Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.112

  1. Genetic rescue of absence seizures

    McCafferty, Cian; Connelly, William M.; Celli, Roberta; Ngomba, Richard T.; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Crunelli, Vincenzo
    Crossbreeding GABAAR δ subunit knockout mice with stargazer mice removes the absence seizure phenotype Thalamic tonic GABAA current is similarly abolished Rescue also occurs with acute siRNA knockdown of δ subunit Ataxic phenotype of stargazer is partially ameliorated

  2. Chitosan nanoparticle antigen uptake in epithelial monolayers can predict mucosal but not systemic in vivo immune response by oral delivery

    Cole, Hannah; Bryan, Donna; Lancaster, Lorna; Mawas, Fatme; Vllasaliu, Driton
    This study compared in vitro and in vivo antigen delivery effects of ultrapure chitosan (CS) chloride. CS nanoparticles were formulated to incorporate ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen and characterised for size, charge, OVA complexation and release. The effect of CS:OVA nanoparticles on cell viability, epithelial tight junctions and transepithelial permeation of OVA was tested on Caco-2 monolayer in vitro intestinal model. The system’s ability to elicit immune responses was subsequently tested in vivo. The work confirmed that CS complexes with OVA into nano-size entities. Nanocomplexes displayed favourable delivery properties, namely OVA release and no notable cytotoxicity. CS:OVA markedly enhanced...

  3. Composition of bird nests is a species-specific characteristic

    Biddle, Lucia; Broughton, Robyn; Goodman, Adrian; Deeming, Charles
    Bird nests represent an extended phenotype of individuals expressed during reproduction and so exhibit variability in composition, structure and function. Descriptions of nests based on qualitative observations suggest that there is interspecific variation in size and composition but there are very few species in which this has been confirmed. For these species, data of the amounts of different materials indicate that nest construction behaviour is plastic and affected by a variety of factors, such as prevailing temperature, geographic location, and availability of materials. The lack of data on nest composition is hampering our understanding of how nests achieve their various...

  4. Mapping hotspots of malaria transmission from pre-existing hydrology, geology and geomorphology data in the pre-elimination context of Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania

    Hardy, A.; Mageni, Z.; Dongus, S.; Killeen, G.; Macklin, M.; Majambare, S.; Ali, A.; Msellem, M.; Al-Mafazy, A. W.; Smith, M.; Thomas, C.
    Larval source management strategies can play an important role in malaria elimination programmes, especially for tackling outdoor biting species and for eliminating parasite and vector populations when they are most vulnerable during the dry season. Effective larval source management requires tools for identifying geographic foci of vector proliferation and malaria transmission where these efforts may be concentrated. Previous studies have relied on surface topographic wetness to indicate hydrological potential for vector breeding sites, but this is unsuitable for karst (limestone) landscapes such as Zanzibar where water flow, especially in the dry season, is subterranean and not controlled by surface topography.

  5. Late Quaternary channel and floodplain formation in a partly confined subtropical river, eastern Australia

    Daley, James; Croke, Jacky; Thompson, Chris; Cohen, Tim; Macklin, Mark; Sharma, Ashneel
    Along the eastern margin of Australia, hydrological variability reaches a peak in the subtropics of south‐east Queensland and many rivers have entrenched characteristics. To address the nature of entrenchment and the relationship with adjacent alluvium, this paper presents the results of detailed chrono‐stratigraphic analysis of alluvial units in the partly confined mid‐reaches of Lockyer Creek, Australia. Four sites were investigated using topographic, sedimentological and chronological data. Radiocarbon and single grain optically stimulated luminescence dating indicate a large proportion of the valley fill reflects a major phase of aggradation of fine‐grained alluvium from ca. 35 ka throughout the Last Glacial Cold...

