Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 762

  1. Structural biomechanics determine spectral purity of bush-cricket calls

    Chivers, Benedict; Jonsson, Thorin; Soulsbury, Carl; Montealegre-Z, Fernando
    Bush-crickets (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) generate sound using tegminal stridulation. Signalling effectiveness is affected by the widely varying acoustic parameters of temporal pattern, frequency and spectral purity (tonality). During stridulation, frequency multiplication occurs as a scraper on one wing scrapes across a file of sclerotized teeth on the other. The frequency with which these tooth–scraper interactions occur, along with radiating wing cell resonant properties, dictates both frequency and tonality in the call. Bush-cricket species produce calls ranging from resonant, tonal calls through to non-resonant, broadband signals. The differences are believed to result from differences in file tooth arrangement and wing radiators, but...

  2. Development of the MapMe intervention body image scales of known weight status for 4–5 and 10–11 year old children

    Jones, A. R.; Tovee, M. J.; Cutler, L. R.; Parkinson, K. N.; Ells, L. J.; Araujo-Soares, V.; Pearce, M. N.; Mann, K. D.; Scott, D.; Harris, J. M.; Adams, A. J.
    Background Parents tend to visually assess children to determine their weight status and typically underestimate child body size. A visual tool may aid parents to more accurately assess child weight status and so support strategies to reduce childhood overweight. Body image scales (BIS) are visual images of people ranging from underweight to overweight but none exist for children based on UK criteria. Our aim was to develop sex- and age-specific BIS for children, based on British growth reference (UK90) criteria. Methods BIS were developed using 3D surface body scans of children, their associated weight status using UK90 criteria from height and weight measurements,...

  3. Looking beyond the forest: using harvest plots, gap analysis, and expert consultations to assess effectiveness, engage stakeholders, and inform policy

    Burns, J.; Polus, S.; Brereton, L.; Chilcott, J.; Ward, S. E.; Pfadenhauer, L. M.; Rehfuess, E. A.
    We describe a combination of methods for assessing the effectiveness of complex interventions, especially where substantial heterogeneity with regard to the population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and study design of interest is expected. We applied these methods in a recent systematic review of the effectiveness of reinforced home-based palliative care (rHBPC) interventions, which included home-based care with an additional and explicit component of lay caregiver support. We first summarized the identified evidence, deemed inappropriate for statistical pooling, graphically by creating harvest plots. Although very useful as a tool for summary and presentation of overall effectiveness, such graphical summary approaches may obscure...

  4. The influence of phylogeny, social style, and sociodemographic factors on macaque social network structure

    Balasubramaniam, Krishna N.; Beisner, Brianne A.; Berman, Carol M.; De Marco, Arianna; Duboscq, Julie; Koirala, Sabina; Majolo, Bonaventura; MacIntosh, Andrew J.; Mcfarland, Richard; Molesti, Sandra; Ogawa, Hideshi; Petit, Odile; Schino, Gabriele; Sosa, Sebastian; Sueur, Cédric; Thierry, Bernard; de Waal, Frans B. M.; McCowan, Brenda
    Among nonhuman primates, the evolutionary underpinnings of variation in social structure remain debated, with both ancestral relationships and adaptation to current conditions hypothesized to play determining roles. Here we assess whether interspecific variation in higher-order aspects of female macaque (genus: Macaca) dominance and grooming social structure show phylogenetic signals, that is, greater similarity among more closely-related species. We use a social network approach to describe higher-order characteristics of social structure, based on both direct interactions and secondary pathways that connect group members. We also ask whether network traits covary with each other, with species-typical social style grades, and/or with sociodemographic...

  5. The measurement and role of ecological resilience systems theory across domain-specific outcomes: the domain-specific resilient systems scales

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie S.; Chivers, Sally
    Research suggests that trait resilience may be best understood within an ecological resilient systems theory, comprising engineering, ecological, and adaptive capacity resilience. However, there is no evidence as to how this theory translates to specific life domains. Data from two samples (the United States, n = 1,278; the United Kingdom, n = 211) facilitated five studies that introduce the Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales for assessing ecological resilient systems theory within work, health, marriage, friendships, and education. The Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales are found to predict unique variance in job satisfaction, lower job burnout, quality-of-life following illness, marriage commitment, and educational...

  6. Community and the creation of provincial identities: a re-interpretation of the aisled building at North Warnborough

    Wallace, Lacey
    The aisled hall at North Warnborough has attracted attention as one of a handful of examples frequently included in surveys and analyses of this common architectural type as well as for arguments related to the gendered use of space. This article presents a new architectural analysis of this building and attempts to set it within its immediate and wider archaeological and geological landscape context. A theoretically informed interpretation of the social significance of this site is offered, which has broader implications for the studies of Romano-British architecture, rural settlement, and landscape.

  7. Positioning UK research and technology organizations as outward-facing technology-bases

    Readman, Jeff; Bessant, John; Neely, Andy; Twigg, David
    UK research and technology organizations (RTOs) compete globally by offering engineering, technology and innovation services. Although associated historically with specific industries, UK RTOs have expanded into nontraditional markets and sectors. This article profiles 15 UK RTOs and we suggest that UK RTOs have unique technology and innovation capabilities, which cut across industrial boundaries.

