercise: a randomised controlled trial

    Jones, Arwel; March, Daniel; Thatcher, Rhys; Diment, Bethany; Walsh, Neil; Davison, Glen
    Background Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction, but there is a lack of research with clinically relevant in vivo measures. Aim To investigate the effects of COL supplementation on in vivo immunity following prolonged exercise using experimental contact hypersensitivity (CHS) with the novel antigen diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). Methods In a double-blind design, 31 men were randomly assigned to COL (20 g/day) or placebo (PLA) for 58 days. Participants ran for 2 h at 60% maximal aerobic capacity on day 28 and received a primary DPCP exposure (sensitisation) 20 min after. On day 56, participants received a low-dose-series DPCP...

  10. The eyes have it: using eye tracking to inform information processing strategies in multi‐attributes choices

    Ryan, Mandy; Krucien, Nicolas; Hermens, Frouke
    Although choice experiments (CEs) are widely applied in economics to study choice behaviour, understanding of how individuals process attribute information remains limited. We show how eye‐tracking methods can provide insight into how decisions are made. Participants completed a CE, while their eye movements were recorded. Results show that although the information presented guided participants' decisions, there were also several processing biases at work. Evidence was found of (a) top‐to‐bottom, (b) left‐to‐right, and (c) first‐to‐last order biases. Experimental factors—whether attributes are defined as “best” or “worst,” choice task complexity, and attribute ordering—also influence information processing. How individuals visually process attribute information was...

  11. Stable DHLA–PEG capped PbS quantum dots: from synthesis to near-infrared biomedical imaging

    Zamberlan, Francesco; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Patane, Amalia; Liu, Zhimin; Williams, Huw; Fay, Michael; Clarke, Philip; Imamura, Yukio; Jin, Takashi; Bradshaw, Tracey; Thomas, Neil; Grabowska, Anna
    The short shelf-life of water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) due to colloidal instability represents a major drawback to their exploitation. This work examines the colloidal stability of PbS nanoparticles capped with dihydrolipoic acid–polyethylene glycol (DHLA–PEG) ligands terminated with functional groups such as –NH2, –COOH, OMe and –N3. and their application for in vivo imaging. We prove a mechanism of colloidal instability and develop a strategy to produce for the first time stable PEG-capped PbS quantum dots with high quantum yield and optical emission in the first and the second near-infrared (NIR) windows of low absorption of biological tissues. The NIR imaging of...

  12. Social psychological predictors of involvement in childcare: the mediating role of changes in women’s work patterns after childbirth

    Gaunt, Ruth
    This study sought to explore the role of couples’ social psychological characteristics in the division of childcare responsibilities. Using a longitudinal sample of 148 expecting couples, gender ideologies, attitudes toward the father role and self-enhancement values were measured during the third trimester of pregnancy. As hypothesized, prenatal gender ideologies predicted maternal and paternal involvement in childcare one year postpartum, and their effect was mediated by changes in the mothers’ work patterns following childbirth. Moreover, parents’ attitudes toward the father role predicted the father’s involvement in childcare, and the importance the parents placed on self-enhancement values predicted their own lower levels...

  13. First steps for the direct purification of L-Leu-L-Leu dipeptide through co-crystallisation

    Lucaioli, Paolo; Nauha, Elisa; Singh, Ishwar; Blagden, Nicholas
    Trifluoroacetate salt contamination of peptides represents a challenging issue related to solid phase peptide synthesis and purification because it affects the chemical and biological properties of peptides. Purification of such materials is typically performed through a two-step post-synthetic procedure based on chromatography followed by ion exchange. For the first time, co-crystallization is presented in this study as a possible alternative and advantageous single-step method for the obtaining of TFA-free crystals of a dipeptide. A trifluoroacetate-contaminated L-Leu-L-Leu dipeptide has been used for co-crystallization experiments along with different solid coformers. New multicomponent crystals containing only the title compound and the second co-crystal...

  14. Sexual dimorphism in response to stress

    Retuerto, Rubén; Sánchez Vilas, Julia; Varga, Sandra
    Sexual dimorphism in secondary traits (differences between the sexes in characteristics others than the sexual organs) is widespread in plants (Geber et al., 1999 ; Barrett and Hough, 2013). Sex differences in ecological, morphological and physiological traits have been commonly attributed to the different costs of reproduction associated with the male and the female function (Reznick, 1985 ; Obeso, 2002) and are usually linked to trade-offs between allocation to reproduction and to other plant functions (e.g., to growth and/or defense). Such trade-offs are likely to be modified under more stressful conditions (Bazzaz and Grace, 1997). In fact, plants are continuously...