  6. Events, episodes, and phases: signal from noise in flood-sediment archives

    Toonen, Willem H. J.; Foulds, Simon A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John
    Major floods have increased in frequency in many parts of the world, and this is often attributed to anthropogenic climate change. Because of the short length of most gauged records (∼50 yr), it is unclear whether these events represent a short-term anomaly or a shift to a prolonged flood-rich period. In this paper, we use event-scale paleoflood records from upland and lowland floodplains to demonstrate the relationship between individual flood events, clusters of events in multiyear episodes, and multidecadal- to centennial-scale flood-rich phases. Catchment- and regional-scale data show that individual events and episodes generally fall within extended flood-rich phases controlled...

  7. Connected attribute morphology for unified vegetation segmentation and classification in precision agriculture

    Bosilj, Petra; Duckett, Tom; Cielniak, Grzegorz
    Discriminating value crops from weeds is an important task in precision agriculture. In this paper, we propose a novel image processing pipeline based on attribute morphology for both the segmentation and classification tasks. The commonly used approaches for vegetation segmentation often rely on thresholding techniques which reach their decisions globally. By contrast, the proposed method works with connected components obtained by image threshold decomposition, which are naturally nested in a hierarchical structure called the max-tree, and various attributes calculated from these regions. Image segmentation is performed by attribute filtering, preserving or discarding the regions based on their attribute value and...

  8. Why symbolise control? Irregular migration to the UK and symbolic policy-making in the 1960s

    Slaven, Mike; Boswell, Christina
    It has frequently been observed that irregular migration is a common object of symbolic policy-making: the use of cosmetic adjustments to signal action, rather than substantive measures that achieve stated goals. Yet there is little research analysing the considerations driving policy actors to adopt such approaches. Drawing on existing literature, we distinguish three theoretical accounts of symbolic policy-making: manipulation, compensation, and adaptation. We explore these accounts through examining the emergence of symbolic policies in UK immigration control in the 1960s. Through detailed archival research, we reconstruct the deliberations leading to a series of Home Office decisions to crack down on...

  9. Tuberculosis: advances and challenges in development of new diagnostics and biomarkers

    Walzl, Gerhard; McNerney, Ruth; du Plessis, Nelita; Bates, Matthew; McHugh, Timothy D.; Chegou, Novel N.; Zumla, Alimuddin
    Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis and detection of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis is essential for achieving global tuberculosis control. Despite the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay as the first-line rapid tuberculosis diagnostic test, the gap between global estimates of incidence and new case notifications is 4·1 million people. More accurate, rapid, and cost-effective screening tests are needed to improve case detection. Diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculosis in children, people living with HIV, and pregnant women remains particularly problematic. The diagnostic molecular technology landscape has continued to expand,...

  10. Telemonitoring in COPD: the CHROMED study, a randomized clinical trial

    Walker, Paul P.; Pompilio, Pasquale P.; Zanaboni, Paolo; Bergmo, Trine S.; Prikk, Kaiu; Malinovschi, Andrei; Montserrat, Josep M.; Middlemass, Jo; Šonc, Silvana; Munaro, Giulia; Marušič, Dorjan; Sepper, Ruth; Rosso, Roberto; Siriwardena, A. Niroshan; Janson, Christer; Farre, Ramon; Calverley, Peter M. A.; Dellaca', Raffaele L.
    Rationale: Early detection of COPD exacerbations using tele-monitoring of physiological variables might reduce the frequency of hospitalisation. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of home monitoring of lung mechanics by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and cardiac parameters in older COPD patients with co-morbidities. Methods: This multicentre, randomized clinical trial recruited 312 GOLD grade II-IV COPD patients (median age 71 years [IQR:66-76], 49.6% grade II, 50.4% grade III-IV), with a history of exacerbation in the previous year and at least one non-pulmonary co-morbidity. Patients were randomised to usual care (n=158) or tele-monitoring (n=154) and followed for 9 months. All tele-monitoring patients...

