Recursos de colección

Caltech Authors (160.918 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = LIGO

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 554

  1. Effects of transients in LIGO suspensions on searches for gravitational waves

    Walker, M.; McIver, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, S. B.; Ananyeva, A.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Billingsley, G.; Biscans, S; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Coyne, D. C.; Etzel, T.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Hall, E. D.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Korth, W. Z.; Maros, E.; Matichard, F.; McIntyre, G.; Quintero, E. A.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Sanchez, E. J.; Taylor, R.; Torrie, C. I.; Vajente, G.; Wipf, C. C.; Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.
    This paper presents an analysis of the transient behavior of the Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) suspensions used to seismically isolate the optics. We have characterized the transients in the longitudinal motion of the quadruple suspensions during Advanced LIGO’s first observing run. Propagation of transients between stages is consistent with modeled transfer functions, such that transient motion originating at the top of the suspension chain is significantly reduced in amplitude at the test mass. We find that there are transients seen by the longitudinal motion monitors of quadruple suspensions, but they are not significantly correlated with transient motion above...

  2. The detection of gravitational waves as the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 November 2016)

    Reitze, D.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Rudenko, V. N.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Moiseenko, S. G.
    [no abstract]

  3. Low‐Frequency Tilt Seismology with a Precision Ground‐Rotation Sensor

    Ross, M. P.; Venkateswara, K.; Hagedorn, C. A.; Gundlach, J. H.; Kissel, J. S.; Warner, J.; Radkins, H.; Shaffer, T. J.; Coughlin, M. W.; Bodin, P.
    We describe measurements of the rotational component of teleseismic surface waves using an inertial high‐precision ground‐rotation sensor installed at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational‐Wave Observatory (LIGO) Hanford Observatory (LHO). The sensor has a noise floor of 0.4 nrad/√Hz at 50 mHz and a translational coupling of less than 1 μrad/m enabling translation‐free measurement of small rotations. We present observations of the rotational motion from Rayleigh waves of six teleseismic events from varied locations and with magnitudes ranging from M 6.7 to 7.9. These events were used to estimate phase dispersion curves that show agreement with a similar analysis done with an array of...

  4. Quantum efficiency enhancement by photon recycling with backscatter evasion

    Nagano, Koji; Perreca, Antonio; Arai, Koji; Adhikari, Rana X.
    The non-unity quantum efficiency (QE) in photodiodes (PD) causes deterioration of signal quality in quantum optical experiments due to photocurrent loss as well as the introduction of vacuum fluctuations into the measurement. In this article, we report that the QE enhancement of a PD was demonstrated by recycling the reflected photons. The effective external QE for an InGaAs PD was increased by 2-6% over a wide range of incident angles. Moreover, we confirmed that this technique does not increase backscattered light when the recycled beam is properly misaligned.

  5. A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source

    Smartt, S. J.; Coughlin, M.
    Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817...

  6. Calibration uncertainty for Advanced LIGO’s first and second observing runs

    Cahillane, Craig; Betzwieser, Joe; Brown, Duncan A.; Goetz, Evan; Hall, Evan D.; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Karki, Sudarshan; Kissel, Jeff S.; Mendell, Greg; Savage, Richard L.; Tuyenbayev, Darkhan; Urban, Alex; Viets, Aaron; Wade, Madeline; Weinstein, Alan J.
    Calibration of the Advanced LIGO detectors is the quantification of the detectors’ response to gravitational waves. Gravitational waves incident on the detectors cause phase shifts in the interferometer laser light which are read out as intensity fluctuations at the detector output. Understanding this detector response to gravitational waves is crucial to producing accurate and precise gravitational wave strain data. Estimates of binary black hole and neutron star parameters and tests of general relativity require well-calibrated data, as miscalibrations will lead to biased results. We describe the method of producing calibration uncertainty estimates for both LIGO detectors in the first and...