  8. Lisht as a New Kingdom glass-making site with its own chemical signature

    Smirniou, Melina; Rehren, Thilo; Gratuze, Bernard
    Lisht is one of a few New Kingdom sites with known glass-working debris. Here, we present evidence for the primary production of glass at Lisht, including crucible fragments and semi-finished glass. We also provide 12 new chemical analyses of glass from Lisht, including trace elements. We argue that the glass made at Lisht has a specific chemical signature within the broader range of Late Bronze Age glass compositions from Egypt, further underlining the former existence of primary glass production there and offering the possibility of identifying Lisht-made glass elsewhere in Egypt and beyond.

  9. Lisht as a New Kingdom glass-making site with its own chemical signature

    Smirniou, Melina; Rehren, Thilo; Gratuze, Bernard
    Lisht is one of a few New Kingdom sites with known glass-working debris. Here, we present evidence for the primary production of glass at Lisht, including crucible fragments and semi-finished glass. We also provide 12 new chemical analyses of glass from Lisht, including trace elements. We argue that the glass made at Lisht has a specific chemical signature within the broader range of Late Bronze Age glass compositions from Egypt, further underlining the former existence of primary glass production there and offering the possibility of identifying Lisht-made glass elsewhere in Egypt and beyond.

  10. Implications of tourist–macaque interactions for disease transmission

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; MacLarnon, Ann; Majolo, Bonaventura; Marechal, Laetitia
    During wildlife tourism, proximity or actual contact between people and animals may lead to a significant risk of anthropozoonotic disease transmission. In this paper, we use social network analysis, disease simulation modelling and data on animal health and behaviour to investigate such risks at a site in Morocco, where tourists come to see wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Measures of individual macaques’ network centrality—an index of the strength and distribution of their social relationships and thus potentially their ability to spread disease—did not show clear and consistent relationships with their time spent in close proximity to, or rate of interacting...

  11. Discrimination of signal carotenoid content using multidimensional chromatic information

    Pike, Thomas W.
    Red, orange, and yellow carotenoid-based ornaments, which are widely used as sexual signals in many birds, fish, and reptiles, are known to exhibit multidimensional chromatic variation as a result of both the concentration and relative proportions of different constituent carotenoids with differing spectral properties. This is thought to reflect intrinsic variation in signaler quality, making it a useful basis for female choice. However, whether females are able to discriminate relevant variation in carotenoid concentration and/or composition independently of each other, and of other phenotypic or behavior traits, and if so, how this mediates their choice, is poorly understood. Here, female...

  12. Empire, repetition, and reluctant subjects in British home movies of Kenya 1928-1972

    Grandy, Christine
    This article examines the ‘home movies,’ or amateur film, made by a range of British visitors to Kenya from 1928 to 1972, and attempts by Kenyans to navigate and influence this production. By bringing cine-cameras to Kenya to record images to be consumed back in the metropole by family and friends as ‘holiday films,’ these British visitors laid bare what a number of historians have identified as the ‘imperial gaze’ that defined both colonial and post-colonial conceptions of Africa. Colonialism’s obsession with ordering and positioning bodies within a projected image of power and control made cinema the perfect vessel for...

  13. Advanced capabilities for materials modelling with Quantum ESPRESSO

    Andreussi, Oliviero; Brumme, Thomas; Bunau, Oana; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco; Calandra, Matteo; Car, Roberto; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Ceresoli, Davide; Cococcioni, Matteo; Colonna, Nicola; Carnimeo, Ivan; Dal Corso, Andrea; de Gironcoli, Stefano; Delugas, Pietro; DiStasio, Robert; Ferretti, Andrea; Floris, Andrea; Fratesi, Guido; Fugallo, Giorgia; Gebauer, Ralph; Gerstmann, Uwe; Giustino, Feliciano; Gorni, Tommaso; Jia, Junteng; Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Ko, Hsin-Yu; Kokalj, Anton; Küçükbenli, Emine; Lazzeri, Michele; Marsili, Margherita; Marzari, Nicola; Mauri, Francesco; Nguyen, Ngoc Linh; Nguyen, Huy-Viet; Otero-de-la-Roza, Alberto; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Poncé, Samuel; Giannozzi, Paolo; Rocca, Dario; Sabatini, Riccardo; Santra, Biswajit; Schlipf, Martin; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo; Smogunov, Alexander; Timrov, Iurii; Thonhauser, Timo; Umari, Paolo; Vast, Nathalie; Wu, Xifan; Baroni, Stefano
    Quantum ESPRESSO is an integrated suite of open-source computer codes for quantum simulations of materials using state-of-the art electronic-structure techniques, based on density-functional theory, density-functional perturbation theory, and many-body perturbation theory, within the plane-wave pseudo-potential and projector-augmented-wave approaches. Quantum ESPRESSO owes its popularity to the wide variety of properties and processes it allows to simulate, to its performance on an increasingly broad array of hardware architectures, and to a community of researchers that rely on its capabilities as a core open-source development platform to implement theirs ideas. In this paper we describe recent extensions and improvements, covering new methodologies and...