  11. Expression-dependent susceptibility to face distortions in processing of facial expressions of emotion

    Guo, Kun; Soornack, Yoshi; Settle, Rebecca
    Our capability of recognizing facial expressions of emotion under different viewing conditions implies the existence of an invariant expression representation. As natural visual signals are often distorted and our perceptual strategy changes with external noise level, it is essential to understand how expression perception is susceptible to face distortion and whether the same facial cues are used to process high- and low-quality face images. We systematically manipulated face image resolution (experiment 1) and blur (experiment 2), and measured participants' expression categorization accuracy, perceived expression intensity and associated gaze patterns. Our analysis revealed a reasonable tolerance to face distortion in expression...

  12. An atlas of anionic antimicrobial peptides from amphibians

    Dennison, Sarah R.; Harris, Frederick; Mura, Manuela; Phoenix, David A.
    Anionic antimicrobial peptides (AAMPs) with net charges ranging from -1 to -8 have been identified in frogs, toads, newts and salamanders across Africa, South America and China. Most of these peptides show antibacterial activity and a number of them are multifunctional, variously showing antifungal activity, anticancer action, neuropeptide function and the ability to potentiate conventional antibiotics. Antimicrobial mechanisms proposed for these AAMPs, include toroidal pore formation and the Shai-Huang-Matsazuki model of membrane interaction along with pH dependent amyloidogenesis and membranolysis via tilted peptide formation. The potential for therapeutic and biotechnical application of these AAMPs has been demonstrated, including the development...

  13. The risky womb and the unthinkability of the pregnant man: addressing trans masculine hysterectomy

    Toze, Michael
    In April 2017, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that requiring trans people to undergo sterilisation in order to grant legal gender recognition was a breach of human rights. In the UK, sterilisation has never been a legal requirement for trans people. However, hysterectomy and salpingo-oopherectomy have been strongly encouraged for trans masculine people on medical grounds, although the clinical evidence for current recommendations is weak. Within this article I analyse the issue from a feminist perspective and argue that current presumptions in favour of surgical intervention are influenced by the history of medical interventions to “fix” bodies perceived...

  14. Reducing stigma and punitive attitudes toward pedophiles through narrative humanization

    Harper, Craig A.; Bartels, Ross M.; Hogue, Todd E.
    Stigmatization and societal punitiveness about pedophilia have a range of potential consequences, such as the social isolation of people with sexual interest in children, and the formation of policies that are not consistent with empirical research findings. Previous research has shown that people with pedophilic sexual interests use societal thinking to self-stigmatize, which in turn may actually serve to increase their risk of committing a sexual offense. In this study, we compared two attitudinal interventions (first-person narrative vs. expert opinion) using a student sample (N = 100). It was hypothesized that both interventions would lead to reductions in stigmatization and...

  15. Electronic training devices: discussion on the pros and cons of their use in dogs as a basis for the position statement of the European Society of Veterinary Clinical Ethology (ESVCE)

    Masson, S.; de la Vega, S.; Gazzano, A.; Mariti, C.; Pereira, G. D. G.; Halsberghe, C.; Leyvraz, A. M.; McPeake, K.; Schoening, B.
    In recent years, the affirmation of a greater ethical sense and research generating a better knowledge of the mechanisms of animal learning, evidence of the existence of an animal mind), and studies on the dog-human attachment bond have led to changes in the dog-human relationship. These changes have caused a notable improvement in dog training techniques. Increased emphasis on dog welfare, overall, led to questioning of many training techniques and tools that used aversive means. Recent research on the use of aversive training devices has been performed and, on this basis it has been possible to create guidelines to inform...

