Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 683

  1. The character-driven person: how frozen's Anna, not Elsa, is an exemplar

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Bretherton, Roger
    We argue that the character of Anna in the Disney animated feature film Frozen, when examined through the lens of character strengths, is one of the strongest characters in recent film history. Nevertheless it is notable, on both sides of the Atlantic, that consumers (young girls and adults alike) have a particular fascination with the older sister Elsa, viewing her as the beloved character of the film.

  2. Does paired mentoring work? A study of the effectiveness and affective value of academically asymmetrical peer mentoring in supporting disadvantaged students in school science

    Sharpe, Rachael; Abrahams, Ian; Fotou, Nikolaos
    Background: In England, there is a growing need to improve the lives of secondary school students who are defined as disadvantaged and to support these students in their attainment and attitudes to secondary school science. Purpose: This paper reports on a project designed to support students from disadvantaged backgrounds by pairing them with undergraduate mentors from a university throughout the final year of their compulsory science education in England (Year 11 – aged 15–16) at the end of which students take their public General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examinations. Sample: The study, set up as a randomised control trial, involved 86...

  3. Does paired mentoring work? A study of the effectiveness and affective value of academically asymmetrical peer mentoring in supporting disadvantaged students in school science

    Sharpe, Rachael; Abrahams, Ian; Fotou, Nikolaos
    Background: In England, there is a growing need to improve the lives of secondary school students who are defined as disadvantaged and to support these students in their attainment and attitudes to secondary school science. Purpose: This paper reports on a project designed to support students from disadvantaged backgrounds by pairing them with undergraduate mentors from a university throughout the final year of their compulsory science education in England (Year 11 – aged 15–16) at the end of which students take their public General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examinations. Sample: The study, set up as a randomised control trial, involved 86...

  4. Evolutionary nonnegative matrix factorization with adaptive control of cluster quality

    Gong, Liyun; Mu, tingting; Wang, Meng; Liu, Hengchang; Y. Goulermas, John
    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) approximates a given data matrix using linear combinations of a small number of nonnegative basis vectors, weighted by nonnegative encoding coefficients. This enables the exploration of the cluster structure of the data through the examination of the values of the encoding coefficients and therefore, NMF is often used as a popular tool for clustering analysis. However, its encoding coefficients do not always reveal a satisfactory cluster structure. To improve its effectiveness, a novel evolutionary strategy is proposed here to drive the iterative updating scheme of NMF and generate encoding coefficients of higher quality that are capable...

  5. Students’ knowledge acquisition and ability to apply knowledge into different science contexts in two different independent learning settings

    Cukurova, M.; Bennett, J.; Abrahams, I.
    Background: Recently, there is a growing interest in independent learning approaches globally. This is, at least in part, due to an increased demand for so-called ‘21st century skills’ and the potential of independent learning to improve student skills to better prepare them for the future. Purpose: This paper reports a study that explored the effectiveness of two different independent learning approaches: (i) guided independent learning and (ii) unguided independent learning with independent research, in enabling students in an undergraduate Macromolecules course to acquire knowledge in one chemistry context and apply it successfully in another. Sample: The study involved 144 chemistry...

  6. Students’ knowledge acquisition and ability to apply knowledge into different science contexts in two different independent learning settings

    Cukurova, M.; Bennett, J.; Abrahams, I.
    Background: Recently, there is a growing interest in independent learning approaches globally. This is, at least in part, due to an increased demand for so-called ‘21st century skills’ and the potential of independent learning to improve student skills to better prepare them for the future. Purpose: This paper reports a study that explored the effectiveness of two different independent learning approaches: (i) guided independent learning and (ii) unguided independent learning with independent research, in enabling students in an undergraduate Macromolecules course to acquire knowledge in one chemistry context and apply it successfully in another. Sample: The study involved 144 chemistry...

  7. Morphological determinants of carrier frequency signal in katydids (Orthoptera): a comparative analysis using biophysical evidence

    Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Ogden, Jessica; Jonsson, Thorin; Soulsbury, Carl
    Male katydids produce mating calls by stridulation using specialized structures on the forewings. The right wing (RW) bears a scraper connected to a drum-like cell known as the mirror and a left wing (LW) that overlaps the RW and bears a serrated vein on the ventral side, the stridulatory file. Sound is generated with the scraper sweeping across the file, producing vibrations that are amplified by the mirror. Using this sound generator, katydids exploit a range of song carrier frequencies (CF) unsurpassed by any other insect group, with species singing as low as 600 Hz and others as high as...