  7. First detections of gravitational waves emitted from binary black hole mergers

    Reitze, D. H.
    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration carried out the inaugural 'O1' observing run from September 12, 2015 through January 19, 2016 using the newly commissioned Advanced LIGO interferometers located in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA. During the O1 run and the O2 run currently underway, three definitive detections of gravitational waves have occurred, each produced during the mergers of binary stellar mass black holes. A fourth candidate gravitational-wave event was identified, also likely produced from a binary black hole merger. The detected gravitational waveforms allow for the inference of the intrinsic astrophysical parameters of the merging binary systems,...

  8. First detections of gravitational waves emitted from binary black hole mergers

    Reitze, D. H.
    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration carried out the inaugural 'O1' observing run from September 12, 2015 through January 19, 2016 using the newly commissioned Advanced LIGO interferometers located in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA. During the O1 run and the O2 run currently underway, three definitive detections of gravitational waves have occurred, each produced during the mergers of binary stellar mass black holes. A fourth candidate gravitational-wave event was identified, also likely produced from a binary black hole merger. The detected gravitational waveforms allow for the inference of the intrinsic astrophysical parameters of the merging binary systems,...

  9. Search for High-Energy Neutrinos from Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 with Antares, Icecube, and the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Albert, A.; Abbott, B. P.; et al,
    The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observatories recently discovered gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral. A short gamma-ray burst (GRB) that followed the merger of this binary was also recorded by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM), and the Anticoincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), indicating particle acceleration by the source. The precise location of the event was determined by optical detections of emission following the merger. We searched for high-energy neutrinos from the merger in the GeV–EeV energy range using the ANTARES, IceCube, and Pierre Auger Observatories. No neutrinos directionally coincident with the source were detected within...

  10. Search for High-Energy Neutrinos from Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 with Antares, Icecube, and the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Albert, A.; Abbott, B. P.; et al,
    The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observatories recently discovered gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral. A short gamma-ray burst (GRB) that followed the merger of this binary was also recorded by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM), and the Anticoincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), indicating particle acceleration by the source. The precise location of the event was determined by optical detections of emission following the merger. We searched for high-energy neutrinos from the merger in the GeV–EeV energy range using the ANTARES, IceCube, and Pierre Auger Observatories. No neutrinos directionally coincident with the source were detected within...

  11. Search for High-Energy Neutrinos from Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 with ANTARES, Icecube, and the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Albert, A.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Biscans, S; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Brunett, S.; Cahillane, C.; Callister, T. A.; Cepeda, C. B.; Coughlin, M. W.; Couvares, P.; Coyne, D. C.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Etzel, T.; Feicht, J.; Fries, E. M.; Gossan, S. E.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Isi, M.; Kamai, B.; Kanner, J. B.; Kondrashov, V.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Lazzarini, A.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Meshkov, S.; Nevin, L.; Pedraza, M.; Perreca, A.; Quintero, E. A.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Sachdev, S.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Schmidt, P.; Smith, R. J. E.; Taylor, R.; Torrie, C. I.; Tso, R.; Urban, A. L.; Vajente, G.; Vass, S.; Venugopalan, G.; Wade, A. R.; Wallace, L.; Weinstein, A. J.; Williams, R. D.; Willis, J. L.; Wipf, C. C.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Barkett, K.; Blackman, J.; Chen, Y.; Ma, Y.; Pang, B.; Scheel, M.; Varma, V.
    The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observatories recently discovered gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral. A short gamma-ray burst (GRB) that followed the merger of this binary was also recorded by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM), and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), indicating particle acceleration by the source. The precise location of the event was determined by optical detections of emission following the merger. We searched for high-energy neutrinos from the merger in the GeV–EeV energy range using the Antares, IceCube, and Pierre Auger Observatories. No neutrinos directionally coincident...