  16. Taking forward the Stop TB Partnership and World Health Organization joint theme for World TB Day March 24th 2018 - "Wanted: Leaders for a TB-Free World. You can make history. End TB"

    Tiberi, Simon; Petersen, Eskild; Maeurer, Markus; Ntoumi, Francine; Yeboa-Manu, Dorothy; Mwaba, Peter; Vilaplana, Cris; Dar, Osman; Bates, Matthew; Corrah, Tumena; Rao, Martin; Kapata, Nathan; Azhar, Esam I; Memish, Ziad A; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Aseffa, Abraham; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Zumla, Alimuddin
    World TB Day, March 24th commemorates the day in March 1882 when Professor Robert Koch made the groundbreaking announcement in Berlin of his discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the cause of Tuberculosis (TB) (Koch, 1882). At the time of his announcement, there was a deadly TB epidemic, rampaging throughout Europe and the Americas, causing the death of one out of every seven people. Since Koch’s announcement, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has defied worldwide efforts by public health systems, researchers, governments and the World Health Organization (WHO) to eradicate it. The data presented in the WHO Global TB Report 2017 (World Health Organization,...

  17. The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on intestinal injury and circulating intestinal bacterial DNA following exercise in the heat

    March, Daniel; Jones, Arwel; Thatcher, Rhys; Davison, Glen
    Purpose Exercise-induced changes in intestinal permeability are exacerbated in the heat. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 14 days of bovine colostrum (Col) supplementation on intestinal cell damage (plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, I-FABP) and bacterial translocation (plasma bacterial DNA) following exercise in the heat. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 males completed two experimental arms (14 days of 20 g/day supplementation with Col or placebo, Plac) consisting of 60 min treadmill running at 70% maximal aerobic capacity (30 °C, 60% relative humidity). Blood samples were collected pre-exercise (Pre-Ex), post-exercise (Post-Ex) and 1 h post-exercise...

  18. Fully automatic segmentation and objective assessment of atrial scars for longstanding persistent atrial fibrillation patients using late gadolinium-enhanced MRI

    Yang, Guang; Zhuang, Xiahai; Khan, Habib; Haldar, Shouvik; Nyktari, Eva; Li, Lei; Wage, Ricardo; Ye, Xujiong; Slabaugh, Greg; Mohiaddin, Raad; Wong, Tom; Keegan, Jennifer; Firmin, David; ,
    Purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart rhythm disorder and causes considerable morbidity and mortality, resulting in a large public health burden that is increasing as the population ages. It is associated with atrial fibrosis, the amount and distribution of which can be used to stratify patients and to guide subsequent electrophysiology ablation treatment. Atrial fibrosis may be assessed non-invasively using late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) where scar tissue is visualised as a region of signal enhancement. However, manual segmentation of the heart chambers and of the atrial scar tissue is time-consuming and subject to inter-operator...

  19. Pelvis morphology suggests that early Mesozoic birds were too heavy to contact incubate their egg

    Deeming, Charles; Mayr, Gerald
    Numerous new fossils have driven an interest in reproduction of early birds, but direct evidence remains elusive. No Mesozoic avian eggs can be unambiguously assigned to a species, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of contact incubation, which is a defining feature of extant birds. Compared to living species, eggs of Mesozoic birds are relatively small, but whether the eggs of Mesozoic birds could actually have borne the weight of a breeding adult has not yet been investigated. We estimated maximal egg breadth for a range of Mesozoic avian taxa from the width of the pelvic canal defined by...

  20. An applied paradigm for simple analysis of the lower limb kinematic chain in explosive movements: an example using the fencing foil attacking lunge

    Mulloy, Francis; Mullineaux, David R.; Graham-Smith, Phillip; Irwin, Gareth
    A simple method to quantify the kinematic chain in a propulsive task would facilitate assessment of athlete effectiveness. The study’s aim was to assess if the kinematic chain distinguishes between skill levels. Fencers were separated into two groups based on attacking lunge ability (7 skilled; 8 novices). Rear leg 3D joint angular extension velocity magnitudes and timings, sword kinematics and rear leg kinetics were obtained in the propulsion phase of the attacking lunge. Skilled fencers obtained greater sword velocity (3.24 ± 0.24 m∙s−1 vs. 2.69 ± 0.29 m∙s−1; p = 0.02). The skilled group had a greater sequential kinematic chain...

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