  14. The English Medieval first-floor hall: part 1 – Scolland’s Hall, Richmond, North Yorkshire

    Hill, Nick; Gardiner, Mark
    A new survey of Scolland’s Hall in Richmond Castle identifies it as an early example of an integrated hall, chamber and garderobe. The hall was entered at one corner and the entrance to the chamber was at the opposite corner, suggesting that it had a low end and high end of the conventional form better known from buildings of the thirteenth century and later. The chamber was relatively small and had a mural fireplace set in the middle of the longer wall. It had a door to a projecting balcony, while a further balcony was provided overlooking the River Swale...

  15. University patenting and technology commercialization: legal frameworks and the importance of local practice

    Weckowska, Dagmara; Molas-Gallart, Jordi; Tang, Puay; Twigg, David; Castro-Martinez, Elena; Kijeńska-Dąbrowska, Izabela; Libaers, Dirk; Debackere, Koenraad; Meyer, Martin
    The impact of national legislative frameworks on the higher education sector's contribution to technological innovation is heavily disputed. This paper argues that legislative frameworks may stimulate the development of local practices for the management and exploitation of intellectual property (IP), which in turn determine the level of academic patenting. We present case studies of two comparable universities in each of four selected European countries with different histories of national IP legislation. A within-country analysis shows that a wider range and earlier development of local IP management and exploitation practices are accompanied by higher levels of academic patenting, and that increasing...

  16. Brand yourself a changemaker!

    Bandinelli, C.; Arvidsson, A.
    This article uses the case of social entrepreneurs or “Changemakers” to investigate the phenomenon of self-branding among knowledge workers. We argue that self-branding is not only the effect of a neoliberal regime of governmentality, but that this phenomenon could also represent the seed of a new and more rational value regime that could provide the basis for a more adequate institutional framework for an emerging economy of immaterial labor. We explore the political and ethical implications of this suggestion.

  17. Experiences and perceptions using the Waterlow pressure ulcer risk assessment tool: a community care perspective

    Green, Heidi A.
    Introduction The pressure ulcer risk assessment tool plays a pivotal role guiding a patient’s care pathway and quality of care [1]. Especially when considering, clinicians’ actions not only impact patient treatment, they profoundly influence patterns of care and allocation of resources [2]. Therefore, assessment tools need to produce the same or similar results i.e. aresensitivity accurate when different clinicians assess the same patient [3] and direct preventative and management resources appropriately. To meet the ever more complex clinical needs of patients, and the challenge of the zero pressure ulcer agenda [4], evaluation of the Trusts clinical, assessment, prevention and management...

  18. Channelled tablets: an innovative approach to accelerating drug release from 3D printed tablets

    Sadia, Muzna; Arafat, Basel; Ahmed, Waqar; Forbes, Robert E.; Alhnan, Mohamed A.
    Conventional immediate release dosage forms involve compressing the powder with a disintegrating agent that enables rapid disintegration and dissolution upon oral ingestion. Among 3D printing technologies, the fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing technique has considerable potential for patient-speciTc dosage form. However, the use of FDM 3D printing in tablet manufacturing requires large portion of polymer, which slows down drug release through erosion and diffusion mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate for the Trst time the use of a novel design approach of caplets with perforating channels to accelerate drug release from 3D printed tablets. This strategy has been implemented using a caplet design with perforating...

  19. Do sexist mothers change more diapers? Ambivalent sexism, maternal gatekeeping and the division of childcare

    Gaunt, Ruth; Pinho, Mariana
    This study examined the role of ambivalent sexist ideologies in the division of childcare responsibilities. It proposed maternal gatekeeping as a mediator through which hostile sexist attitudes toward men and women facilitate gendered division of childcare. A sample of 207 mothers with at least one child aged 6 years or younger completed extensive questionnaires. As hypothesized, the mother’s hostile sexist attitudes toward men and women were positively related to maternal gatekeeping tendencies. Gatekeeping, in turn, was related to the mother’s greater time investment in childcare and greater share of childcare tasks relative to the father. Finally, hostile sexist attitudes toward...

  20. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is a prevalent and under-recognized condition in the gastroenterology outpatient clinic

    Sagar, R. C.; Sood, R.; Gracie, D. J.; Gold, M. J.; To, N.; Law, G. R.; Ford, A. C.
    Background Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) characterized by intermittent episodes of nausea and vomiting. Our aim was to report its prevalence and associated features. Methods Data concerning demographics, symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity were collected. Symptoms compatible with CVS were classified as per Rome III criteria. We recorded whether a diagnosis of CVS was considered in patients after negative investigation. We compared demographics and association with other FGIDs in patients with and without CVS. Key Results 920 of 1002 patients provided data. Of the 920 patients, 112 (12.2%) had symptoms compatible with CVS. Thirteen (11.6%) of these had an organic cause...

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