  12. On the Progenitor of Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817

    Abbott, B. P.; et al,
    On August 17, 2017 the merger of two compact objects with masses consistent with two neutron stars was discovered through gravitational-wave (GW170817), gamma-ray (GRB170817A), and optical (SSS17a/AT 2017gfo) observations. The optical source was associated with the early-type galaxy NGC 4993 at a distance of just ∼40 Mpc, consistent with the gravitationalwave measurement, and the merger was localized to be at a projected distance of ∼2 kpc away from the galaxy’s center. We use this minimal set of facts and the mass posteriors of the two neutron stars to derive the first constraints on the progenitor of GW170817 at the time of the second supernova (SN)....

  13. On the Progenitor of Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817

    Abbott, B. P.; et al,
    On August 17, 2017 the merger of two compact objects with masses consistent with two neutron stars was discovered through gravitational-wave (GW170817), gamma-ray (GRB170817A), and optical (SSS17a/AT 2017gfo) observations. The optical source was associated with the early-type galaxy NGC 4993 at a distance of just ∼40 Mpc, consistent with the gravitationalwave measurement, and the merger was localized to be at a projected distance of ∼2 kpc away from the galaxy’s center. We use this minimal set of facts and the mass posteriors of the two neutron stars to derive the first constraints on the progenitor of GW170817 at the time of the second supernova (SN)....

  14. GW170817: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Backgroud from Compact Binary Coalescences

    Abbott, B. P.; et al,
    The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a signifi- cant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star background will add to the background from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude ΩGW(f = 25 Hz) = 1.8^( +2.7)_( −1.3) × 10^(−9) with 90% confidence, compared...

  15. GW170817: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Backgroud from Compact Binary Coalescences

    Abbott, B. P.; et al,
    The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a signifi- cant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star background will add to the background from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude ΩGW(f = 25 Hz) = 1.8^( +2.7)_( −1.3) × 10^(−9) with 90% confidence, compared...

  16. Estimating the contribution of dynamical ejecta in the kilonova associated with GW170817

    Abbott, B. P.; et al,
    The source of the gravitational-wave signal GW170817, very likely a binary neutron star merger, was also observed electromagnetically, providing the first multi-messenger observations of this type. The two week long electromagnetic counterpart had a signature indicative of an r-process-induced optical transient known as a kilonova. This Letter examines how the mass of the dynamical ejecta can be estimated without a direct electromagnetic observation of the kilonova, using gravitational-wave measurements and a phenomenological model calibrated to numerical simulations of mergers with dynamical ejecta. Specifically, we apply the model to the binary masses inferred from the gravitational-wave measurements, and use the resulting mass of the dynamical ejecta...

  17. Estimating the contribution of dynamical ejecta in the kilonova associated with GW170817

    Abbott, B. P.; et al,
    The source of the gravitational-wave signal GW170817, very likely a binary neutron star merger, was also observed electromagnetically, providing the first multi-messenger observations of this type. The two week long electromagnetic counterpart had a signature indicative of an r-process-induced optical transient known as a kilonova. This Letter examines how the mass of the dynamical ejecta can be estimated without a direct electromagnetic observation of the kilonova, using gravitational-wave measurements and a phenomenological model calibrated to numerical simulations of mergers with dynamical ejecta. Specifically, we apply the model to the binary masses inferred from the gravitational-wave measurements, and use the resulting mass of the dynamical ejecta...

  18. Estimating the contribution of dynamical ejecta in the kilonova associated with GW170817

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Billingsley, G.; Biscans, S; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Brunett, S.; Cahillane, C.; Callister, T. A.; Cepeda, C. B.; Coughlin, M. W.; Couvares, P.; Coyne, D. C.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Etzel, T.; Feicht, J.; Fries, E. M.; Gossan, S. E.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Isi, M.; Kamai, B.; Kanner, J. B.; Kondrashov, V.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Lazzarini, A.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Meshkov, S.; Nevin, L.; Pedraza, M.; Perreca, A.; Quintero, E. A.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Sachdev, S.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Schmidt, P.; Smith, R. J. E.; Taylor, R.; Torrie, C. I.; Tso, R.; Urban, A. L.; Vajente, G.; Vass, S.; Venugopalan, G.; Wade, A. R.; Wallace, L.; Weinstein, A. J.; Williams, R. D.; Willis, J. L.; Wipf, C. C.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Barkett, K.; Blackman, J.; Chen, Y.; Ma, Y.; Pang, B.; Scheel, M.; Varma, V.
    The source of the gravitational-wave (GW) signal GW170817, very likely a binary neutron star merger, was also observed electromagnetically, providing the first multi-messenger observations of this type. The two-week-long electromagnetic (EM) counterpart had a signature indicative of an r-process-induced optical transient known as a kilonova. This Letter examines how the mass of the dynamical ejecta can be estimated without a direct electromagnetic observation of the kilonova, using GW measurements and a phenomenological model calibrated to numerical simulations of mergers with dynamical ejecta. Specifically, we apply the model to the binary masses inferred from the GW measurements, and use the resulting...