  8. Product and process innovation in manufacturing firms: a 30-year bibliometric analysis

    Marzi, Giacomo; Dabić, Marina; Daim, Tugrul; Garces, Edwin
    Built upon a 30-year dataset collected from the web of science database, the present research aims to offer a comprehensive overview of papers, authors, streams of research, and the most influential journals that discuss product and process innovation in the manufacturing environment. The dataset is composed of 418 papers from more than 150 journals from the period between 1985 and 2015. Homogeneity analysis by means of alternating least squares (HOMALS) and social network analysis (SNA) are used to accomplish the objectives listed above through the keywords given by authors. Initially, the paper highlights and discusses the similarity between the topics debated by the main journals in this field....

  9. What makes a face photo a ‘good likeness’?

    Ritchie, Kay L.; Kramer, Robin S. S.; Burton, A. Mike
    Photographs of people are commonly said to be ‘good likenesses’ or ‘poor likenesses’, and this is a concept that we readily understand. Despite this, there has been no systematic investigation of what makes an image a good likeness, or of which cognitive processes are involved in making such a judgement. In three experiments, we investigate likeness judgements for different types of images: natural images of film stars (Experiment 1), images of film stars from specific films (Experiment 2), and iconic images and face averages (Experiment 3). In all three experiments, participants rated images for likeness and completed speeded name verification tasks. We consistently show that participants...

  10. What makes a face photo a ‘good likeness’?

    Ritchie, Kay L.; Kramer, Robin S. S.; Burton, A. Mike
    Photographs of people are commonly said to be ‘good likenesses’ or ‘poor likenesses’, and this is a concept that we readily understand. Despite this, there has been no systematic investigation of what makes an image a good likeness, or of which cognitive processes are involved in making such a judgement. In three experiments, we investigate likeness judgements for different types of images: natural images of film stars (Experiment 1), images of film stars from specific films (Experiment 2), and iconic images and face averages (Experiment 3). In all three experiments, participants rated images for likeness and completed speeded name verification tasks. We consistently show that participants...

  11. Negotiating neoliberalism: developing alternative educational visions [Tim Rudd and Ivor F. Goodson (eds), Sense: Rotterdam, 2017; 218 pp.: ISBN 9789463008525]

    Winn, Joss
    Discussions of ‘neoliberal education’ tend to focus on concrete expressions of capitalism (e.g. policy, performativity or professionalism) while rarely engaging with its fundamental categories (e.g. labour, value, capital), let alone being grounded in them (Hall and Downs’ chapters are notable exceptions). As Moishe Postone has argued (1993), one of the problems with this approach is that anti-capitalist efforts to resist the concrete features of neoliberalism tend to be both dualistic and one-sided; they identify capital with its manifest expressions (its concrete appearance rather than essence) and in the act of resistance (e.g. violence, refusal) further hypostasize the concrete while overlooking...

  12. A value-driven perspective to understand data-driven futures in architecture

    Qabshoqa, Mohammad; Kocaturk, Tuba; Kiviniemi, Arto
    This paper reports on an investigation of the potentials of data utilisation in Architecture from a value generation and business creation points of view, based on an ongoing PhD research by the first author. It is of crucial importance to, first, identify what data actually signifies for Architecture, and secondly to explore how the value obtained through data-driven approaches in other industries could potentially be transferred and applied in our professional context. These objectives have been achieved through a qualitative comparative analysis of various cases. Additionally, the paper discusses the multiplicity of factors which contribute to different interpretations and utilisation...

  13. From generating series to polynomial congruences

    Mattarei, Sandro; Tauraso, Roberto
    Consider an ordinary generating function $\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}c_kx^k$, of an integer sequence of some combinatorial relevance, and assume that it admits a closed form $C(x)$. Various instances are known where the corresponding truncated sum $\sum_{k=0}^{q-1}c_kx^k$, with $q$ a power of a prime $p$, also admits a closed form representation when viewed modulo $p$. Such a representation for the truncated sum modulo $p$ frequently bears a resemblance with the shape of $C(x)$, despite being typically proved through independent arguments. One of the simplest examples is the congruence $\sum_{k=0}^{q-1}\binom{2k}{k}x^k\equiv(1-4x)^{(q-1)/2}\pmod{p}$ being a finite match for the well-known generating function $\sum_{k=0}^\infty\binom{2k}{k}x^k= 1/\sqrt{1-4x}$. We develop a method...