  15. Sexual dimorphism in response to stress

    Retuerto, Rubén; Sánchez Vilas, Julia; Varga, Sandra
    Sexual dimorphism in secondary traits (differences between the sexes in characteristics others than the sexual organs) is widespread in plants (Geber et al., 1999 ; Barrett and Hough, 2013). Sex differences in ecological, morphological and physiological traits have been commonly attributed to the different costs of reproduction associated with the male and the female function (Reznick, 1985 ; Obeso, 2002) and are usually linked to trade-offs between allocation to reproduction and to other plant functions (e.g., to growth and/or defense). Such trade-offs are likely to be modified under more stressful conditions (Bazzaz and Grace, 1997). In fact, plants are continuously...

  16. Simulation of the formation and propagation of the thermal bar on Lake Ontario

    de Alwis Pitts, Dilkushi
    Computer-based, mathematical models that simulate spatially distributed and time dependent environmental processes are increasingly recognized to provide diagnostic and productive outputs for the assessments of environmental factors. Mathematical models have been utilized since 60's to study the water quality, the circulation structure and the seasonal changes of large water bodies such as the Great Lakes. Analysis of changes in water quality related to seasonal cycles such as the formation and the propagation of the thermal bar requires spatial and temporal models, with high resolution. The overall objective of this study was to integrate geo-referenced site-specific spatial data to a 3D hydrodynamic model (ALGE)...

  17. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges

    Meiri, Shai; Bauer, Aaron M.; Allison, Allen; Castro-Herrera, Fernando; Chirio, Laurent; Colli, Guarino; Das, Indraneil; Doan, Tiffany M.; Glaw, Frank; Grismer, Lee L.; Hoogmoed, Marinus; Kraus, Fred; LeBreton, Matthew; Meirte, Danny; Nagy, Zoltán T.; Nogueira, Cristiano de C.; Oliver, Paul; Pauwels, Olivier S. G.; Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel; Shea, Glenn; Sindaco, Roberto; Tallowin, Oliver J. S.; Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Trape, Jean-Francois; Uetz, Peter; Wagner, Philipp; Wang, Yuezhao; Ziegler, Thomas; Roll, Uri; Stevens, George
    Aim Small geographic ranges make species especially prone to extinction from anthropogenic disturbances or natural stochastic events. We assemble and analyse a comprehensive dataset of all the world's lizard species and identify the species with the smallest ranges—those known only from their type localities. We compare them to wide-ranging species to infer whether specific geographic regions or biological traits predispose species to have small ranges. Location Global. Methods We extensively surveyed museum collections, the primary literature and our own field records to identify all the species of lizards with a maximum linear geographic extent of <10 km. We compared their biogeography, key biological traits and...

  18. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges

    Meiri, Shai; Bauer, Aaron M.; Allison, Allen; Castro-Herrera, Fernando; Chirio, Laurent; Colli, Guarino; Das, Indraneil; Doan, Tiffany M.; Glaw, Frank; Grismer, Lee L.; Hoogmoed, Marinus; Kraus, Fred; LeBreton, Matthew; Meirte, Danny; Nagy, Zoltán T.; Nogueira, Cristiano de C.; Oliver, Paul; Pauwels, Olivier S. G.; Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel; Shea, Glenn; Sindaco, Roberto; Tallowin, Oliver J. S.; Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Trape, Jean-Francois; Uetz, Peter; Wagner, Philipp; Wang, Yuezhao; Ziegler, Thomas; Roll, Uri; Stevens, George
    Aim Small geographic ranges make species especially prone to extinction from anthropogenic disturbances or natural stochastic events. We assemble and analyse a comprehensive dataset of all the world's lizard species and identify the species with the smallest ranges—those known only from their type localities. We compare them to wide-ranging species to infer whether specific geographic regions or biological traits predispose species to have small ranges. Location Global. Methods We extensively surveyed museum collections, the primary literature and our own field records to identify all the species of lizards with a maximum linear geographic extent of <10 km. We compared their biogeography, key biological traits and...

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of a spinning shaft with non-constant rotating speed

    Georgiades, Fotios
    Research on spinning shafts is mostly restricted to cases of constant rotating speed without examining the dynamics during their spin-up or spin-down operation. In this article, initially the equations of motion for a spinning shaft with non-constant speed are derived, then the system is discretised, and finally a nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed using multiple scales perturbation method. The system in first-order approximation takes the form of two coupled sets of paired equations. The first pair describes the torsional and the rigid body rotation, whilst the second consists of the equations describing the two lateral bending motions. Notably, equations of...

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of a spinning shaft with non-constant rotating speed

    Georgiades, Fotios
    Research on spinning shafts is mostly restricted to cases of constant rotating speed without examining the dynamics during their spin-up or spin-down operation. In this article, initially the equations of motion for a spinning shaft with non-constant speed are derived, then the system is discretised, and finally a nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed using multiple scales perturbation method. The system in first-order approximation takes the form of two coupled sets of paired equations. The first pair describes the torsional and the rigid body rotation, whilst the second consists of the equations describing the two lateral bending motions. Notably, equations of...

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