  19. GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Biscans, S; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Brunett, S.; Cahillane, C.; Callister, T. A.; Cepeda, C. B.; Couvares, P.; Coyne, D. C.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Etzel, T.; Feicht, J.; Fries, E. M.; Gossan, S. E.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Isi, M.; Kamai, B.; Kanner, J. B.; Kondrashov, V.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Lazzarini, A.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marx, J. N.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Meshkov, S.; Nevin, L.; Pedraza, M.; Perreca, A.; Quintero, E. A.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Sachdev, S.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Schmidt, P.; Smith, R. J. E.; Taylor, R.; Torrie, C. I.; Tso, R.; Urban, A. L.; Vajente, G.; Vass, S.; Venugopalan, G.; Wade, A. R.; Wallace, L.; Weinstein, A. J.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Williams, R. D.; Willis, J. L.; Wipf, C. C.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Barkett, K.; Blackman, J.; Chen, Y.; Ma, Y.; Pang, B.; Scheel, M.; Thorne, K. S.; Vallisneri, M.; Varma, V.
    On August 17, 2017 at 12∶41:04 UTC the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors made their first observation of a binary neutron star inspiral. The signal, GW170817, was detected with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 32.4 and a false-alarm-rate estimate of less than one per 8.0×10^4  years. We infer the component masses of the binary to be between 0.86 and 2.26  M⊙, in agreement with masses of known neutron stars. Restricting the component spins to the range inferred in binary neutron stars, we find the component masses to be in the range 1.17–1.60  M⊙, with the total mass of the system 2.74^(+0.04)_(−0.01)M⊙....

  20. GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Biscans, S; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Brunett, S.; Cahillane, C.; Callister, T. A.; Cepeda, C. B.; Couvares, P.; Coyne, D. C.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Etzel, T.; Feicht, J.; Fries, E. M.; Gossan, S. E.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Isi, M.; Kamai, B.; Kanner, J. B.; Kondrashov, V.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Lazzarini, A.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marx, J. N.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Meshkov, S.; Nevin, L.; Pedraza, M.; Perreca, A.; Quintero, E. A.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Sachdev, S.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Schmidt, P.; Smith, R. J. E.; Taylor, R.; Torrie, C. I.; Tso, R.; Urban, A. L.; Vajente, G.; Vass, S.; Venugopalan, G.; Wade, A. R.; Wallace, L.; Weinstein, A. J.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Williams, R. D.; Willis, J. L.; Wipf, C. C.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Barkett, K.; Blackman, J.; Chen, Y.; Ma, Y.; Pang, B.; Scheel, M.; Thorne, K. S.; Vallisneri, M.; Varma, V.
    On August 17, 2017 at 12∶41:04 UTC the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors made their first observation of a binary neutron star inspiral. The signal, GW170817, was detected with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 32.4 and a false-alarm-rate estimate of less than one per 8.0×10^4  years. We infer the component masses of the binary to be between 0.86 and 2.26  M⊙, in agreement with masses of known neutron stars. Restricting the component spins to the range inferred in binary neutron stars, we find the component masses to be in the range 1.17–1.60  M⊙, with the total mass of the system 2.74^(+0.04)_(−0.01)M⊙....

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