  14. Generalizations of self-reciprocal polynomials

    Mattarei, Sandro; Pizzato, Marco
    A formula for the number of monic irreducible self-reciprocal polynomials, of a given degree over a finite field, was given by Carlitz in 1967. In 2011 Ahmadi showed that Carlitz's formula extends, essentially without change, to a count of irreducible polynomials arising through an arbitrary quadratic transformation. In the present paper we provide an explanation for this extension, and a simpler proof of Ahmadi's result, by a reduction to the known special case of self-reciprocal polynomials and a minor variation. We also prove further results on polynomials arising through a quadratic transformation, and through some special transformations of higher degree.

  15. Decentralized nonlinear control for power systems using normal forms and detailed models

    Singh, Abhinav Kumar; Pal, Bikash C.
    This paper proposes a decentralized method for nonlinear control of oscillatory dynamics in power systems. The method is applicable for ensuring both transient stability as well as small-signal stability. The method uses an optimal control law which has been derived in the general framework of nonlinear control using normal forms. The model used to derive the control law is the detailed subtransient model of synchronous machines as recommended by IEEE. Minimal approximations have been made in either the derivation or the application of the control law. The developed method also requires the application of dynamic state estimation technique. As the...

  16. Supporting self-organised community research through informal learning

    Herron, Rebecca; Mendiwelso-Bendek, Zoraida
    The processes by which community-members help to shape local agendas can vary from highly-formalised procedures to very informal learning and sharing activities that engage multiple stakeholders in conversations to construct a better understanding of issues and concerns of community members. Community partners sometimes want to work with universities to build university-community research partnerships to support these activities. This paper looks at two such cases and the framework of ideas that we have used to steer and theorise our participatory research approach. This approach uses informal learning combined with a belief in the value and potential of self-organising processes in community...

  17. The evaluation of a continuing professional development package for primary care dentists designed to reduce stress, build resilience and improve clinical decision-making

    Chapman, Helen; Chipchase, Susan; Bretherton, Roger
    Introduction: Stress and burnout are widely accepted as a problem for primary care dental practitioners. Previous programmes to address this issue have met with some success. Burnout is associated with poor coping skills and emotion regulation, and increased rates of clinical errors. Anxiety is associated with poor decision-making and is thought to be associated with poor clinical decision-making. Attempts to improve decision-making use increasing meta-awareness and review of thinking processes. Bibliotherapy is an effective method of delivering cognitive behavioural therapy as self-help or guided self-help (with some therapist input) formats. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a specially designed CPD package...

  18. Towards a nonlinear, material history of digital swarms

    Micali, Alberto
    In contemporary internetworked societies, digital media and networks have increasingly become a ‘battlefield’ where, following the emergence of novel power relations, new forms of resistance have come to the fore. Amongst these resistances, there are so-called ‘digital swarms’. This is a communicational disruption also technically known in computing as ‘Distributed Denial-of-Service’ (DDoS): a form of political dissent that, in the last years, has hit the headlines thanks to the digital media actions of Anonymous. This article focuses on these forms of mediation, approaching digital swarms via a historical analysis that stresses nonlinearity and materiality. I argue that digital swarming actions...

  19. Performance ranking (dis)similarities in commodity markets

    Zhang, Hanxiong; Auer, Benjamin R.; Vortelinos, Dimitrios I.
    In this article, we revisit recent evidence indicating that the choice of performance measure appears to be irrelevant for the ranking of investment alternatives in the commodity market. Extending the previous literature in several important ways, we provide the following insights into the rankings produced by the 13 most popular performance measures for 24 commodities. First, ranking differences are somewhat larger in the spot market than in the futures market. Second, when we use daily instead of monthly data, performance measures that model reward based on average returns still produce similar performance rankings. However, when data of higher frequency is...

  20. Hypoxia and hypothermia as rival agents of selection driving the evolution of viviparity in lizards

    Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel; Jara, Manuel; Reaney, Ashley; García-Roa, Roberto; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Hodgson, Dave J.
    Aim: The evolution of key innovations promotes adaptive radiations by opening access to novel ecological opportunity. The acquisition of viviparity (live-bearing reproduction) has emerged as one such innovation explaining reptile proliferations into extreme climates. By evolving viviparity, females provide embryos with internally stable environments to complete development. The classical hypothesis suggests that natural selection for viviparity arises from low temperatures in cold-climates, which promote prolonged egg retention in the mother’s body. An alternative hypothesis proposes that declines in atmospheric oxygen at high elevations create natural selection for embryo retention to provide them with optimal oxygen levels during development. However, although...

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